Dál Riata or Dál Riada was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ireland, on each side of the North Channel. At its height in the late 6th and early 7th centuries, it encompassed what is now Argyll in Scotland and part of County Antrim in the Irish province of Ulster. In Argyll, it consisted of four main kindreds each with their own chief: Cenél Loairn in north and mid-Argyll, who gave their name to the district of Lorn Cenél nÓengusa based on Islay Cenél nGabráin based in Kintyre Cenél Comgaill based in east Argyll, who gave their name to the district of CowalLatin sources referred to the inhabitants of Dál Riata as Scots, a name used by Roman and Greek writers for the Irish who raided Roman Britain, it came to refer to Gaelic-speakers, whether from Ireland or elsewhere. They are referred to herein as Dál Riatans; the hillfort of Dunadd is believed to have been its capital. Other royal forts included Dunollie and Dunseverick. Within Dál Riata was the important monastery of Iona, which played a key role in the spread of Celtic Christianity throughout northern Britain, in the development of insular art.
Iona produced many important manuscripts. Dál Riata had a large fleet. Dál Riata is said to have been founded by the legendary king Fergus Mór in the 5th century; the kingdom reached its height under Áedán mac Gabráin. During his reign Dál Riata's power and influence grew. However, King Æthelfrith of Bernicia checked its growth at the Battle of Degsastan in 603. Serious defeats in Ireland and Scotland during the reign of Domnall Brecc ended Dál Riata's "golden age", the kingdom became a client of Northumbria for a time. In the 730s the Pictish king Óengus I led campaigns against Dál Riata and brought it under Pictish overlordship by 741. There is disagreement over the fate of the kingdom from the late 8th century onwards; some scholars have seen no revival of Dál Riatan power after the long period of foreign domination, while others have seen a revival under Áed Find. Some claim that the Dál Riata usurped the kingship of Fortriu. From 795 onward there were sporadic Viking raids in Dál Riata. In the following century, there may have been a merger of the Dál Pictish crowns.
Some sources say Cináed mac Ailpín was king of Dál Riata before becoming king of the Picts in 843, following a disastrous defeat of the Picts by Vikings. The kingdom's independence ended sometime after, as it merged with Pictland to form the Kingdom of Alba; the name Dál Riata is derived from Old Irish. Dál, cognate to English dole and deal, German Teil, Latin tāliō and descendants including French taille and Italian taglia, means "portion" or "share". Thus, the name refers to "Riada's portion" of territory in the area; the Dalradian geological series, a term coined by Archibald Geikie in 1891, was named after Dál Riata because its outcrop has a similar geographical reach to that of the former kingdom. Dál Riata included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ireland. In Scotland, it corresponded to Argyll and grew to include Skye. In Ireland, it took in the northeast of County Antrim corresponding to the baronies of Cary and Glenarm; the modern human landscape of Dál Riata differs a great deal from that of the first millennium.
Most people today live in settlements far larger than anything known in early times, while some areas, such as Kilmartin, many of the islands, such as Islay and Tiree, may well have had as many inhabitants as they do today. Many of the small settlements have now disappeared, so that the countryside is far emptier than was the case, many areas that were farmed are now abandoned; the physical landscape is not as it was: sea-levels have changed, the combination of erosion and silting will have altered the shape of the coast in some places, while the natural accumulation of peat and man-made changes from peat-cutting have altered inland landscapes. As was normal at the time, subsistence farming was the occupation of most people. Oats and barley were the main cereal crops. Pastoralism was important, transhumance was the practice in many places; some areas, most notably Islay, were fertile, good grazing would have been available all year round, just as it was in Ireland. Tiree was famed in times for its oats and barley, while smaller, uninhabited islands were used to keep sheep.
The area, until was notable for its inshore fisheries, for plentiful shellfish, therefore seafood is to have been an important part of the diet. The Senchus fer n-Alban lists three main kin groups in Dál Riata in Scotland, with a fourth being added later: The Cenél nGabráin, in Kintyre the descendants of Gabrán mac Domangairt; the Cenél nÓengusa, in Islay and Jura the descendants of Óengus Mór mac Eirc. The Cenél Loairn, in Lorne also Mull and Ardnamurchan the descendants of Loarn mac Eirc; the Cenél Comgaill, in Cowal and Bute, a addition the descendants of Comgall mac Domangairt. The Senchus does not list any kindreds in Ireland, but does list an
Kintyre is a peninsula in western Scotland, in the southwest of Argyll and Bute. The peninsula stretches about 30 miles, from the Mull of Kintyre in the south to East Loch Tarbert in the north; the area north of Kintyre is known as Knapdale. Kintyre is long and narrow, at no point more than 11 miles from west coast to east coast, is less than two miles wide where it connects to Knapdale; the east side of the Kintyre Peninsula is bounded by Kilbrannan Sound, with a number of coastal peaks such as Torr Mor. The central spine of the peninsula is hilly moorland; the coastal areas and hinterland, are rich and fertile. Kintyre has long been a prized area for settlers, including the early Scots who migrated from Ulster to western Scotland and the Vikings or Norsemen who conquered and settled the area just before the start of the second millennium; the principal town of the area is Campbeltown, a royal burgh since the mid-18th century. The area's economy has long relied on fishing and farming, although Campbeltown has a reputation as a producer of some of the world's finest single malt whisky.
Campbeltown Single Malts include the multi-award-winning Springbank. Kintyre Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary, one of the officers of arms at the Court of the Lord Lyon, is named after this peninsula. Kintyre, like Knapdale, contains several stone age sites. Remains from the Iron Age are no less present, with the imposing Dun Skeig, a Celtic hillfort, located at the northern edge of Kintyre; the history of the presumed Pictish inhabitants of Kintyre is not recorded, but a 2nd century BC stone fort survives at Kildonan, it is not implausible that they continued to use Dun Skeig. The tip of Kintyre is just 12 miles from Ulster, there has long been interaction across the straits of Moyle, as evidenced by neolithic finds in Kintyre, such as flint tools characteristic of Antrim. In the early first millennium, an Irish invasion led to Gaelic colonisation of an area centred on the Kintyre peninsula, establishing the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata; the latter was divided into a handful of regions, controlled by particular kin groups, of which the most powerful, the Cenél nGabráin, ruled over Kintyre, along with Knapdale, the region between Loch Awe and Loch Fyne and Moyle.
The kingdom thrived for a few centuries, formed a springboard for Christianisation of the mainland. Sanda, an island adjacent the south coast of Kintyre, is associated with Ninian, the first known missionary to the Picts, contains an early 5th century chapel said to have been built by him. In 563, Columba arrived in Kintyre, to pay his respects to the kings of Dal Riata, before continuing to Iona, where he established a base for missionary activity throughout the Pictish regions beyond. Dál Riata was destroyed when Norse vikings invaded, established their own domain, spreading more extensively over the islands north and west of the mainland. Following the unification of Norway, they had become the Norwegian Kingdom of the Isles, locally controlled by Godred Crovan, known by Norway as Suðreyjar, meaning southern isles; the former territory of Dal Riata acquired the geographic description Argyle: the Gaelic coast. In 1093, the Norwegian king, launched a military campaign to assert his authority over the isles.
Malcolm, the king of Scotland, responded with a written agreement, accepting that Magnus' had sovereign authority of over all the western lands that Magnus could encircle by boat. The unspecific wording led Magnus to have his boat dragged across the narrow isthmus at Tarbert, while he rode within it, so that he would thereby acquire Kintyre, in addition to the more natural islands of Arran and Bute. Magnus's campaign had been part of a conspiracy against Malcolm, by Donalbain, Malcolm's younger brother; when Malcolm was killed in battle a short time Donalbain invaded, seized the Scottish kingdom, displaced Malcolm's sons from the throne. Donalbain's apparent keenness to do this, weakened his support among the nobility, Malcolm's son, was able to depose him. A few years following a rebellion against Magnus' authority in the Isles, he launched another, expedition. In 1098, aware of Magnus' actions, the new Scottish king, quitclaimed to Magnus all sovereign authority over the isles, the whole of Kintyre and Knapdale.
In the mid 12th century, the husband of Godred Crovan's granddaughter, led a successful revolt against Norway, transforming Suðreyjar into an independent kingdom. After his death, nominal Norwegian authority was re-established, but de-facto authority was split between Somerled's sons and the Crovan dynasty; the exact allocation to Somerled's sons is unclear, but following a family dispute, Somerled's grandson, acquired Kintyre, together with Knapdale and Jura. Donald's father, established Saddell Abbey, in 1207. In the mid 13th century, increased tension between Norway and Scotland led to a series of Battles, culminating in the Battle of Largs, shortly after which the Norwegian king died. In 1266, his more peaceable successor ceded his nominal authority over Suðreyjar to the Scottish king by the Treaty of Perth, in return for a large sum of money. Although Alexander III g
William Forbes Skene
William Forbes Skene WS FRSE FSA DCL LLD, was a Scottish lawyer and antiquary. He co-founded the Scottish legal firm Skene Edwards, prominent throughout the 20th century but disappeared in 2008 when merged with Morton Fraser, he was born in Inverey, the second son of Sir Walter Scott's friend, James Skene, of Rubislaw, near Aberdeen, his wife, Jane Forbes, daughter of Sir William Forbes, 6th Baronet of Pitsligo. The family moved to Edinburgh in 1817 living with his uncle, Andrew Skene from 1820 living at 126 Princes Street facing Edinburgh Castle, he was educated at Edinburgh Academy in Edinburgh. He was apprenticed as a lawyer first to Francis Wilson WS at Parliament Square to Henry Jardine WS at Parliament Square, he studied Law at the University of St Andrews and Edinburgh University taking a special interest in the study of Celtic philology and literature. In 1832, he became a Writer to the Signet, shortly afterwards obtained an official appointment in the bill department of the Court of Session, which he held until 1865.
His early interest in the history and antiquities of the Scottish Highlands bore its first fruit in 1837, when he published The Highlanders of Scotland, their Origin and Antiquities. In 1847, during the Highland Potato Famine, he was appointed Secretary to the Central Board for Highland Relief. In this position he worked with Sir Charles Trevelyan, Assistant Secretary to the Treasury. In 1859 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh his proposer being Cosmo Innes, he served as the Society's Vice President from 1869 to 1871. His chief work, however, is his Celtic Scotland, a History of Ancient Alban the most important contribution to Scottish history written during the 19th century. In 1879 he was made a Doctor of Civil Law of the University of Oxford, in 1881 Historiographer Royal for Scotland. William Forbes Skene was a leading member of the congregation of St Vincent's Scottish Episcopal Church in St Vincent Street in Stockbridge in north Edinburgh, he is commemorated there by a prominent memorial on the south wall of the nave.
An avowed Evangelical, he had argued that, since the Scottish Episcopal Church's General Synod of 1863 had established the English Book of Common Prayer as the primary authority for the Church's worship and the Scottish Episcopal Church had adopted the Church of England's Thirty Nine Articles as a doctrinal yardstick, for St Vincent's to remain outside that church could no longer be justified. In his final years he had offices at 5 Albyn Place on the Moray Estate and lived at 27 Inverleith Row, he died unmarried and childless in Edinburgh on 29 August 1892. He is buried with his family in St Johns Episcopal Churchyard on Princes Street; the graves are marked by a bronze plaque. The most important of Skene's other works are: editions of John of Fordun's Chronica gentis Scotorum. MS 1467, a mediaeval Gaelic manuscript'discovered', translated by Skene "Skene, William Forbes." British Authors of the Nineteenth Century H. W. Wilson Company, New York, 1936; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Skene, William Forbes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25. Cambridge University Press. P. 186. "Skene, William Forbes". A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. 1910 – via Wikisource. "Skene, William Forbes". Dictionary of National Biography. 1885–1900. Skene, William Forbes, Alexander, ed; the Highlanders of Scotland, Stirling: Eneas Mackay Skene, William Forbes, ed. Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis, Consisting of Original Papers and Documents Relating to the History of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, Edinburgh: Thomas G. Stevenson Skene, William Forbes, "Introduction and Additional Notes", in M'Lauchlan, The Dean of Lismore's Book: A Selection of Ancient Gaelic Poetry, Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, pp. i–xc, 137–152 Skene, William Forbes, ed. Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots, Other Early Memorials of Scottish History, Edinburgh: Edinburgh General Register House Skene, William Forbes, The Four Ancient Books of Wales, I, Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas Skene, William Forbes, The Four Ancient Books of Wales, II, Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas Skene, William Forbes, The Coronation Stone, Edinburgh: Edmonston & Douglas Skene, William Forbes, The Gododdin Poems, Forgotten Books, ISBN 1-60506-167-0 Skene, Felix James Henry.
Annals of Ulster
The Annals of Ulster are annals of medieval Ireland. The entries span the years from A. D. 431 to A. D. 1540. The entries up to A. D. 1489 were compiled in the late 15th century by the scribe Ruaidhrí Ó Luinín, under his patron Cathal Óg Mac Maghnusa on the island of Belle Isle on Lough Erne in the kingdom of Fermanagh. Entries were added by others. Entries up to the mid-6th Century are retrospective, drawing on earlier annalistic and historical texts, while entries were contemporary, based on recollection and oral history. T. M. Charles-Edwards has claimed that the main source for its records of the first millennium A. D. is a now lost Armagh continuation of the Chronicle of Ireland. The Annals used the Irish language, with some entries in Latin; because the Annals copied its sources verbatim, they are useful not just for historians, but for linguists studying the evolution of the Irish language. A century the Annals of Ulster became an important source for the authors of the Annals of the Four Masters.
It informs the Irish text Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib. The Library of Trinity College Dublin possesses the original manuscript. There are two main modern English translations of the annals – Mac Airt and Mac Niocaill and MacCarthy. Several kings are mentioned throughout the Annals of Ulster; the Annals tend to follow the lives of the kings, including important battles and their ultimate death. Between the years of 847 and 879, three different kings are highlighted. For example: Máel Sechnaill mac Máele Ruanaid, the king of the southern Ui Neill clan from 846–862: 839.6 – First mentioned in the Annals of Ulster having killed Crunnmael son of Fiannamail. 841.2 – Kills Diarmait 843.1 – Mael Sechnaill's father, Mael Ruanaid, dies 845.7 – Kills his brother Flann 845.8 – Takes Tuirgéis prisoner 846.7 – Suffers heavy losses at hands of Tigernach 847.2 – Begins his reign. 847.3 – Destroys the Island of Loch Muinremor 848.4 – defeats Vikings at Forach 849.12 – conducts siege in Crupat 850.3 – Cinaed, king of Cianacht, with help from foreign forces rebels against Mael Sechnaill 851.2 – kills Cinaed, king of Cianacht 851.5 – attends conference in Ard Macha 854.2 – took hostages from Mumu at Inneóin na nDéise 856.2 – took hostages from Mumu at Caisel 856.3 – battle against the Vikings 858.4 – marched against Mumu, took hostages from them and travelled with them "from Belat Gabráin to Inis Tarbnai off the Irish coast, from Dún Cermna to Ára Airthir."
859.3 – attends conference at Ráith Aeda Meic Bric "to make peace and amity between the men of Ireland" 860.1 – leads army into the north, but hold position 862.5 – Dies and is described as "king of all Ireland"The same pattern is followed for Aed mac Neill, the king of the northern Ui Neill clan. Aed mac Neill appears in the following entries in the Annals of Ulster: 855.3, 856.5, 860.1, 861.1, 862.2, 862.3, 863.2, 864.1, 864.3, 866.4, 868.4, 870.2, 874.4, 879.1 The final entry ends with the entry about his death and includes a poem. It reads "Aed son of Niall, king of Temair, fell asleep on the twelfth of the Kalends of 20 December Nov at Druim Inasclainn in the territory of Conaille. 1. "Just as with the Irish kings, the Annals of Ulster follow the lives of the Viking kings of Dublin. For example, Amlaíb Conung is mentioned in the following entries: 853.2, 857.1, 859.2, 863.4, 864.2, 866.1, 867.8, 869.6, 870.6, 871.2, 875.4 The final entry deviates from the Irish kings and instead tells of the death of Amlaib’s son, Oistín and reads: "Oistín son of Amlaíb, king of the Norsemen, was deceitfully killed by Albann."
Along with kings and kingdoms, the entries in the Annals of Ulster focus on important places of Ireland such as Armagh, the ecclesiastical capital of Ireland which appears several times throughout the text. Dublin for example, referred to in the text as either Áth Cliath or Duiblinn, is described in the Annals of Ulster with entries ranging from the settlement of Dublin by Vikings to deaths of notable names to Dublin being ruled by the Irish; the town appears 66 different times in the Annals of Ulster and can be found in the following entries: 770.1, 790.2, 841.4, 842.2, 842.7, 845.12, 851.3, 870.2, 871.2 893.4, 895.6, 902.2, 917.4, 919.3, 920.5, 921.5, 921.8, 924.3, 926.6, 927.3, 930.1, 936.2, 938.5, 938.6, 939.1, 942.3, 942.7, 944.3, 945.6, 946.1, 947.1, 950.7, 951.3, 951.7, 956.3, 960.2, 961.1, 978.3, 980.1, 994.6, 995.2, 999.8, 1000.4, 1013.12, 1013.13, 1014.2, 1018.2, 1021.1, 1022.4, 1031.2, 1035.5, 1070.2, 1075.1, 1075.4, 1084.8, 1088.4, 1094.2, 1095.4, 1100.5, 1103.5, 1105.3, 1115.4, 1118.6, 1121.7, 1126.7, 1128.6 The Annals of Ulster contain a large amount of historical information on the invasions of the Vikings into Ireland and several specific events are mentioned that are paralleled in other Irish works such as the Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib.
The Annals of Ulster documents the Viking invasions one year after the common starting event of the Viking Period, the raiding of Lindisfarne in 793, as mentioned by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The first mentioning of the Vikings is brief. "794.7 Devastation of all the islands of Br
Monasterboice are the remains of an early Christian monastic settlement in County Louth in Ireland, north of Drogheda. The ruins are a National monument of Ireland and give their name to the local village; the name Monasterboice is a part-anglicization of the Irish name Mainistir Bhuithe meaning "monastery of Buithe". It was anglicized as Monasterboye and Monasterboyse. Boice is the English version of the Latin name Boecius, adopted as the equivalent of the Irish Buithe; the monastic settlement was founded in the late 5th century by Saint Buithe who died around 521. Poet and historian Flann Mainistrech, Flann of Monasterboice, was lector here. Little is known about the monastery except for a list of abbots, it fell into ruin after the establishment of the Cistercian Mellifont Abbey nearby in 1142. A parochial church was in use at the location by the 13th century; the site includes the remains of two churches built in the 14th century or and an earlier round tower, but it is most famous for its high crosses.
The round tower is about 28 metres tall, is in good condition. It was built shortly after 968 and damaged in a fire in 1098; the three high crosses date from the 10th form part of the scriptural group. The 5.5-metre Muiredach's High Cross is regarded as the finest high cross in the whole of Ireland. It is named after an abbot, Muiredach mac Domhnaill, who died in 923 and features biblical carvings of both the Old and New Testaments of the Bible; the North and West crosses are notable examples of this kind of structure, but these have suffered much more from the effects of the weather. A copy of the main cross is held in the Albert Museum in London; the property is accessible to the public. Burials in the graveyard around the ruins continue in the present day. List of abbeys and priories in Ireland Celtic art Monasterboice Conservation Study PDF 8.8MB
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island