Consolidated Edison, Inc. known as Con Edison or Con Ed, is one of the largest investor-owned energy companies in the United States, with $12 billion in annual revenues as of 2017, over $48 billion in assets. The company provides a wide range of energy-related products and services to its customers through its subsidiaries: Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. a regulated utility providing electric and gas service in New York City and Westchester County, New York, steam service in the borough of Manhattan. In 2015, electric revenues accounted for 70.35% of consolidated sales. Though the company provides an indispensable service to New York residents, a number of major incidents and service problems have negatively impacted its reputation with the public. In 1823, Con Edison's earliest corporate predecessor, the New York Gas Light Company, was founded by a consortium of New York City investors. A year it was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Due to the Board of Aldermen's authority to grant franchises in the City of New York in the early to mid 1800s, interaction with Tammany Hall was required to expand business.
By William M. Tweed's reign in the late 1860s as the Boss of Tammany Hall, the power to authorize franchises lay with the County Board of Supervisors, of which Tweed had been a member. By 1871, Tweed was a member of the board of the Harlem Gas Light Company, a precursor to the Consolidated Edison Company. In 1884, six gas companies combined into the Consolidated Gas Company; the New York Steam Company began providing service in lower Manhattan in 1882. Today, Con Edison operates the largest commercial steam system in the world, providing steam service to nearly 1,600 commercial and residential establishments in Manhattan from Battery Park to 96th Street. Con Edison's electric business dates back to 1882, when Thomas Edison’s Edison Illuminating Company of New York began supplying electricity to 59 customers in a square-mile area in lower Manhattan. After the “War of Currents”, there were more than 30 companies generating and distributing electricity in New York City and Westchester County, but by 1920 there were far fewer, the New York Edison Company was the leader.
In 1936, with electric sales far outstripping gas sales, the company incorporated and the name was changed to Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. The years that followed brought further amalgamations as Consolidated Edison acquired or merged with more than a dozen companies between 1936 and 1960. Con Edison today is the result of acquisitions and mergers of more than 170 individual electric and steam companies. On January 1, 1998, following the deregulation of the utility industry in New York state, a holding company, Consolidated Edison, Inc. was formed. It is one of the nation’s largest investor-owned energy companies, with $13 billion in annual revenues and $47 billion in assets; the company provides a wide range of energy-related products and services to its customers through two regulated utility subsidiaries and three competitive energy businesses. Under a number of corporate names, the company has been traded on the NYSE without interruption since 1824—longer than any other NYSE stock.
Its largest subsidiary, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. provides electric and steam service to more than 3 million customers in New York City and Westchester County, New York, an area of 660 square miles with a population of nearly 9 million. In 1998, Consolidated Edison, Inc. acquired Orange & Rockland Utilities, operated separately. To date, Con Edison has invested $3 billion in solar and wind projects. In September 2017 it was announced that the company would invest $1.25 billion in “renewable energy production facilities over the next three years.”The company's “renewable portfolio” contains more than 1.5 gigawatts of operating capacity. Seventy-five percent of that capacity comes from solar energy. Clean energy accounts for around eight percent of the company's earnings, as of fall 2017. To support electric vehicles, Con Edison partnered with the company FleetCarma to provide $500 in rewards to owners of electric vehicles in New York City and Westchester County, New York. Through this program, Con Edison pays customers to charge their vehicles.
The Con Edison electrical transmission system utilizes voltages of 138 kilovolts, 345 kV, 500 kV. The company has two 345 kV interconnections with upstate New York that enable it to import power from Hydro-Québec in Canada and one 345 kV interconnection each with Public Service Electric and Gas in New Jersey and LIPA on Long Island. Con Edison is interconnected with Public Service Electric and Gas via the Branchburg-Ramapo 500 kV line. Con Ed's distribution voltages are 33 kV, 27 kV, 13 kV, 4 kV; the 93,000 miles of underground cable in the Con Edison system could wrap around the Earth 3.6 times. Nearly 36,000 miles of overhead electric wires complement the underground system—enough cable to stretch between New York and Los Angeles 13 times; the Con Edison gas system has nearly 7,200 miles of pipes—if
Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P
The Chronicles of Narnia
The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels by C. S. Lewis, it is considered a classic of children's literature and is the author's best-known work, having sold over 100 million copies in 47 languages. Written by Lewis, illustrated by Pauline Baynes, published in London between 1950 and 1956, The Chronicles of Narnia has been adapted several times, complete or in part, for radio, the stage, film. Set in the fictional realm of Narnia, a fantasy world of magic, mythical beasts, talking animals, the series narrates the adventures of various children who play central roles in the unfolding history of that world. Except in The Horse and His Boy, the protagonists are all children from the real world, magically transported to Narnia, where they are called upon by the lion Aslan to protect Narnia from evil and restore the throne to its rightful line; the books span the entire history of Narnia, from its creation in The Magician's Nephew to its eventual destruction in The Last Battle.
Inspiration for the series was taken from multiple sources. The books have profoundly influenced adult and children's fantasy literature since World War II. Lewis's exploration of themes not present in children's literature, such as religion, as well as the books' perceived treatment of issues including race and gender, has caused some controversy. Although Lewis conceived what would become The Chronicles of Narnia in 1939, he did not finish writing the first book The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe until 1949; the Magician's Nephew, the penultimate book to be published, but the last to be written, was completed in 1954. Lewis did not write the books in the order in which they were published, nor were they published in their current chronological order of presentation; the original illustrator, Pauline Baynes, created pen and ink drawings for the Narnia books that are still used in the editions published today. Lewis was awarded the 1956 Carnegie Medal for the final book in the saga; the series was first referred to as The Chronicles of Narnia by fellow children's author Roger Lancelyn Green in March 1951, after he had read and discussed with Lewis his completed fourth book The Silver Chair entitled Night under Narnia.
Lewis described the origin of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe in an essay entitled "It All Began with a Picture": The Lion all began with a picture of a Faun carrying an umbrella and parcels in a snowy wood. This picture had been in my mind. One day, when I was about forty, I said to myself:'Let's try to make a story about it.'Shortly before the start of World War II, many children were evacuated to the English countryside in anticipation of attacks on London and other major urban areas by Nazi Germany. As a result, on 2 September 1939, three school girls named Margaret and Katherine came to live at The Kilns in Risinghurst, Lewis's home three miles east of Oxford city centre. Lewis suggested that the experience gave him a new appreciation of children and in late September he began a children's story on an odd sheet of paper which has survived as part of another manuscript: This book is about four children whose names were Ann, Martin and Peter, but it is most about Peter, the youngest.
They all had to go away from London because of Air Raids, because Father, in the Army, had gone off to the War and Mother was doing some kind of war work. They were sent to stay with a kind of relation of Mother's, a old professor who lived all by himself in the country. In "It All Began With a Picture" C. S. Lewis continues: At first I had little idea how the story would go, but suddenly Aslan came bounding into it. I think. Apart from that, I don't know why he came, but once he was there, he pulled the whole story together, soon he pulled the six other Narnian stories in after him. Although Lewis pled ignorance about the source of his inspiration for Aslan, Jared Lobdell, digging into Lewis’s history to explore the making of the series, suggests Charles Williams’s The Place of the Lion as a influence; the manuscript for The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was complete by the end of March 1949. The name Narnia is based on Narni, written in Latin as Narnia. Green wrote: When Walter Hooper asked where he found the word'Narnia', Lewis showed him Murray's Small Classical Atlas, ed. G.
B. Grundy, which he acquired when he was reading the classics with Mr Kirkpatrick at Great Bookham. On plate 8 of the Atlas is a map of ancient Italy. Lewis had underscored the name of a little town called Narnia because he liked the sound of it. Narnia -- or ` Narni' in Italian -- is in Umbria, halfway between Assisi; the Chronicles of Narnia's seven books have been in continuous publication since 1956, selling over 100 million copies in 47 languages and with editions in Braille. The first five books were published in the United Kingdom by Geoffrey Bles; the first edition of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was released in London on 16 October 1950. Although three more books, Prince Caspian, The Voyage of the Dawn Treader and The Horse and His Boy, were complete, they were not released at that time, but instead appeared one at a time in each of the subsequent years; the last two books (The Magician's Nephew and The Last Ba
A confidence trick is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their confidence, used in the classical sense of trust. Confidence tricks exploit characteristics of the human psyche, such as credulity, naïveté, vanity and greed. Researchers Lindsey Huang and Barak Orbach defined the scheme as "a distinctive species of fraudulent conduct... intending to further voluntary exchanges that are not mutually beneficial", as they "benefit con operators at the expense of their victims". The perpetrator of a confidence trick is referred to as a confidence man, con-artist, or a "grifter". Samuel Thompson was the original "confidence man". Thompson was a clumsy swindler who asked his victims to express confidence in him by giving him money or their watch rather than gaining their confidence in a more nuanced way. A few people watches. Thompson was arrested in July 1849. Reporting about this arrest, Dr. James Houston, a reporter of the New York Herald, publicized Thompson by naming him the "Confidence Man".
Although Thompson was an unsuccessful scammer, he gained reputation as a genius operator because Houston's satirical writing wasn't understood as such. The National Police Gazette coined the term "confidence game" a few weeks after Houston first used the name "confidence man". A confidence trick is known as a con game, a con, a scam, a grift, a hustle, a bunko, a swindle, a flimflam, a gaffle, or a bamboozle; the intended victims are known as marks, stooges, rubes, or gulls. When accomplices are employed, they are known as shills. A short con or small con is a fast swindle, it aims to rob the victim of everything in his wallet. A long con or big con is a scam that unfolds over several days or weeks and involves a team of swindlers, as well as props, extras and scripted lines, it aims to rob the victim of huge sums of money or valuable things by getting him or her to empty out banking accounts and borrow from family members. In Confessions of a Confidence Man, Edward H. Smith lists the "six definite steps or stages of growth" of a confidence game.
He notes. Foundation Work Preparations are made in advance of the game, including the hiring of any assistants required. Approach The victim is contacted. Build-up The victim is given an opportunity to profit from a scheme; the victim's greed is encouraged, such that their rational judgment of the situation might be impaired. Pay-off or Convincer The victim receives a small payout as a demonstration of the scheme's effectiveness; this faked in some way. In a gambling con, the victim is allowed to win several small bets. In a stock market con, the victim is given fake dividends; the Hurrah A sudden crisis or change of events forces the victim to act immediately. This is the point at which the con fails; the In-and-In A conspirator puts an amount of money into the same scheme as the victim, to add an appearance of legitimacy to the scheme. This can reassure the victim, give the con man greater control when the deal has been completed. In addition, some games require a "corroboration" step those involving a "rare item".
This includes the use of an accomplice who plays the part of an uninvolved third party, who confirms the claims made by the con man. Confidence tricks exploit typical human characteristics such as greed, vanity, lust, credulity, desperation, naïvety; as such, there is no consistent profile of a confidence trick victim. Victims of investment scams tend to show an incautious level of greed and gullibility, many con artists target the elderly, but alert and educated people may be taken in by other forms of a confidence trick. Researchers Huang and Orbach argue: Cons succeed for inducing judgment errors—chiefly, errors arising from imperfect information and cognitive biases. In popular culture and among professional con men, the human vulnerabilities that cons exploit are depicted as ‘dishonesty,’ ‘greed,’ and ‘gullibility’ of the marks. Dishonesty represented by the expression ‘you can’t cheat an honest man,’ refers to the willingness of marks to participate in unlawful acts, such as rigged gambling and embezzlement.
Greed, the desire to ‘get something for nothing,’ is a shorthand expression of marks’ beliefs that too-good-to-be-true gains are realistic. Gullibility reflects beliefs that marks are ‘suckers’ and ‘fools’ for entering into costly voluntary exchanges. Judicial opinions echo these sentiments. Accomplices known as shills, help manipulate the mark into accepting the perpetrator's plan. In a traditional confidence trick, the mark is led to believe that he will be able to win money or some other prize by doing some task; the accomplices may pretend to be strangers. Bell, J. Bowyer. Cheating and Deception. New Brunswick & London: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0887388682. Blundell, Nigel; the World's Greatest Crooks and Conmen and other mischievous malefactors. London: Octopus Books. ISBN 978-0706421446. Dillon, Eamon; the Fraudsters: Sharks and Charlatans – How Con Artists Make Their Money. Merlin Publishing. ISBN 978-1903582824. Ford, Charl
A convict is "a person found guilty of a crime and sentenced by a court" or "a person serving a sentence in prison". Convicts are also known as "prisoners" or "inmates" or by the slang term "con", while a common label for former convicts those released from prison, is "ex-con". Persons convicted and sentenced to non-custodial sentences tend not to be described as "convicts"; the legal label of "ex-convict" has lifelong implications, such as social stigma and/or reduced opportunities for employment. The federal government of Australia, for instance, will not, in general, employ an ex-convict, while some state and territory governments may limit the time for or before which a former convict may be employed; the particular use of the term "convict" in the English-speaking world was to describe the huge numbers of criminals, both male and female, who clogged British gaols in the 18th and early 19th century. Their crimes are no longer in the criminal code. Most of the punishments at this time were severe, with the death penalty applied for minor crimes.
However, this ultimate sentence was commuted to a lesser one for transportation to the colonies. Thus, in the British context, the term "convict" has come to refer in particular to those criminals transported overseas. Many British convicts were sent to the American colonies, such as the Maryland and the Georgia, as cheap labour; the transportation of convicts from the United Kingdom began around 1615 and became common in the following years. Most people were transported to North America or the West Indies, but from 1718 onwards transportation was to North America; the arrangements ceased when the American Revolutionary War meant it was no longer possible for the United Kingdom to send convicts to what had become the United States. The British Government looked to the newly discovered east coast of Australia to use as a penal colony. Convicts were transported to Australia in 1787, arriving in Botany Bay Sydney Cove, in January 1788. From the start of European settlement convicts were used as indentured labourers in five out of the six colonies.
Many were used on public works, but a significant number were "assigned" to private individuals as domestic servants, rural workers, etc. Transportation was progressively abolished from 1853 ceasing altogether in 1868. In Australia, convicts have come to be key figures of cultural historiography. Many became prominent businesspeople and respected citizens, some prominent families in present-day Australian society can trace their origins to convict ancestors who rose above their humble origins. However, during the transportation era and for many years after, previous convicts and their descendants tended to hide their former criminal background, sometimes resulting in distorted or missing family history. Extensive and comprehensive records kept on every individual are now able to fill in the gaps. British convicts were sent to Canada, West Africa, India. France sent convicts to New Caledonia and to Devil's Island in French Guiana. Convicted felon Convict lease Convict assignment Convicts in Australia Older prisoners Penal transportation Convict life - State Library of NSW Convict Transportation Registers database
Con Air is a 1997 American action thriller film directed by Simon West, written by Scott Rosenberg, produced by Jerry Bruckheimer. The film stars Nicolas Cage, John Cusack, John Malkovich, with Steve Buscemi, Colm Meaney, Mykelti Williamson, Ving Rhames, Nick Chinlund, Jesse Borrego, Jose Zuniga, Monica Potter in supporting roles; the picture was released theatrically on June 6, 1997 by Touchstone Pictures and was a box office success, grossing over $224 million against a production budget of $75 million. Critics gave the film mixed reviews, but praised Cage and the cast performances as well as its action sequences and Malkovich's portrayal of the villain; the film borrows its title from the nickname of the Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation System. Honorably discharged Army Ranger Cameron Poe is sentenced to ten years in prison for involuntary manslaughter after killing a drunken man - one of three who tried to attack him after he had been in a bar with his pregnant wife Tricia. While in prison, Poe communicates with his newborn daughter Casey through letters.
Poe is accompanied by his diabetic cellmate and friend Mike "Baby-O" O'Dell, being transferred. The flight is overseen by U. S. Marshal Vince Larkin, approached by DEA agents Duncan Malloy and Willie Sims, the latter planning to go undercover to get information from drug lord Francisco Cindino, to be picked up en route. A number of inmates are being transferred to a new supermax prison, including mass murderer William "Billy Bedlam" Bedford, rapist John "Johnny 23" Baca, Black Guerrilla Family member Nathan "Diamond Dog" Jones, criminal mastermind "Cyrus the Virus" Grissom. After taking off, inmate Joe "Pinball" Parker incites a riot as a distraction, releasing Grissom and Diamond Dog and taking over the plane; the hijacking inmates plot to land at Carson Airport as scheduled, pick up and transfer other prisoners, fly to a non-extradition country. Sims tries to take control of the plane. Poe and Grissom foil Johnny 23's rape attempts on the plane's only female guard, Sally Bishop; the plane arrives at Carson City as scheduled and the inmate exchange commences, with the ground crew unaware that the hijackers are disguised as guards.
As the transfer begins, most of the plane's guards and the pilot are forced to pose as inmates and conveyed off the plane. Amongst the new passengers are Cindino, new pilot Earl "Swamp Thing" Williams, serial killer Garland Greene; the authorities discover the hijacking upon finding evidence in Grissom's old cell and a tape recorder placed with the disguised guards by Poe, but are unable to stop the plane from taking off. Meanwhile, sent by the inmates to dispose of the plane's transponder to keep it from being detected, tries but fails to make it back to the hijacked plane; the inmates plan to land at Lerner Airport, an abandoned airstrip in the desert, transfer onto another plane owned by Cindino and his cartel. Poe finds Pinball's corpse trapped in the landing gear, writing a message to the U. S. Marshals on the body before throwing it out. Larkin heads out to Lerner after contacting the National Guard. Bedford, raiding the cargo, discovers Poe's identity when he reads his parole letter and finds a toy bunny, forcing Poe to kill him.
The Jailbird is grounded with no sign of the transfer aircraft. Poe warns the other inmates of Cindino's past acts of deceit and betrayal, thus Grissom orders the others to fuel up the plane and get it ready for takeoff. Greene encounters a young girl playing nearby, but does not harm her. Poe leaves to find Baby-O a syringe to give him insulin, meeting Larkin and informing him of the situation; the duo discover Cindino planning to escape on a hidden private jet, with Larkin sabotaging it as it takes off. Grissom executes Cindino by igniting the crashed plane's fuel. Meanwhile, Johnny 23, assigned as the sentry in the control tower, spots a National Guard convoy approaching and gives the alarm; the inmates find a cache of loaded shotguns and M-16 rifles in the plane's cargo hold and prepare an ambush. As the National Guardsmen arrive, the inmates launch an assault. Several inmates are killed, the rest flee back onto the Jailbird and take flight. Poe's identity is revealed. Grissom is about to execute him and Baby-O when Larkin and Malloy arrive in attack helicopters, launching machine gun fire at it and damaging the Jailbird's fuel tank.
Though Larkin orders the plane to land at McCarran International Airport, Swamp Thing is forced to land it on the Las Vegas Strip, causing mass destruction and killing Johnny 23. Cyrus, Diamond Dog, Swamp Thing escape on a fire truck, pursued by Poe and Larkin on police motorcycles, leading to the deaths of all three convicts. Most of the other convicts are taken back into custody. Poe and Larkin form a friendship, just as Casey arrive. Poe gives her the toy rabbit he bought for her; the only criminal unaccounted for is Garland. With second-unit work beginning on June 24, 1996, principal photography began shortly after at Salt Lake City, on July 1, 1996 and continued until October 29, 1996, at a number of locations. While most of the interiors of the Fairchild C-123 Provider transport aircraft were filmed in Hollywood Center Studios soundstage #7, Wendover Airport in Utah, as the stand in for the fictional Lerner Airfield, was used
The conn spelled cun, cond and cund, is the act of controlling a ship's movements while at sea. The following quote summarizes the use of the term:One of the most important principles of ship handling is that there be no ambiguity as to, controlling the movements of the ship. One person gives orders to the ship's engine, rudder and ground tackle; this person is said to have the "conn." Within the U. S. Coast Guard, U. S. Navy, the captain of a vessel selects a junior officer to perform the role of conning for him or her; such an individual has the title of "officer of the deck" or "the conning officer" while on duty, he or she will stand watches at four-hour intervals carrying out the captain's commands. However, the captain can take the conn by issuing an order to the helm. On navy ships, neither the ship's navigator nor the ship's pilot is the conning officer, whereas on merchant ships the conning officer may be the captain, the deck officer, the pilot, or another warrant officer; the officer of the deck may give the conn to a junior officer for training purposes, in which case the officer of the deck and the conning officer may not be the same individual.
It is from this term that the concept of a conning tower, an elevated platform from which a conning officer can view all aspects of a ship's movement, is derived. Although the origin of the term is not clear, it appears that "conn" is a shortened form of "conduct"; the term may be related to the knotted "Conning Line,", a rope connecting the wheel and the rudder of a ship. Such a line was replaced by chains and by other mechanical and electronic systems