Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention and treatment of disease, illness and other physical and mental impairments in people. Health care is delivered by health professionals in allied health fields. Physicians and physician associates are a part of these health professionals. Dentistry, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, occupational therapy, physical therapy and other health professions are all part of health care, it includes work done in providing primary care, secondary care, tertiary care, as well as in public health. Access to health care may vary across countries and individuals influenced by social and economic conditions as well as health policies. Health care systems are organizations established to meet the health needs of targeted populations. According to the World Health Organization, a well-functioning health care system requires a financing mechanism, a well-trained and adequately paid workforce, reliable information on which to base decisions and policies, well maintained health facilities to deliver quality medicines and technologies.
An efficient health care system can contribute to a significant part of a country's economy and industrialization. Health care is conventionally regarded as an important determinant in promoting the general physical and mental health and well-being of people around the world. An example of this was the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1980, declared by the WHO as the first disease in human history to be eliminated by deliberate health care interventions; the delivery of modern health care depends on groups of trained professionals and paraprofessionals coming together as interdisciplinary teams. This includes professionals in medicine, physiotherapy, dentistry and allied health, along with many others such as public health practitioners, community health workers and assistive personnel, who systematically provide personal and population-based preventive and rehabilitative care services. While the definitions of the various types of health care vary depending on the different cultural, political and disciplinary perspectives, there appears to be some consensus that primary care constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process and may include the provision of secondary and tertiary levels of care.
Health care can be defined as either private. Primary care refers to the work of health professionals who act as a first point of consultation for all patients within the health care system; such a professional would be a primary care physician, such as a general practitioner or family physician. Another professional would be a licensed independent practitioner such as a physiotherapist, or a non-physician primary care provider such as a physician assistant or nurse practitioner. Depending on the locality, health system organization the patient may see another health care professional first, such as a pharmacist or nurse. Depending on the nature of the health condition, patients may be referred for secondary or tertiary care. Primary care is used as the term for the health care services that play a role in the local community, it can be provided in different settings, such as Urgent care centers which provide same day appointments or services on a walk-in basis. Primary care involves the widest scope of health care, including all ages of patients, patients of all socioeconomic and geographic origins, patients seeking to maintain optimal health, patients with all types of acute and chronic physical and social health issues, including multiple chronic diseases.
A primary care practitioner must possess a wide breadth of knowledge in many areas. Continuity is a key characteristic of primary care, as patients prefer to consult the same practitioner for routine check-ups and preventive care, health education, every time they require an initial consultation about a new health problem; the International Classification of Primary Care is a standardized tool for understanding and analyzing information on interventions in primary care based on the reason for the patient's visit. Common chronic illnesses treated in primary care may include, for example: hypertension, asthma, COPD, depression and anxiety, back pain, arthritis or thyroid dysfunction. Primary care includes many basic maternal and child health care services, such as family planning services and vaccinations. In the United States, the 2013 National Health Interview Survey found that skin disorders and joint disorders, back problems, disorders of lipid metabolism, upper respiratory tract disease were the most common reasons for accessing a physician.
In the United States, primary care physicians have begun to deliver primary care outside of the managed care system through direct primary care, a subset of the more familiar concierge medicine. Physicians in this model bill patients directly for services, either on a pre-paid monthly, quarterly, or annual basis, or bill for each service in the office. Examples of direct primary care practices include Foundation Health in Colorado and Qliance in Washington. In context of global population aging, with increasing numbers of older adults at greater risk of chronic non-communicable diseases increasing demand for primary care services is expected in both developed and developing countries; the World Health Organization attributes the provision of essential primary care as an integral component of an inclusive primary health care strategy. Secondary care includes acute care: nec
Workers' compensation is a form of insurance providing wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's right to sue their employer for the tort of negligence. The trade-off between assured, limited coverage and lack of recourse outside the worker compensation system is known as "the compensation bargain". One of the problems that the compensation bargain solved is the problem of employers becoming insolvent as a result of high damage awards; the system of collective liability was created to prevent that, thus to ensure security of compensation to the workers. Individual immunity is the necessary corollary to collective liability. While plans differ among jurisdictions, provision can be made for weekly payments in place of wages, compensation for economic loss, reimbursement or payment of medical and like expenses, benefits payable to the dependents of workers killed during employment. General damage for pain and suffering, punitive damages for employer negligence, are not available in workers' compensation plans, negligence is not an issue in the case.
These laws were first enacted in Europe and Oceania, with the United States following shortly thereafter. Laws regarding workers compensation vary by country, but the Workers’ Accident Insurance system put into place by Otto von Bismarck in 1881 is cited as a model for Europe and the United States. Workers' compensation statutes are intended to eliminate the need for litigation and the limitations of common law remedies by having employees give up the potential for pain- and suffering-related awards, in exchange for not being required to prove tort on the part of their employer; the laws provide employees with monetary awards to cover loss of wages directly related to the accident as well as to compensate for permanent physical impairments and medical expenses. The laws provide benefits for dependents of those workers who are killed in work-related accidents or illnesses; some laws protect employers and fellow workers by limiting the amount an injured employee can recover from an employer and by eliminating the liability of co-workers in most accidents.
US state statutes establish this framework for most employment. US federal statutes are limited to federal employees or to workers employed in some significant aspect of interstate commerce; the exclusive remedy provision states that workers compensation is the sole remedy available to injured workers, thus preventing employees from making tort liability claims against their employers. In common law nations, the system was motivated by an "unholy trinity" of tort defenses available to employers, including contributory negligence, assumption of risk, the fellow servant rule. Common law imposes obligations on employers to provide a safe workplace, provide safe tools, give warnings of dangers, provide adequate co-worker assistance so that the worker is not overburdened, promulgate and enforce safe work rules. Claims under the common law for worker injury are limited by three defenses afforded employers: The Fellow Servant Doctrine is that employer can be held harmless to the extent that injury was caused in whole or in part by a peer of the injured worker.
Contributory negligence allows an employer to be held harmless to the extent that the injured employee failed to use adequate precautions required by ordinary prudence. Assumption of risk allows an employer to be held harmless to the extent the injured employee voluntarily accepted the risks associated with the work; as Australia experienced a influential labour movement in the late 19th and early 20th century, statutory compensation was implemented early in Australia. Each territory has its own governing body. A typical example is Work Safe Victoria, its responsibilities include helping employees avoid workplace injuries occurring, enforcement of Victoria's occupational and safety laws, provision of reasonably priced workplace injury insurance for employers, assisting injured workers back into the workforce, managing the workers' compensation scheme by ensuring the prompt delivery of appropriate services and adopting prudent financial practices. Compensation law in New South Wales has been overhauled by the state government.
In a push to speed up the process of claims and to reduce the amount of claims, a threshold of 11% WPI was implemented. Workers' compensation regulators for each of the states and territories are as follows: Australian Capital Territory – Work Safe Act New South Wales – State Insurance Regulatory Authority Northern Territory – NT Work Safe Queensland – The Workers' Compensation Regulator South Australia – ReturnToWork SA Tasmania – WorkCover Tasmania Victoria – WorkSafe Victoria Western Australia – WorkCover WAEvery employer must comply with the state, territory or commonwealth legislation, as listed below, which applies to them: Federal legislation - Safety and Compensation Act 1988 New South Wales - Workers Compensation Act 1987 and the Workplace Injury Management and Workers Compensation Act 1998 Northern Territory - Work Health and Safety Regulations Australian Capital Territory - Workers Compensation Act 1951 Queensland - Workers Compensation and Rehabilitation Act 2003 South Australia - Workers Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 1986 Tasmania - Workers Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 1988 Victoria - Workplace Injury
Hillsboro is the fifth-largest city in the State of Oregon and is the county seat of Washington County. Lying in the Tualatin Valley on the west side of the Portland metropolitan area, the city hosts many high-technology companies, such as Intel, that comprise what has become known as the Silicon Forest. At the 2010 Census, the city's population was 91,611. For thousands of years before the arrival of European-American settlers, the Atfalati tribe of the Kalapuya lived in the Tualatin Valley near the site of Hillsboro; the climate, moderated by the Pacific Ocean, helped make the region suitable for fishing, food gathering, agriculture. Settlers founded a community here in 1842 named after David Hill, an Oregon politician. Transportation by riverboat on the Tualatin River was part of Hillsboro's settler economy. A railroad reached the area in the early 1870s and an interurban electric railway about four decades later; these railways, as well as highways, aided the slow growth of the city to about 2,000 people by 1910 and about 5,000 by 1950, before the arrival of high-tech companies in the 1980s.
Hillsboro has a council–manager government consisting of a city manager and a city council headed by a mayor. In addition to high-tech industry, sectors important to Hillsboro's economy are health care, retail sales, agriculture, including grapes and wineries; the city operates more than twenty parks and the mixed-use Hillsboro Stadium, ten sites in the city are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Modes of transportation include private vehicles, public buses and light rail, aircraft using the Hillsboro Airport; the city is home to Pacific University's Health Professions Campus. Notable residents include two Oregon governors; the first people of the Tualatin Valley were the Atfalati or Tualaty tribe of the Kalapuya, who inhabited the region for up to 10,000 years before white settlers arrived. The valley consisted of open grassland maintained through annual burning by the Atfalati, with scattered groves of trees along the streams; the Kalapuya moved from place to place in good weather to fish and hunt and to gather nuts, seeds and berries.
Important foods included camas and wapato, the Atfalati traded for salmon from Chinookan tribes near Willamette Falls on the Willamette River. During the winter, they lived in longhouses in settled villages, some near what became Hillsboro and Beaverton, their population was reduced after contact in the late 18th century with Europeans, who carried smallpox and malaria. Of the original population of 1,000 to 2,000 Atfalati reported in 1780, only 65 remained in 1851. In 1855, the U. S. government sent the survivors to the Grande Ronde reservation further west. The European-American community was founded by David Hill, Isaiah Kelsey, Richard Williams, who arrived in the Tualatin Valley in 1841, followed by six more pioneers in 1842; the locality went by two other names—East Tualatin Plains and Columbia—before it was named "Hillsborough" in February 1850 in honor of Hill, when he sold part of his land claim to the county. On February 5, 1850, commissioners chosen by the territorial legislature selected the community to be the seat of the county government.
Hill was to be paid $200 for his land after plots had been sold for the town site, but he died before this occurred, his widow Lucinda received the funds. The town's name was simplified to Hillsboro. A log cabin was built in 1853 to serve as the community's first school, which opened in October 1854. Riverboats provided transportation to Hillsboro as early as 1867 when the side-wheel steamer Yamhill worked on the Tualatin River. In 1871, the Oregon and California Railroad line was extended to the area, but it ran just south of town because the city did not want to give the railroad land in exchange for the rail connection. Hillsboro was incorporated as the Town of Hillsboro on October 1876, by the Oregon Legislature; the first mayor was A. Luelling, who took office on December 8, 1876, served a one-year term. Notable mayors included Congressman Thomas H. Tongue and state senator William D. Hare. In 1923, the city altered its charter and adopted a council-manager government with a six-person city council, a part-time mayor who determined major policies, a city manager who ran day-to-day operations.
On September 30, 1908, 5,000 people gathered as the Oregon Electric Railway opened a connection between the city and Portland with an interurban electric rail line, the first to reach the community. In January 1914, the Southern Pacific Railroad introduced its own interurban service, known as the Red Electric, on a separate line and serving different communities between Hillsboro and Portland. SP discontinued its Hillsboro service on July 28, 1929, while the Oregon Electric Railway's passenger service to Hillsboro lasted until July 1932. A brick building was constructed in 1852 to house the county government, followed by a brick courthouse in 1873. In 1891, the courthouse was remodeled and a clock tower was added, the building was expanded with an annex in 1912. A new courthouse replaced the brick structure in 1928; the last major remodel of the 1928 structure occurred in 1972, when the Justice Services Building was built and incorporated into the existing building. The city's first fire department was a hook and ladder company organized in 1880 by the board of trustees.
A drinking water and electricity distribution system added in 1892–93 gave the town three fire hydrants and minimal street lighting. Hillsboro built its first sewer system in 1911, but sewage treatment was not added until 1936. In 1913, the city built its own water system, the first library, Carnegie City Library, opened in December 1914. From 1921 to 1952, the world's second-tall
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Addison is an incorporated town in Dallas County, Texas, in the United States. Addison is situated to the immediate north of the city of Dallas; the town's population was 13,056 at the 2010 census. Addison and Flower Mound were the only two Texas municipalities labeled "towns" with a population greater than 10,000 in the 2010 census. Addison is best-known within the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metroplex region for its abundance of restaurants and nightlife. Addison is located at 32°57′28″N 96°50′6″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 4.4 square miles, all of it land. Addison is bordered by the cities of Dallas, Farmers Branch, Carrollton; as of the census of 2010, there were 13,056 people, 7,378 total households, 2,663 family households residing in the town. The population density was 3,200.0 people per square mile. There were 8,205 housing units at an average density of 1,853.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 67.79% White, 9.63% African American, 0.41% Native American, 7.81% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 10.79% from other races, 3.46% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 24.04% of the population. There were 7,378 households out of which 14.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 24.5% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 63.9% were non-families. 52.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.77 and the average family size was 2.69. In the town the population was spread out with 14.5% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 43.9% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 7.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $56,761; the per capita income for the town was $45,655. 7.7% of the population and 13.1% of people were below the poverty line. The median house price has increased in recent years.
In 2007, the median price for a home was $350,000. Addison is considered to be part of the humid subtropical region; the land occupied by Addison was settled as early as 1846 when Preston Witt built a house near White Rock Creek. In 1902 the community named itself Addison, after Addison Robertson, who served as postmaster from 1908 to 1916; the first industry was a cotton gin. The community was known as Noell Junction after settler Sidney Smith Noell, after whom Noel Road and Knoll Trail are named; the City of Addison was incorporated on June 15, 1953. The first mayor of Addison was M. W. Morris, the aldermen were Guy Dennis, Robert W. Wood, J. E. Julian, Jr. Dr. H. T. Nesbit, Seldon Knowles. In 1982 the name was changed to "Town of Addison." Most residents are zoned to the Dallas Independent School District, while those on the southern end of Spring Valley and Vitruvian Way are zoned to the Carrollton-Farmers Branch Independent School District. All residents within the DISD portion of Addison may attend George H. W. Bush Elementary School in Addison.
Bush's attendance boundary covers most of Addison. DISD Addison residents living outside of the Bush attendance boundary are not provided transportation to attend Bush. Other DISD elementary schools serving sections of Addison include Anne Frank Elementary School in Dallas and Jerry Junkins Elementary School in Carrollton; the Town of Addison asked Dallas ISD to build Bush with environmentally sensitive materials. The PreK-5 school was built as part of a bond approved in May 2008. Bush is located along Addison's trail system. Bush has a first floor with 60,000 square feet of space and a second floor with 30,000 square feet of space. Bush has two athletic fields located north of the playgrounds. During non-school hours Addison residents may use the fields. Residents zoned to Bush and Junkins are zoned to Walker Middle School and W. T. White High School in Dallas. Residents zoned to Frank are zoned to Hillcrest High School. A portion of the C-FBISD area is served by Stark Elementary School in Farmers Branch.
Another portion is served by Neil Ray McLaughlin Elementary School in Carrollton and Nancy H. Strickland Intermediate School in Farmers Branch. All of the C-FBISD portion is served by Vivian Field Middle School in Farmers Branch, R. L. Turner High School in Carrollton. Addison is the home of two private schools, both co-educational: Greenhill School, which enrolls over 1,200 students from preschool to high school, Trinity Christian Academy, which enrolls over 1,400 from preschool to high school; the Addison School building was opened in 1914. In 1954 the school became a part of the Dallas ISD, the school closed in 1964; the school building is now the "Magic Time Machine Restaurant."McLaughlin was built in 1959. Field was built in 1960. Stark opened in 1963. R. L. Turner High School opened in 1962. Prior to fall 2006, all Addison residents were zoned to Frank for Kindergarten through 4th Grade, E. D. Walker Elementary School for 5th and 6th grades, Marsh Middle School for 7th and 8th grades. Junkins Elementary School opened in fall 2006, relieving Anne Frank, Tom C.
Gooch Elementary School took an additional portion of Frank's attendance zone. During the same year, Walker became a middle school, serving
Garland is a city in the U. S. state of Texas. It is a part of the Dallas -- Fort Worth metroplex, it is located entirely within Dallas County, except a small portion located in Collin and Rockwall counties. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 226,876, making it the 87th-most populous city in the United States of America and the 12th-most populous city in the state of Texas. In 2017, the population rose to 238,002. Garland is second only to the City of Dallas in Dallas County by population and has easy access to downtown Dallas via public transportation including two Dart Blue line stations and buses. In 2008, Garland was ranked #67 on CNN and Money magazine's list of the "Top 100 Places to Live"; as of 2014 the city was considered the 6th "Best City for Working Parents". In 2014 Garland was ranked the 7th best city for saving money; this ranked Garland 2nd best in Texas. In 2015, Garland was listed #17 overall and #5 best mid-sized city to purchase a home for "First-Time Home Buyers".
In 2015, Garland was labeled the 8th "Best Run City in America". Move.org rated Garland as the "8th best city in America to raise a family". In 2017 Garland was named the "2nd best City in Texas and 17th overall for jobs". Smartasset ranked Garland as the "3rd best City for living the American Dream in 2017". In 2018, Garland will have the "5th highest employment growth in the country". Immigrants began arriving in the Peters colony area around 1850, but a community was not created until 1874. Two communities sprang up in the area: Embree, named for the physician K. H. Embree, Duck Creek, named for the local creek of the same name. A rivalry between the two towns ensued. To settle a dispute regarding which town should have the local post office, Dallas County Judge Thomas A. Nash asked visiting Congressman Joe Abbott to move the post office between the two towns; the move was completed in 1887. The new location was named Garland after U. S. Attorney General Augustus Hill Garland. Soon after, the towns of Embree and Duck Creek were combined, the three areas combined to form the city of Garland, incorporated in 1891.
By 1904, the town had a population of 819 people. In 1920, local businessmen financed a new electrical generator plant for the town; this led to the formation of Garland Power and Light, the municipal electric provider that still powers the city today. On May 9, 1927, a devastating F4 tornado struck the town and killed 15 people, including the former mayor, S. E. Nicholson. Businesses began to move back into the area in the late 1930s; the Craddock food company and the Byer-Rolnick hat factory moved into the area. In 1937, KRLD, a major Dallas radio station, built its radio antenna tower in Garland, it is operational to this day. During World War II, several aircraft plants were operated in the area, the Kraft Foods company purchased a vacant one after the war for its own use. By 1950, the population of Garland exceeded 10,000 people. From 1950 to 1954, the Dallas/Garland area suffered from a serious and extended drought, so to supplement the water provided by wells, Garland began using the water from the nearby Lake Lavon.
The suburban population boom that the whole country experienced after World War II reached Garland by 1960, when the population nearly quadrupled from the 1950 figure to about 38,500. By 1970, the population had doubled to about 81,500. By 1980, the population reached 138,850. Charles R. Matthews served as mayor in the 1980s. In the 2000s, Garland added several notable developments in the northern portion of the city. Hawaiian Falls waterpark opened in 2003.. The Garland Independent School District's Curtis Culwell Center, an arena and conference facility, opened in 2005; that year, Firewheel Town Center, a Main Street-style outdoor mall, owned by Simon Property Group, opened in October 2005. It includes an AMC theater. In 2009, the city, in conjunction with the developer Trammell Crow Company, finished a public/private partnership to develop the old parking lot into a new mixed-use, transit-oriented development named 5th Street Crossing. Catercorner to both City Hall and the downtown DART Rail station, the project consists of 189 residential apartment units, 11,000 square feet of flex retail, six live-work units.
The southeast side of Garland suffered a major blow on the night of December 26, 2015 after a large EF4 tornado struck the area, moving north from Sunnyvale. At least eight fatalities were confirmed in the city from this event. Garland is located at 32°54′26″N 96°38′7″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 57.1 square miles, all land. Buckingham North Duck Creek Centerville Eastern Hills Embree Firewheel Oaks Rose Hill Spring Park Travis College Hill Addition Valley Creek* The 5 Oakridge Brentwood Place Brentwood Village Garland is part of the humid subtropical region; the average warmest month is July, with the highest recorded temperature being 111 °F in 2000. On average, the coolest month is January, with the lowest recorded temperature was −3 °F in 1989; the maximum average precipitation occurs in May. As of the 2010 census, 226,876 people, 75,696 households, 56,272 families resided in the city; the population density was 3,973.3 people per square mile.
The 80,834 housing units averaged 1,415.7 per square mile. The