A concerto is a musical composition composed of three movements, in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band. It is accepted that definition have changed over time. In the 17th century, sacred works for voices and orchestra were called concertos, as reflected by J. S. Bach's usage of the title "concerto" for many of the works that we know as cantatas; the word concerto comes from Italian. The idea is that the two parts in a concerto—the soloist and the orchestra or concert band—alternate between episodes of opposition and independence to create a sense of flow; the concerto, as understood in this modern way, arose in the Baroque period, in parallel to the concerto grosso, which contrasted a small group of instruments called a concertino with the rest of the orchestra, called the ripieno. The popularity of the concerto grosso declined after the Baroque period, the genre was not revived until the 20th century; the solo concerto, has remained a vital musical force from its inception to this day.
The term "concerto" was used to denote works that involved voices and instruments in which the instruments had independent parts—as opposed to the Renaissance common practice in which instruments that accompanied voices only doubled the voice parts. Examples of this earlier form of concerto include Giovanni Gabrieli's "In Ecclesiis" or Heinrich Schütz's "Saul, was verfolgst du mich"; the concerto began to take its modern shape in the late-Baroque period, beginning with the concerto grosso form popularized by Arcangelo Corelli. Corelli's concertino group was a cello. In J. S. Bach's Fifth Brandenburg Concerto, for example, the concertino is a flute, a violin, a harpsichord; the concerto approached its modern form, in which the concertino reduces to a single solo instrument playing with an orchestra. The main composers of concertos of the baroque were Tommaso Albinoni, Antonio Vivaldi, Georg Philipp Telemann, Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Pietro Locatelli, Giuseppe Tartini, Francesco Geminiani and Johann Joachim Quantz.
The concerto was intended as a composition typical of the Italian style of the time, all the composers were studying how to compose in the Italian fashion. The Baroque concerto was for a string instrument or a wind instrument. Bach wrote a concerto for two violins and orchestra. During the Baroque period, before the invention of the piano, keyboard concertos were comparatively rare, with the exception of the organ and some harpsichord concertos by Johann Sebastian Bach; as the harpsichord evolved into the fortepiano, in the end to the modern piano, the increased volume and the richer sound of the new instrument allowed the keyboard instrument to better compete with a full orchestra. Cello concertos have been written since the Baroque era, if not earlier. Among the works from that period, those by Antonio Vivaldi and Giuseppe Tartini are still part of the standard repertoire today; the concertos of the sons of Johann Sebastian Bach, such as C. P. E. Bach, are the best links between those of the Baroque period and those of the Classical era.
It is conventional to state that the first movements of concertos from the Classical period onwards follow the structure of sonata form. Final movements are in rondo form, as in J. S. Bach's E Major Violin Concerto. Mozart wrote five violin concertos, all in 1775, they show a number of notably Italian and Austrian. Several passages have leanings towards folk music. Mozart wrote the regarded Sinfonia Concertante for violin and orchestra. Beethoven wrote only one violin concerto, under-appreciated until revealed as a masterpiece in a performance by violin virtuoso Joseph Joachim. Haydn wrote at least two cello concertos, which are the most important works in that genre of the classical era. However, C. P. E. Bach's three cello concertos and Boccherini's twelve concertos are noteworthy. C. P. E. Bach's keyboard concertos contain some virtuosic solo writing; some of them have movements that run into one another without a break, there are frequent cross-movement thematic references. Mozart, as a child, made arrangements for keyboard and orchestra of four sonatas by now little-known composers.
He arranged three sonata movements by Johann Christian Bach. By the time he was twenty, Mozart was able to write concerto ritornelli that gave the orchestra admirable opportunity for asserting its character in an exposition with some five or six contrasted themes, before the soloist enters to elaborate on the material. Of his 27 piano concertos, the last 22 are appreciated. A dozen cataloged keyboard concertos are attributed to Haydn, of which only three or four are considered genuine. C. P. E. Bach wrote two oboe concertos. Bohemian composer Francesco Antonio Rosetti composed several solo and double horn concertos, he was a significant contributor to the genre of horn concertos in the 18th century. Most of his outstanding horn concertos were composed between 1782 and 1789 for the Bohemian duo Franz Zwierzina and Joseph Nage while at the Bavarian court of Oettingen-Wallerstein. One of hi
Flute Concertino (Chaminade)
Cécile Chaminade's Flute Concertino in D major, Op. 107, was composed in 1902 for flute and piano and arranged for flute and orchestra. Scholarship indicates that the Concertino was commissioned by the Paris Conservatoire in 1902 as an examination piece for flute students, where the celebrated French flautist and teacher Paul Taffanel, to whom the Concertino was dedicated, taught. Among flautists, legend has it that Chaminade wrote the Concertino to punish a flute-playing lover after he left her to marry someone else, wanting to make a piece so fiendishly difficult that he could not play it. However, Chaminade had married a music publisher the year before the piece was commissioned, which lessens the validity of the legend. Not long after composing it, Chaminade orchestrated it for a London concert played by her friend, flautist Marguerite de Forest Anderson; the piece remains a popular part of the flute repertoire. For example, it was voted #85 in the 2012 Classic 100 Music of France. Additionally, it remains one of Chaminade's only pieces in contemporary repertoire.
The concertino is scored for solo flute, with piano or orchestral accompaniment, with a flute, a piccolo, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, three trombones, timpani and strings. Lawrence Gilman wrote that "A remarkable feature of the work is its use of the orchestra's heaviest artillery in the accompaniment, for which three trombones and tubas are requisitioned; the composition opens with a broad melody that has a decorative solo part and is regarded as quite demanding for the flautist. After a more active central section, marked Più animato agitato in the score, there is a short oboe phrase that leads into a cadenza for the soloist; the piece concludes with a reprise of an animated coda. This is a one-movement concertino. Although some suggest it is in rondo form, it is more in the form ABCA, with a codetta separating sections B and C, a coda following the final A section. Following section C and before the flute cadenza, there is a 15 measure "section" where the original melody of section A returns.
The main characteristic of rondo form is the return to the A section after each new idea has been presented. In the Concertino, the original melody does not appear again until after section C, just before the cadenza, again after the cadenza, with the final return to section A at measure 112. Concertino for flute and orchestra: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
Julius Klengel was a German cellist, most famous for his etudes and solo pieces written for the instrument. He was the brother of Paul Klengel. A member of the Gewandhaus Orchestra at fifteen, he toured extensively throughout Europe as cellist and soloist of the Gewandhaus Quartet, his pupils include Gregor Piatigorsky and Alexandre Barjansky. See: List of music students by teacher: K to M#Julius Klengel. Klengel was born in Leipzig, studied with Emil Hegar in his youth, his father was a lawyer and an amateur musician, was friend of Mendelssohn. After his 15th birthday, Klengel joined the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra where Klengel played first cello, began touring in Europe and Russia. Klengel became a soloist at that point giving solo performances. Klengel rose to become principal cellist of the orchestra, aged 22, in 1881. There he remained for over four decades: to celebrate his fifty years of service, Wilhelm Furtwängler conducted a jubilee concert, in which Klengel played the cello part in a double concerto he composed for the occasion.
During that time period, Klengel became professor at the Leipzig Conservatory, where he was a member of Adolph Brodsky's string quartet, began composing. He composed hundreds of pieces for the cello, including four violoncello concertos, two double cello concertos, cello quartets, a cello sonata, as well as numerous caprices and other technical pieces. Of his music, the two volumes of etudes for cello remain in the repertory, his students were Hideo Saito, Emanuel Feuermann, Guilhermina Suggia, Paul Grümmer, William Pleeth. and Gregor Piatigorsky. He died in October 1933 in his hometown of Leipzig. Capriccio, Op. 3 Cello Concerto No.1 in A minor, Op. 4 Two pieces for four Cellos, Op. 5Serenade HumoresqueScherzo for Cello and Piano, Op. 6 Concertino No.1 in C major, Op. 7 Concert piece in D minor for Cello and Piano, Op. 10 Mazurka No.3 for Cello and Piano, Op.14 Variations for four Cellos, Op. 15 Suite in D minor for two Cellos, Op. 22 Serenade in F major, Op. 24 Caprice for Cello and Piano, Op. 27 Theme with Variations for four Cellos, Op. 28 Impromptu for four Cellos, Op. 30 Concerto No. 3 for Cello, Op. 31 Four pieces for four Cellos, Op. 33 Song without words Gavotte Lullaby March Piano Trio No.2, Op. 35 Kindertrio No.1 in C major Kindertrio No.2 in G major Concerto No. 4 for Cello in B minor Op. 37 Piano Trio No.
1, Op. 39 Kindertrio No.1 in F major Kindertrio No.2 in D major Suite No.2 in A minor for Cello and Piano, Op. 4 Concertino No.2 in G major for Cello and Piano, Op. 41 Caprice in the Form of a Chaconne after a Theme by Schuman for solo Cello, Op. 43 Double Concerto in E minor for two Cellos, Op. 45 Concertino No. 3 in A minor for Cello and Piano, Op. 46 Six Sonatinas for Cello and Piano, Op. 47 Six Sonatinas for cello and piano, Op. 48 Andante Sostenuto for Cello and Orchestra, Op. 51 Suite for cello and organ, Op. 54 Suite for Cello in D minor, Op. 56 Hymnus for 12 cellos, Op. 57 Small Suite for three Cellos, Op. 59 Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, Op. 61 Three pieces for two Cellos and Piano, Op. 62 Tägliche Übungen, Vol. I Tägliche Übungen, Vol. II Tägliche Übungen, Vol. III Free scores by Julius Klengel at the International Music Score Library Project
Henriëtte Hilda Bosmans was a Dutch composer. Bosmans was born in Amsterdam, the daughter of Henri Bosmans, principal cellist of the Concertgebouw Orchestra, the pianist Sara Benedicts, piano teacher at the Amsterdam Conservatory, her father died. She studied piano with her mother and became a piano teacher herself at the age of 17, she became a celebrated pianist by the 1920s, performing throughout Europe with among others Monteux and Ansermet. She gave 22 concerts with the Concertgebouw Orchestra alone between 1929 and 1949. Bosmans began her composition studies with Jan Willem Kersbergen and with Cornelis Dopper and Willem Pijper, she maintained a close friendship with Benjamin Britten. She is buried at Zorgvlied cemetery. Bosmans had relationships with both men and women, with whom she also collaborated musically, she was partnered from 1920-1927 to the Dutch cellist and composer Frieda Belinfante, a prominent lesbian and member of the Dutch Resistance during World War II, who in 1923 premiered Bosmans' Second Cello Concerto.
She was engaged to the violinist Francis Koene, who died of a brain tumor in 1934, before they could be married. In the last years of her life Bosmans appears to have been involved with the French singer Noémie Pérugia, for whom she wrote a series of songs between the years 1949 and her death of stomach cancer in 1952; the Henriëtte Bosmans Prize, named after Bosmans, is an encouragement prize for young Dutch composers. The prize, consisting of €2500 and a performance, has been awarded since 1994 by the Society of Dutch Composers. Media related to Henriëtte Bosmans at Wikimedia Commons Biography
Leoš Janáček was a Czech composer, musical theorist, folklorist and teacher. He was inspired by other Slavic folk music to create an original, modern musical style; until 1895 he devoted himself to folkloristic research. While his early musical output was influenced by contemporaries such as Antonín Dvořák, his mature works incorporate his earlier studies of national folk music in a modern original synthesis, first evident in the opera Jenůfa, premiered in 1904 in Brno; the success of Jenůfa at Prague in 1916 gave Janáček access to the world's great opera stages. Janáček's works are his most celebrated, they include operas such as Káťa Kabanová and The Cunning Little Vixen, the Sinfonietta, the Glagolitic Mass, the rhapsody Taras Bulba, two string quartets, other chamber works. Along with Antonín Dvořák and Bedřich Smetana, he is considered one of the most important Czech composers. Leoš Janáček, son of schoolmaster Jiří and Amalie Janáčková, was born in Moravia, he was a gifted child in a family of limited means, showed an early musical talent in choral singing.
His father wanted him to follow the family tradition and become a teacher, but he deferred to Janáček's obvious musical abilities. In 1865, young Janáček enrolled as a ward of the foundation of the Abbey of St. Thomas in Brno, where he took part in choral singing under Pavel Křížkovský and played the organ. One of his classmates, František Neumann described Janáček as an "excellent pianist, who played Beethoven symphonies in a piano duet with a classmate, under Křížkovský's supervision". Křížkovský found him a problematic and wayward student but recommended his entry to the Prague Organ School. Janáček remembered Křížkovský as a great conductor and teacher. Janáček intended to study piano and organ but devoted himself to composition, he wrote his first vocal compositions while choirmaster of the Svatopluk Artisan's Association. In 1874, he enrolled under František Skuherský and František Blažek, his student days in Prague were impoverished. His criticism of Skuherský's performance of the Gregorian mass was published in the March 1875 edition of the journal Cecilie and led to his expulsion from the school, but Skuherský relented, on 24 July 1875 Janáček graduated with the best results in his class.
On his return to Brno he earned a living as a music teacher, conducted various amateur choirs. From 1876 he taught music at Brno's Teachers Institute. Among his pupils there was daughter of Emilian Schulz, the Institute director, she was to be Janáček's wife. In 1876, he became a piano student of Amálie Wickenhauserová-Nerudová, with whom he co-organized chamber concertos and performed in concerts over the next two years. In February 1876, he was voted choirmaster of the Beseda brněnská Philharmonic Society. Apart from an interruption from 1879 to 1881, he remained its choirmaster and conductor until 1888. From October 1879 to February 1880, he studied piano and composition at the Leipzig Conservatory. While there, he composed Thema con variazioni for piano in B flat, subtitled Zdenka's Variations. Dissatisfied with his teachers, denied a studentship with Camille Saint-Saëns in Paris, Janáček moved on to the Vienna Conservatory, where from April to June 1880, he studied composition with Franz Krenn.
He concealed his opposition to Krenn's neo-romanticism, but he quit Josef Dachs's classes and further piano study when he was criticised for his piano style and technique. He submitted a violin sonata to a Vienna Conservatory competition, but the judges rejected it as "too academic". Janáček left the conservatory in June 1880, disappointed despite Franz Krenn's complimentary personal report, he returned to Brno where on 13 July 1881, he married his young pupil Zdenka Schulzová. In 1881, Janáček founded and was appointed director of the organ school, held this post until 1919, when the school became the Brno Conservatory. In the mid-1880s, Janáček began composing more systematically. Among other works, he created the Four male-voice choruses, dedicated to Antonín Dvořák, his first opera, Šárka. During this period he began to collect and study folk music and dances. In the early months of 1887, he criticized the comic opera The Bridegrooms, by Czech composer Karel Kovařovic, in a Hudební listy journal review: "Which melody stuck in your mind?
Which motif? Is this dramatic opera? No, I would write on the poster:'Comedy performed together with music', since the music and the libretto aren't connected to each other". Janáček's review led to mutual dislike and professional difficulties when Kovařovic, as director of the National Theatre in Prague, refused to stage Janáček's opera Jenůfa. From the early 1890s, Janáček led the mainstream of folklorist activity in Moravia and Silesia, using a repertoire of folk songs and dances in orchestral and piano arrangements. Most of his achievements in this field were published in 1899–1901 though his interest in folklore would be lifelong, his compositional work was still influenced by the declamatory, dramatic style of Smetana and Dvořák. He expressed negative opinions on German neo-classicism and on Wagner in the Hudební listy journal, which he founded in 1884; the death of his second child, Vladimír, in 1890 was followed by an attempted opera, Beginning
Hendrik Franciscus Andriessen was a Dutch composer and organist. He is remembered most of all for his improvisation at the organ and for the renewal of Catholic liturgical music in the Netherlands. Andriessen composed in a musical idiom, he was the brother of pianist and composer Willem Andriessen and the father of the composers Jurriaan Andriessen and Louis Andriessen and of the flautist Heleen Andriessen. Andriessen studied composition with Bernard Zweers and organ with Jean-Baptiste de Pauw at the Conservatory of Amsterdam; as the organist at Utrecht Cathedral, he became well known for his improvisation abilities. From 1926 to 1954, he lectured in composition and music theory at the Amsterdam Conservatory while teaching at the Institute for Catholic Church Music in Utrecht between 1930 and 1949, he was the director of the Utrecht Conservatory from 1937 to 1949. During World War II, Andriessen refused to join the "Cultural House" and was thus barred from public functions by the Nazi occupiers.
The only musical activities he was allowed were to accompany church services. He was held hostage by German occupiers from 13 July until 18 December 1942. In 1949, he was appointed director of the Royal Conservatory in The Hague, a post he held until 1957. Between 1954 and 1962, he was appointed an Extraordinary Professor of Musicology at the Catholic University of Nijmegen. Andriessen's works included, besides eight masses, a setting of the Te Deum, four symphonies, variations for orchestra, lieder for voice and orchestra, chamber music, sonatas for cello and for piano, works for solo organ. Symphony No. 1 Variations and Fugue on a Theme of Johann Kuhnau, for string orchestra Symphony No. 2 Variations on a Theme by Couperin for solo flute, string orchestra, harp Symphony No. 3 Ricercare Wilhemus Rhapsody Concerto for Organ and Orchestra Symphonic Etude Libertas venit - Rhapsody Symphony No. 4 Symphonie Concertante for Violin, Viola & Orchestra Mascherata Violin Concerto Cello Concertino Oboe Concertino Chromatic Variations Canzone for Cello & Strings Chantecler Overture" Hymnus in Pentecostem Ricercare 1914 Sonata, for violin and piano 1924 Sonatina, for viola and piano 1926 Sonata, for cello and piano = Sonate pour violoncelle et piano 1932 Sonata No. 2 for violin and piano 1937 Drie Inventionen for violin & cello 1938 Sérénade, for flute/violin, violin/oboe en cello/bassoon 1939 Piano Trio 1950 Intermezzo for flute & harp 1950 Suite for violin and piano I.
Preludio II. Fuguetta III. Air Varié IV. Finale 1951 Quintet, for Woodwind Quintet 1952 Ballade for oboe & piano 1957 Quartetto in stile antico for String Quartet 1961 Il pensiero for string quartet 1967 Tre Pezzi, for flute and harp 1967 Sonata for viola & piano 1969 L'Indifferent, for String Quartet 1970 Serenade for flute and piano 1972 Divertimento a cinque, for flute, violin and cello 1973 Choral Varié, for 3 trumpets and 3 trombones Aria Chorals, Toccata Fête-Dieu Fuga a 5 voici c kl. terts Sonata'Da Pacem, Domine', manuscript is lost Sonata da chiesa Passacaglia Theme with Variations In dulci jubilo Interlude Interludium Intermezzi: 24 pieces in two books Intermezzo Meditation on the Hymn "O Lord with Wondrous Mystery" O filii et filiae O sacred head Offertorium Prelude and Fugue in D minor Preghiera Quattro studi per organo Sinfonia Suite Veni Creator Spiritus Sonata Pavane Passepied Menuet Sérénade Philomela, in 3 acts. 2001. "Hendrik Andriessen". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell.
London: Macmillan Publishers.}} Schell, Mark David. 1995. "A Performer's Guide to Representative Solo Organ Works of Hendrik Andriessen". D. M. A. Diss. Louisville: The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. Free scores by Hendrik Andriessen at the International Music Score Library Project
Marion Eugénie Bauer was an American composer, teacher and music critic. A contemporary of Aaron Copland, Bauer played an active role in shaping American musical identity in the early half of the twentieth century; as a composer, Bauer wrote for piano, chamber ensembles, symphonic orchestra, solo voice, vocal ensembles. She gained prominence as a teacher, serving on the faculty of New York University where she taught music history and composition from 1926–1951. In addition to her position at NYU, Bauer was affiliated with Juilliard as a guest lecturer from 1940 until her death in 1955. Bauer wrote extensively about music: she was the editor for the Chicago-based Musical Leader and additionally authored and co-authored several books including her 1933 text Twentieth Century Music. Throughout her life, Bauer promoted not only her own work but new music in general. Bauer helped found the American Music Guild, the American Music Center, the American Composer's Alliance, serving as a board member of the latter.
Bauer additionally held leadership roles in both the League of Composers and the Society for the Publication of American Music as a board member and secretary, respectively. She was the only woman in a leadership position in these organizations. Bauer's music includes dissonance and extended tertian and quintal harmonies, though it goes outside the bounds of extended tonality, save for her brief experimentation with serialism in the 1940s. During her lifetime, she enjoyed many performances of her works, most notably the New York Philharmonic premiere of Sun Splendor in 1947 under the baton of Leopold Stokowski and a 1951 New York Town Hall concert devoted to her music. Marion Bauer was born in Walla Walla, Washington, on August 15, 1882, her parents—both of French-Jewish background—had immigrated to the United States, where her father Jacques Bauer worked as a shopkeeper and her mother Julie Bauer worked as a teacher of modern languages. Bauer was the youngest of seven children, with an age difference of 17 years between herself and her oldest sister Emilie.
In one anecdote, as an infant, Bauer was placed in a basket atop the family's piano as Emilie Bauer went about practicing and teaching. In Bauer's childhood, Jacques Bauer, an amateur musician himself, recognized his youngest daughter's musical aptitude, Bauer began studying piano with Emilie; when Jacques Bauer died in 1890, the Bauers moved to Portland, where Bauer graduated from St. Helen's Hall in 1898. Upon completion of secondary school, Bauer joined her sister Emilie in New York City in order to begin focusing on a career in composition. Once in New York, Bauer commenced studies with Henry Holden Huss and Eugene Heffley, in addition to her sister Emilie. In 1905, her studies brought her into contact with French violinist and pianist Raoul Pugno, using New York as a base on an extended concert tour of the United States. By virtue of her upbringing in a home headed by French immigrants, Bauer was fluent in both French and English, was thus able to teach Pugno and his family English; as a result of this favor, Pugno invited Bauer to study with him in Paris in 1906, it was during this time that Bauer became the first American to study with Nadia Boulanger, an associate of Pugno's in the Paris music scene.
As she had done with Pugno, in exchange for composition lessons from Boulanger, Bauer taught her English. When she returned to New York in 1907, Bauer continued her studies with Heffley and Walter Henry Rothwell, additionally teaching piano and music theory on her own. After another year of study in Europe from 1910–11, this time focusing on form and counterpoint with Paul Ertel in Berlin, Bauer began to establish herself as a serious composer. In 1914, she once again returned to Berlin to study with Ertel, but her time there was curtailed by the outbreak of World War I. Ten years Bauer decided once again to undertake an extended period of study in Europe, this time at the Paris Conservatory with André Gedalge, who had taught composers such as Maurice Ravel, Darius Milhaud, Arthur Honegger. At the time, she was 40 years old and offered the following reason for continuing her studies comparatively late in life: “As a member of the American Music Guild, I had the opportunity to measure my powers and my limitations with those of my colleagues....
The result was a period of study in Europe. This time I decided in Paris I would find the kind of work and musical environment for which I was seeking.” Bauer's studies at the Paris Conservatory, were cut short in 1926 when she received the news that her sister Emilie had been hit by a car. Bauer returned to New York, but Emilie's injuries proved fatal. Although Bauer had never earned a college degree, in September 1926, she was hired as an instructor for New York University's music department, becoming their first female music faculty. Among her early colleagues were Albert Stoessel, Gustave Reese, Percy Grainger. During her tenure at NYU from 1926–1951, Bauer taught classes in composition and analysis, aesthetics and criticism, music history and appreciation, earning the rank of associate professor in 1930. Bauer taught using her own book, the readings from which would