Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Raimbaut of Orange or, in his native Old Occitan, Raimbaut d'Aurenga, was the lord of Orange and Aumelas. His properties included the towns of Mireval, he was the only son of William of Aumelas and of Tiburge, daughter of Raimbaut, count of Orange. After the early death of Raimbaut's father, his guardians were his uncle William VII of Montpellier and his elder sister Tibors, he was a major troubadour, having contributed to the creation of trobar ric, or articulate style, in troubadour poetry. About forty of his works survive, displaying a gusto for intricate poetic form, his death in 1173 is mourned in a planh by Giraut de Bornelh, in the only surviving poem of the trobairitz Azalais de Porcairagues, the lover of Raimbaut's cousin Gui Guerrejat. It seems possible that Azalais's poem was composed in an earlier form while Raimbaut was still alive, because in his poem A mon vers dirai chanso he appears to contribute to the poetical debate begun by Guilhem de Saint-Leidier and taken up by Azalais as to whether a lady is dishonoured by taking a lover, richer than herself.
Aimo Sakari argues. Complete works in Provençal and their English translation
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Raimbaut de Vaqueiras
Raimbaut de Vaqueiras or Vaqueyras was a Provençal troubadour and in his life, knight. His life was spent in Italian courts until 1203, when he joined the Fourth Crusade. Raimbaut was near Orange, France, he spent most of his career as court poet and close friend of Boniface I of Montferrat, with whom he served in battle against the communes of Asti and Alessandria. Raimbaut claimed he earned a knighthood through protecting Boniface with his shield in battle at Messina, when they took part in Emperor Henry VI's invasion of Sicily, he was present at the siege and capture of Constantinople in 1204, accompanied Boniface to Thessalonica. His writings the so-called Epic Letter, form an important commentary on the politics of the Latin Empire in its earliest years; the only critical edition of Raimbaut attributes 33 extant songs to him. He used a wide range of styles, including several cansos and tensos, an alba and a gap. One of his songs, Kalenda Maia, is referred to as an estampida and is considered one of the best troubadour melodies.
However, according to the razó, he borrowed the tune from two other musicians. This would explain why the song is called an estampida, which is, theoretically, a purely instrumental piece. Raimbaut's works include a multilingual poem, Eras quan vey verdeyar where he used French, Galician-Portuguese and Gascon, together with his own Provençal. In 1922, Vaqueiras was the subject of a verse drama by Nino Berrini, Rambaldo di Vaqueiras: I Monferrato. Derivative of Edmond Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac and La Princesse Lointaine, it presents a romantic, fictionalised image of the poet, in love with his patron's daughter Beatrice. At the end, he returns, mortally wounded, from Thessalonica. He, the song Kalenda Maya, are referenced disparagingly by the protagonist-narrator in Nicole Galland's novel Crossed: A Tale of the Fourth Crusade. A similar fictionalised account of a courtly love relationship between Vaqueiras and Beatrice del Carretto is the subject of a short story, Miłość i płaszcz, by Teodor Parnicki, dating from the period between 1933-1939.
Complete works online The poems of the troubadour Raimbaut de Vaqueiras ed. and tr. Joseph Linskill; the Hague: Mouton, 1964
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Charles I of Anjou
Charles I called Charles of Anjou, was a member of the royal Capetian dynasty and the founder of the second House of Anjou. He was Count of Provence and Forcalquier in the Holy Roman Empire, Count of Anjou and Maine in France. In 1272, he was proclaimed King of Albania. Being the youngest son of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile, he was destined for a Church career until the early 1240s, he acquired Forcalquier through his marriage to their heiress, Beatrice. His attempts to secure comital rights brought him into conflict with his mother-in-law and the nobility, he received Maine from his brother, Louis IX of France, in appanage. He accompanied Louis during the Seventh Crusade to Egypt. Shortly after he returned to Provence in 1250, Charles forced three wealthy free imperial cities—Marseilles and Avignon—to acknowledge his suzerainty. Charles supported Margaret II, Countess of Flanders and Hainaut against her eldest son in exchange for Hainaut in 1253. Two years Louis IX persuaded him to renounce the county, but compensated him by instructing Margaret to pay him 160,000 marks.
Charles forced the rebellious Provençal nobles and towns into submission and expanded his suzerainty over a dozen towns and lordships in the Kingdom of Arles. In 1263, after years of negotiations, he accepted the offer of the Holy See to seize the Kingdom of Sicily from the Hohenstaufens; this kingdom included, in addition to the island of Sicily, southern Italy to well north of Naples and was known as the Regno. Pope Urban IV declared a crusade against the incumbent Manfred of Sicily and assisted Charles to raise funds for the military campaign. Charles was crowned king in Rome on 5 January 1266, he annihilated Manfred's army and occupied the Regno without resistance. His victory over Manfred's young nephew, Conradin, at the Battle of Tagliacozzo in 1268 strengthened his rule. In 1270 he took part in the Eighth Crusade and forced the Hafsid caliph of Tunis to pay a yearly tribute to him. Charles's victories secured his undisputed leadership among the popes' Italian partisans, but his influence on papal elections and his strong military presence in Italy disturbed the popes.
They tried to channel his ambitions towards other territories and assisted him in acquiring claims to Achaea and Arles through treaties. In 1281 Pope Martin IV authorised Charles to launch a crusade against the Byzantine Empire. Charles' ships were gathering at Messina, ready to begin the campaign when a riot—known as the Sicilian Vespers—broke out on 30 March 1282, it put an end to Charles' rule on the island of Sicily, but he was able to defend the mainland territories with the support of France and the Holy See. Charles was the youngest child of Louis VIII of Blanche of Castile; the date of his birth was not recorded, but he was a posthumous son, born in early 1227. Charles was Louis's only surviving son to be "born in the purple", a fact he emphasised in his youth, according to Matthew Paris, he was the first Capet to be named for Charlemagne. Louis willed; the details of Charles' tuition are unknown. He could identify errors in Latin texts, his passion for poetry, medical sciences and law is well documented.
Charles said. In reality, Blanche was engaged in state administration, could spare little time for her youngest children. Charles lived at the court of a brother, Robert I, Count of Artois, from 1237. About four years he was put into the care of his youngest brother, Count of Poitiers, his participation in his brothers' military campaign against Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche, in 1242 showed that he was no longer destined for a Church career. Raymond Berengar V of Provence died in August 1245, bequeathing Provence and Forcalquier to his youngest daughter, Beatrice because he had given generous dowries to her three sisters; the dowries were not discharged, causing two of her sisters and Eleanor, to believe that they had been unlawfully disinherited. Their mother, Beatrice of Savoy, claimed that Raymond Berengar had willed the usufruct of Provence to her. Emperor Frederick II, Count Raymond VII of Toulouse and other neighbouring rulers proposed themselves or their sons as husbands for the young countess.
Her mother put her under the protection of the Holy See. Louis IX and Margaret suggested. To secure the support of France against Frederick II, Pope Innocent IV accepted their proposal. Charles hurried to Aix-en-Provence at the head of an army to prevent other suitors from attacking, he married Beatrice on 31 January 1246. Provence was a part of the Kingdom of Arles and so of the Holy Roman Empire, but Charles never swore fealty to the emperor, he ordered a survey of the counts' rights and revenues, outraging both his subjects and his mother-in-law, who regarded this action as an attack against her rights. Being a younger child, destined for a church career, Charles had not received an appanage from his father. Louis VIII had willed that his fourth son, should receive Anjou and Maine upon reaching the age of majority, but John died in 1232. Louis IX knighted Charles at Melun in May 1