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Concerts at Knebworth House

The Knebworth Festival is a recurring open-air rock and pop concert held on the grounds of the Knebworth House in Knebworth, England. The festival first occurred in 1974 when The Allman Brothers Band, The Doobie Brothers and other artists attracted 60,000 people. Since the venue has hosted numerous outdoor concerts, featuring artists including The Rolling Stones, Lynyrd Skynyrd, Pink Floyd, Frank Zappa, Led Zeppelin, The Beach Boys, Deep Purple, Status Quo, Paul McCartney, Eric Clapton, Elton John, Robert Plant, Dire Straits, Mike Oldfield, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Robbie Williams and Oasis. In 1976 Lynyrd Skynyrd performed at Knebworth on the same day as The Rolling Stones and are acknowledged to have "played The Stones off the park". In 1979, Led Zeppelin performed at Knebworth for two gigs, their first concerts in the United Kingdom since 1975; the band played to record crowds in excess of 200,000 people though official admission records only list 109,000 people. The New Barbarians, Ron Wood's solo outfit with Keith Richards played at the second show on 11 August.

Support bands included Chas and Dave. The Beach Boys headlined the 1980 Knebworth concert, which would prove to be the last UK performance of the band's original lineup. Drummer Dennis Wilson would die in 1983 from drowning, their set was released in 2002 as Good Timin': Live at Knebworth England 1980. The 1985 event was the first UK gig by the re-formed Deep Purple. On 9 August 1986, Queen performed their last show with their original lineup; the band did not perform live again until after the death of lead singer Freddie Mercury, at his tribute concert at Wembley Stadium in April 1992. On 30 June 1990, the park was the location for The Silver Clef Award Winners Concert, recorded and released on DVD, it included the performance of artists including Pink Floyd, Cliff Richard & The Shadows, Tears for Fears, Eric Clapton, Dire Straits, Elton John, Paul McCartney, Ray Cooper, Robert Plant, Status Quo and Phil Collins. In 1996, who were supported by The Charlatans, Kula Shaker, Manic Street Preachers, The Bootleg Beatles, The Chemical Brothers, Ocean Colour Scene and The Prodigy, played two shows with an audience of 125,000 per night.

Over 2.5 million people applied for tickets for the shows, making it the largest demand for concert tickets in British history. In 2003, Robbie Williams headlined at the main stage in Knebworth over a three-day period, drawing crowds of over 375,000, a further 3.5 million who watched live on television and online. Other acts to perform on the same stage were The Darkness, Ash and Kelly Osbourne; this was reputedly the biggest UK pop concert and caused a huge traffic jam on the A1 as thousands of cars tried to reach the venue during Friday evening rush hour. A subsequent album, entitled Robbie Williams – Live At Knebworth, was released, reached number two in the UK charts. A DVD entitled What We Did Last Summer, was released afterwards. In 2009, Metallica and Linkin Park headlined the first UK Sonisphere Festival. Other bands included Heaven & Hell; the festival took place again in 2010 with Rammstein and Iron Maiden headlining plus performances from other big acts such as Alice Cooper and the Stooges and Mötley Crüe.

In 2011, the festival hosted the first UK performance of the Big 4 bands of thrash metal. Knebworth House website Knebworth Festival History 1974-1986


A scutoid is a geometric solid between two parallel surfaces. The boundary of each of the surfaces is a polygon, the vertices of the two end polygons are joined by either a curve or a Y-shaped connection. Scutoids present at least one vertex between these two planes. Scutoids are not convex, lateral faces are not planar, so several scutoids can pack together to fill all the space between the two parallel surfaces, they may be more described as a mix between a frustum and a prismatoid. The object was first described by Gómez-Gálvez et al. in a paper entitled Scutoids are a geometrical solution to three-dimensional packing of epithelia, published in July 2018. The name scutoid was coined because of its resemblance to the shape of the scutum and scutellum in some insects, such as beetles in the subfamily Cetoniinae. Unofficially, Clara Grima has stated that while working on the project, the shape was temporarily called an Escu-toid as a joke after the biology group leader Luis M. Escudero. Since his last name, "Escudero", means "squire", the temporary name was modified to become "scutoid".

The shape, however odd, is a building block of multicellular organisms. Epithelial cells adopt the "scutoidal shape" under certain circumstances. In epithelia, cells can 3D-pack as scutoids; this is fundamental to the shaping of the organs during development. "Scutoid is a prismatoid. This extra vertex forces some of the "faces" of the resulting object to curve; this means that Scutoids are not polyhedra, because not all of their faces are planar.... For the computational biologists who created/discovered the Scutoid, the key property of the shape is that it can combine with itself and other geometric objects like frustums to create 3D packings of epithelial cells." - Laura Taalman The scutoid explains. As epithelial tissue bends or grows, the cells have to take on new shapes to pack together using the least amount of energy possible, until the scutoid's discovery, it was assumed that epithelial cells packed in frustums, as well as other prism-like shapes. Now, with the knowledge of how epithelial cells pack, it opens up many new possibilities in terms of artificial organs.

The scutoid may be applied to making better artificial organs, allowing for things like effective organ replacements, recognizing if a person's cells are packing or not, ways to fix that problem. THE SCUTOID: did scientists discover a new shape? Matt Parker

K Madhukar Shetty

Dr. K. Madhukar Shetty was an Indian Police Service officer of 1999 batch of Karnataka Cadre, he is remembered for working against illegal mining in Karnataka. Shetty was the son of Kannada journalist Vaddarse Raghurama Shetty. Born on 17 December 1971, Madhukar completed his MA in Sociology from Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi, he earned his PhD in Public Administration from Rockefeller College of Public Affairs & Policy, University at Albany, New York. Shetty worked as ASP Bengaluru Rural district and as SP of Chamarajanagar and Chikkamagaluru. Shetty was an integral part of the team that exposed illegal iron ore mining in Ballari, the backyard of powerful mining baron Janardhan Reddy. In 2006, when a group of 35 families was evicted from the Tatkola forest on the orders of government officials, Shetty came up with the idea of allocating 64 acres of the land reclaimed from encroachers, on the edge of the Sargod Kundur reserve forest, to the families. Shetty was under treatment in Continental Hospitals, Hyderabad where he was being treated for Swine flu, died on 28 December 2018 due to serious cardiac complications & still suspicious.

The Karnataka state government instituted an inquiry to look into the death of Dr Shetty following suspicion from his friend and family that he didn't get adequate medical treatment

Dominic Lash

Dominic Lash is a Bristol based double bassist and was a central figure in the musicians' collective Oxford Improvisers. Important long-term musical collaborators include Angharad Davies, Bruno Guastalla, Alexander Hawkins, Tim Hill, Steve Noble, Samantha Rebello, Pat Thomas, Philipp Wachsmann and Alex Ward, he has performed with saxophonists John Butcher and Evan Parker and violinist Tony Conrad. Recent work includes a UK tour with US guitarist Joe Morris, Australian drummer Tony Buck and saxophonist Tony Bevan. Festival appearances have included the Manchester Jazz Festival, Akbank Jazz Festival and Tampere Jazz Happening, he is the only child of Nicholas Lash and Janet Lash, hence first cousin to Ralph Fiennes, Joseph Fiennes and Sophie Fiennes. Grazing - Bruno Guastalla, Dominic Lash Live in Oxford - Taylor Ho Bynum, Alexander Hawkins, Dominic Lash, Harris Eisenstadt Imaginary Trio - Bruno Guastalla, Dominic Lash, Philipp Wachsmann Barkingside – Alex Ward, Alexander Hawkins, Dominic Lash, Paul May Separately and together - London Improvisers Orchestra and Glasgow Improvisers Orchestra Monster Club - Tony Bevan, Chris Corsano, Dominic Lash No Now Is So - Alexander Hawkins Ensemble


Radiators are heat exchangers used to transfer thermal energy from one medium to another for the purpose of cooling and heating. The majority of radiators are constructed to function in automobiles and electronics; the radiator is always a source of heat to its environment, although this may be for either the purpose of heating this environment, or for cooling the fluid or coolant supplied to it, as for engine cooling. Despite the name, most radiators transfer the bulk of their heat via convection instead of thermal radiation; the Roman hypocaust is an early example of a type of radiator for building space heating. Franz San Galli, a Prussian-born Russian businessman living in St. Petersburg, is credited with inventing the heating radiator around 1855, having received a radiator patent in 1857, but American Joseph Nason developed a primitive radiator in 1841 and received a number of U. S. patents for hot water and steam heating. Heat transfer from a radiator occurs by all the usual mechanisms: thermal radiation, convection into flowing air or liquid, conduction into the air or liquid.

A radiator may transfer heat by phase change, for example, drying a pair of socks. In practice, the term "radiator" refers to any of a number of devices in which a liquid circulates through exposed pipes; the term "convector" refers to a class of devices in which the source of heat is not directly exposed. To increase the surface area available for heat exchange with the surroundings, a radiator will have multiple fins, in contact with the tube carrying liquid pumped through the radiator. Air in contact with the fins carries off heat. If air flow is obstructed by dirt or damage to the fins, that portion of the radiator is ineffective at heat transfer. Radiators are used to heat buildings. In a central heating system, hot water or sometimes steam is generated in a central boiler and circulated by pumps through radiators within the building, where this heat is transferred to the surroundings. Radiators are used for cooling internal combustion engines in automobiles but in piston-engined aircraft, railway locomotives, stationary generating plants and other places where such engines are used.

To cool down the engine, a coolant is passed through the engine block, where it absorbs heat from the engine. The hot coolant is fed into the inlet tank of the radiator, from which it is distributed across the radiator core through tubes to another tank on the opposite end of the radiator; as the coolant passes through the radiator tubes on its way to the opposite tank, it transfers much of its heat to the tubes which, in turn, transfer the heat to the fins that are lodged between each row of tubes. The fins release the heat to the ambient air. Fins are used to increase the contact surface of the tubes to the air, thus increasing the exchange efficiency; the cooled coolant is fed back to the engine, the cycle repeats. The radiator does not reduce the temperature of the coolant back to ambient air temperature, but it is still sufficiently cooled to keep the engine from overheating; this coolant is water-based, with the addition of glycols to prevent freezing and other additives to limit corrosion and cavitation.

However, the coolant may be an oil. The first engines used thermosiphons to circulate the coolant. Up to the 1980s, radiator cores were made of copper and brass. Starting in the 1970s, use of aluminium increased taking over the vast majority of vehicular radiator applications; the main inducements for aluminium are reduced cost. Since air has a lower heat capacity and density than liquid coolants, a large volume flow rate must be blown through the radiator core to capture the heat from the coolant. Radiators have one or more fans that blow air through the radiator. To save fan power consumption in vehicles, radiators are behind the grille at the front end of a vehicle. Ram air can give a portion or all of the necessary cooling air flow when the coolant temperature remains below the system's designed maximum temperature, the fan remains disengaged; as electronic devices become smaller, the problem of dispersing waste heat becomes more difficult. Tiny radiators known as heat sinks are used to convey heat from the electronic components into a cooling air stream.

Heatsink do not use water, rather they conduct the heat from the source. Heat is transferred to the air by convection. Radiators are found as components of some spacecraft; these radiators work by radiating heat energy away as light because in the vacuum of space neither convection nor conduction can work to transfer heat away. On the International Space Station, these can be seen as large white panels attached to the main truss, they can be found on both manned and unmanned craft

Reuben Johannes

Reuben Benjamin Johannes is a South African rugby union player who last played for the Pumas in the Currie Cup and in the Rugby Challenge. His regular position is flanker, he came through the youth system at Western Province playing at the Under-16 Grant Khomo Week in 2006. Following the Under-18 Craven Week in 2008, he was included in the South Africa Under-18 Elite Squad, he played further games for the Under-19 and Under-21 teams and was included in Western Province's squad for the 2011 Vodacom Cup. He made his first class debut in the 56–9 victory over Namibian side Welwitschias, he made one additional appearance that season. In 2012, he was once again included in the Vodacom Cup squad and made a further four appearances, scoring two tries, he was included in the squad for the 2012 Currie Cup Premier Division, but failed to make any matchday squads. At the end of 2012, South Africa Sevens manager Paul Treu called him into the squad for the 2012 Gold Coast Sevens leg of the 2012–13 IRB Sevens World Series.

He represented Maties in the 2011 and 2013 Varsity Cup competitions. He joined Nelspruit-based side the Pumas for the 2016 season