Cavatelli are small pasta shells from eggless semolina dough that look like miniature hot dog buns. Cavatelli in a literal sense, means "little hollows". Ricotta cavatelli adds ricotta cheese to the dough mix, it is cooked with garlic and broccoli or broccoli rabe. Many varieties and local names of Cavatelli exist, including orecchie di prete. In Apulia a number of varieties of Cavatelli have specific names including pizzicarieddi. A particular variety of Cavatelli is typical of the area of Teggiano in Campania, where they are referred to as Parmatieddi. Parmatieddi are flat-shaped, they are obtained by rolling a stick dough with three fingers of one hand, instead of with a single finger as done for the common Cavatelli. Parmatieddi are served as first course on Palm Sunday and their shape similar to that of a tree leaf, would like to recall that of palm branches the crowd scattered in front of Jesus when he entered into Jerusalem. List of pasta
Mezzelune known as Schlutzkrapfen in South Tyrol and neighbouring German-speaking regions, are a semi-circular stuffed pasta, similar to ravioli or pierogi. The dough is made of white flour or buckwheat flour, durum semolina, mixed with eggs and olive oil. Typical fillings may include spinach, or mushrooms. There are recipes with potato, red beet, or sauerkraut filling; the dish may be served with mushroom or pesto sauce, with salsiccia, with seafood, and/or with cherry tomatoes. Similar types of pasta are known as casunziei in Dolomites area, casoncelli in Lombardy, cjarsons in Friuli. Mezzaluna List of buckwheat dishes List of stuffed dishes
Alphabet pasta referred to as Alfabeto, is a pasta, mechanically cut or pressed into the letters of the alphabet. It is served in an alphabet soup, sold in a can of condensed broth. Another variation, consists of letter-shaped pasta in a marinara or spaghetti sauce, it is not clear who invented the alphabet soup. It is reported that as early as 1867, Raleigh's Tri-Weekly Standard made reference to the fact that letters of the alphabet were now replacing other shapes of macaroni to give "body to our broth". In 1908, Wilbur Wright was served alphabet soup in France. One common American brand of condensed-style alphabet soup is Campbell's; this soup, like its competitors, is marketed towards parents for its educational value. A similar product, Alphabetti Spaghetti, was sold by the H. J. Heinz Company for 60 years before being discontinued in 1990. Like Campbell's alphabet soup, it contains alphabet pasta canned in no cheese, it was reintroduced by Heinz in 2005. Alpha-Bits List of pasta List of pasta dishes SpaghettiOs Food portal Pasta shapes - An illustrated guide at Food-Info.net Alphabet Soup is 150 Years Old - Alphabet Soup is 150 Years Old - This Is How We Started Spelling With Our Food
Cephalopod ink is a dark-coloured ink released into water by most species of cephalopod as an escape mechanism. All cephalopods, with the exception of the Nautilidae and the Cirrina, are able to release ink; the ink is released from the ink sacs and is dispersed more when its release is accompanied by a jet of water from the siphon. Its dark colour is caused by melanin; each species of cephalopod produces differently coloured inks. A number of other aquatic molluscs have similar responses to attack, including the gastropod clade known as sea hares. Two distinct behaviours have been observed in inking cephalopods; the first is the release of large amounts of ink into the water by the cephalopod in order to create a dark, diffuse cloud that can obscure the predator's view, allowing the cephalopod to make a rapid retreat by jetting away. The second response to a predator is to release pseudomorphs, smaller clouds of ink with a greater mucus content, which allows them to hold their shape for longer.
These are expelled away from the cephalopod in question, which will release several pseudomorphs and change colour in conjunction with these releases. The pseudomorphs are the same volume as and look similar to the cephalopod that released them, many predators have been observed attacking them mistakenly, allowing the cephalopod to escape. Furthermore, green turtle hatchlings that have been observed mistakenly attacking pseudomorphs released by Octopus bocki have subsequently ignored conspecific octopuses. However, many cephalopod predators have advanced chemosensory systems, some anecdotal evidence suggests that compounds found in cephalopod ink can irritate, numb or deactivate such apparatus. Few controlled experiments have been conducted to substantiate this. Cephalopod ink is nonetheless thought to be more sophisticated than a simple "smoke screen". Octopuses have been observed squirting ink at snails or crabs approaching their eggs. Numerous cuttlefish species add a coat of ink to their eggs to camouflage them from potential predators.
Sepia officinalis ink forms a polydisperse suspension composed by spheric particles with a size between 80 and 150 nm. The particles have a density of 1.27 g cm−3, which may be due to the amount of metals that has in its composition. Cephalopod ink contains a number of chemicals in a variety of different concentrations, depending on the species. However, its main constituents are melanin and mucus, it can contain, among other things, dopamine and L-DOPA, as well as small amounts of free amino acids, including taurine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and lysine. Cephalopod ink has, as its name suggests, been used in the past as ink for quills. Modern use of cephalopod ink is limited to cooking in Japan and the Mediterranean, where it is used as a food colouring and flavouring, for example in pasta and sauces. For this purpose it is obtainable from fishmongers, gourmet food suppliers, is available in markets in Japan; the ink is extracted from the ink sacs during preparation of the dead cephalopod squid, therefore contains no mucus.
Cephalopod ink is an important historical component of Japanese cuisine. Aside from Japan, it is commonly used in Mediterranean cuisines. Studies have shown, it is being researched in mice for its antitumor activity against Meth-A fibrosarcoma. It remains unclear however if any of the antitumor activity of squid ink can be obtained from oral consumption, this is indicated as an area for future investigation. An article on harvesting squid ink
A seashell or sea shell known as a shell, is a hard, protective outer layer created by an animal that lives in the sea. The shell is part of the body of the animal. Empty seashells are found washed up on beaches by beachcombers; the shells are empty because the animal has died and the soft parts have been eaten by another animal or have decomposed. A seashell is the exoskeleton of an invertebrate, is composed of calcium carbonate or chitin. Most shells that are found on beaches are the shells of marine mollusks because these shells are made of calcium carbonate, endure better than shells made of chitin. Apart from mollusk shells, other shells that can be found on beaches are those of barnacles, horseshoe crabs and brachiopods. Marine annelid worms in the family Serpulidae create shells which are tubes made of calcium carbonate cemented onto other surfaces; the shells of sea urchins are called "tests", the moulted shells of crabs and lobsters are exuviae. While most seashells are external, some cephalopods have internal shells.
Seashells have been used by humans for many different purposes throughout pre-history. However, seashells are not the only kind of shells; when the word "seashells" refers only to the shells of marine mollusks studying seashells is part of conchology. Conchologists or serious collectors who have a scientific bias are in general careful not to disturb living populations and habitats: though they may collect a few live animals, most responsible collectors do not over-collect or otherwise disturb ecosystems; the study of the entire molluscan animal is known as malacology. Seashells are found in beach drift, natural detritus deposited along strandlines on beaches by the waves and the tides. Shells are often washed up onto a beach empty and clean, the animal having died. Empty seashells are picked up by beachcombers. However, the majority of seashells which are offered for sale commercially have been collected alive and killed and cleaned for the commercial trade; this type of large-scale exploitation can sometimes have a strong negative impact on local ecosystems, sometimes can reduce the distribution of rare species.
The word seashell is used to mean only the shell of a marine mollusk. Marine mollusk shells that are familiar to beachcombers and thus most to be called "seashells" are the shells of marine species of bivalves, scaphopods and cephalopods; these shells are often the most encountered, both in the wild, for sale as decorative objects. Marine species of gastropods and bivalves are more numerous than land and freshwater species, the shells are larger and more robust; the shells of marine species often have more sculpture and more color, although this is by no means always the case. In the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the planet, there are far more species of colorful, shallow water shelled marine mollusks than there are in the temperate zones and the regions closer to the poles. Although there are a number of species of shelled mollusks that are quite large, there are vast numbers of small species too, see micromollusks. Not all mollusks are marine. There are numerous freshwater mollusks, see for example snail and freshwater bivalves.
In addition, not all mollusks have an external shell: some mollusks such as some cephalopods have an internal shell, many mollusks have no shell, see for example slug and nudibranch. Bivalves are the most common seashells that wash up on large sandy beaches or in sheltered lagoons, they can sometimes be numerous. The two valves become separated. There are more than 15,000 species of bivalves that live in both freshwater. Examples of bivalves are clams, scallops and oysters; the majority of bivalves consist of two identical shells. The animal's body is held protectively inside these two shells. Bivalves that do not have two shells either have one shell or they lack a shell altogether; the shells are formed in layers by secretions from the mantle. Bivalves known as pelecypods, are filter feeders; some bivalves have an open circulatory system. Bivalves are used all as a source of pearls; the larvae of some freshwater mussels can bore through wood. Shell Beach, Western Australia, is a beach, made up of the shells of the cockle Fragum erugatum.
Certain species of gastropod seashells can sometimes be common, washed up on sandy beaches, on beaches that are surrounded by rocky marine habitat. Chiton plates or valves wash up on beaches in rocky areas where chitons are common. Chiton shells, which are composed of eight separate plates and a girdle come apart not long after death, so they are always found as disarticulated plates. Plates from larger species of chitons are sometimes known as "butterfly shells" because of their shape. Only a few species of cephalopods have shells; some cephalopods such as Sepia, the cuttlefish, have a large internal shell, the cuttlefi
Cavatappi is macaroni formed in a helical tube shape. Cavatappi is the Italian word for corkscrew, it is known by other names, including cellentani, spirali, or tortiglione. It is scored with lines or ridges on the surface. Cavatappi is a type of macaroni, or thick, hollow pasta, made without using eggs, it may be yellow in color, like most pastas, or have vegetables or a food coloring added to make it green or red. It can be used in a variety of dishes to include salads and casseroles. Cavatappi is an Italian word created by compounding cava and tappi, which means "stopper extractor", it is known by many other names. Cavatappi originated in Southern Italy; the cavatappi shape is best described as a ridged tube extruded into a helix shape though a small number of rotations. The number of turns is in the range of one to three. While the word "spiral" is used colloquially to describe helical objects, in mathematics, a spiral is considered to be a curve on the plane of progressive radius, the name "helix" is preferred for a curve inscribed on a cylinder, such as that of DNA's double helix.
The notion of a screw as a helical surface dates back to the time of Archimedes. Cavatappi is used with Italian-style foods such as cavatappi Amatriciana, cavatappi pomodoro, it is found in tomato-based pasta sauces and is associated with different types of cheeses such as mozzarella and provolone. It is a common choice for cheese. Food portal RecipeTips. Com glossary entry with picture
Acini di pepe
Acini di pepe are a form of pasta. The name is Italian for "seeds of pepper". Acini is the plural of acino. In both Latin and Italian, the word means "grape" or "grape-stones"; the "stones of a grape" are, of course, the seeds of the grape. Acini di pepe translates into "seeds of a pepper", they were and are known as a symbol of fertility, why they are used in Italian wedding soup. They are sometimes referred to as pastina; the individual pieces resemble tiny cylinders about 1mm, or less, in each dimension. Acini di pepe work well in cold salads. Acini di pepe are used in Italian wedding soup. Frog's eye salad is an American cold salad that combines the pasta with whipped topping, marshmallows and mandarin oranges. A similar starch found in Palestinian cuisine is called maftoul, it is hand-rolled by professionals in large clay pans. Maftoul is a wheat-based dish, somewhat served like couscous, with whole black peppers, dried cloves and chickpeas or tomato sauce. Maftool, like most couscous dishes, is served with chicken