The Royal Concertgebouw is a concert hall in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The Dutch term "concertgebouw" translates into English as "concert building", its superb acoustics place it among the finest concert halls in the world, along with Boston's Symphony Hall and the Musikverein in Vienna. In celebration of the building's 125th anniversary, Queen Beatrix bestowed the royal title "Koninklijk" upon the building on 11 April 2013, as she had on the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra upon its 100th in 1988; the architect of the building was Adolf Leonard van Gendt, inspired by the Gewandhaus in Leipzig, built two years earlier. Construction began in 1883 in a pasture, outside the city, in Nieuwer-Amstel, a municipality that in 1964 became Amstelveen. A total of 2,186 wooden piles, twelve to thirteen metres long, were emplaced in the soil; the Concertgebouw was completed in late 1886, however due to the difficulties with the municipality of Nieuwer-Amstel – filling in a small canal, paving the access roads and installing street lights – the grand opening of the building was delayed.
The hall opened on 11 April 1888 with an inaugural concert, in which an orchestra of 120 musicians and a chorus of 500 singers participated, performing works of Wagner, Handel and Beethoven. The resident orchestra of the Concertgebouw is the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, which gave its first concert in the hall on 3 November 1888, as the Concertgebouw Orchestra. For many decades the Netherlands Philharmonic Orchestra and the Radio Filharmonisch Orkest have been regular performers in the Concertgebouw; the Main Hall seats 1,974, is 44 metres long, 28 metres wide, 17 metres high. Its reverberation time is 2.8 seconds without audience, 2.2 seconds with, making it ideal for the late Romantic repertoire such as Mahler. Although this characteristic makes it unsuited for amplified music, groups such as Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd and The Who did perform there in the 1960s, it hosts not only orchestral and operatic performances, but jazz and world music. A smaller, oval-shaped venue, the Recital Hall, is located behind the Main Hall.
The Recital Hall is 15 metres wide. Its more intimate space is well-suited for Lieder; the Recital Hall has 437 seats. When the Concertgebouw was built, acoustics were something of a black art; as in shipbuilding, designers drew upon what had worked in the past without understanding the underlying science. When the building was completed, the acoustics were not perfect, a lot of effort went into fine-tuning the aural ambience. During restorations, particular care has been taken not to alter the materials used for interior decoration with this in mind. In 1983, the Concertgebouw was found to be sinking into the damp Amsterdam earth, with several inch-wide cracks appearing in the walls, so the hall embarked on extensive fundraising for renovations, its difficult emergency restoration started in 1985, during which the 2,186 rotting wooden pilings were replaced with concrete pillars. Pi de Bruijn, Dutch architect designed a modern annex for a new entrance and a basement to replace cramped dressing and rehearsal space.
Today, some nine hundred concerts and other events per year take place in the Concertgebouw, for a public of over 700,000, making it one of the most-visited concert halls in the world. As of February 2014, the managing director of the Concertgebouw is Simon Reinink and the artistic director is Anneke Hogenstijn; the organ was built in 1890 by the organ builder Michael Maarschalkerweerd from Utrecht, was renovated in the years 1990 to 1993 by the organ builder Flentrop. It pedal. Couplers: II/I, III/I, III/II, I/P, II/P, III/P In the Main Hall, the surnames of the following 46 composers are displayed on the balcony ledges and on the walls: The Concertgebouw is mentioned, along with Madison Square Garden, the Hollywood Bowl, the Rainbow Theatre, in the song "Rock Show" from the 1975 Wings album Venus and Mars. Kris de Bruyne, a Belgian singer, mentions the Concertgebouw in his song "Amsterdam". Erroll Garner recorded the live Album The Amsterdam Concert in the venue in November 1964. History of Amsterdam List of concert halls List of tourist attractions in Amsterdam Media related to Concertgebouw, Amsterdam at Wikimedia Commons Official website Archive of the Concertgebouw at the Amsterdam City Archives "History of the building".
Official website of the Concertgebouw
Horace Henry White was an American lawyer and educator. He was "one of the leading lawyers" in Louisiana, the president of the Louisiana State Board of Education. White was born on February 1864 in Opelousas, Louisiana, his father was his mother, Sallie Wynn White. White attended Vanderbilt University, where he joined the Kappa Alpha Order fraternity in 1883, he graduated from the university, earning a bachelor of arts in 1886 and a bachelor of laws in 1887. White practised the law in Louisiana, he was a partner in Ariail & White, White & Thornton, Holloman & White. He was appointed as professor of Civil Law at Tulane University Law School in 1906, he authored several legal volumes, including White's Analytical Index. He became the dean of the bar in Rapides Parish, he was awarded an honorary membership in the Order of the Coif by its Tulane University chapter in 1938. According to The Town Talk, White became "one of the leading lawyers in the state."White helped dismantle the Louisiana State Lottery Company.
He was active in the Louisiana Democratic Party. He served on the board of trust of his alma mater, Vanderbilt University, from 1908 to 1946, he was the Knight Commander of the Kappa Alpha Order from 1889 to 1891. He served on the Rapides Parish School Board, as the president of the Louisiana State Board of Education. White married Fannie Blythe in 1887, they had nine children, they resided at 1806 Lee Street in Alexandria, Louisiana. White taught the Bible at the First Methodist Church of Alexandria, he was an Odd Fellow. White died on October 13, 1946 in Alexandria, he was buried in Greenwood Memorial Park
Capital Tower is a 52-storey, 254 m skyscraper completed in 2000 in the Shenton Way-Tanjong Pagar financial district of Singapore, located at Robinson Road next to Tanjong Pagar MRT station. It is the fourth tallest skyscraper in the city. Planned as the POSBank's headquarters, ownership of the building was transferred to CapitaLand, became the company's flagship building and was named after the company. Capital Tower has 52 floors, served by five shuttle double-deck lifts; the lifts can travel at a speed of 10 m/s. The building stands out visually at night as the logo and some parts of the building would change its lights once in every few seconds; the top floor of the tower is occupied by the China Club. Only club members have access; the club features restaurant with private dining rooms and meeting rooms. The club opened on 19 May 2001. Capital Tower's anchor tenant is Government of Singapore Investment Corporation. List of tallest buildings in Singapore List of buildings China Club