Coleman County, Texas
Coleman County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 8,895; the county seat is Coleman. The county was founded in 1858 and organized in 1864, it is named for Robert M. Coleman, a signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence and soldier at the Battle of San Jacinto. Around 10,000 BC, indigenous peoples of the Americas were the first inhabitants. Inhabitants included the Jumano, Lipan Apache, Comanche. In 1632, Father Salas led an expedition to the upper Colorado River. In 1650, Captains Hernán Martín and Diego del Castillo explored the western portion of the county to the Concho River, returned with pearls. Diego de Guadalajara followed the same path as Martín and Castillo in 1654. From 1683–84, Juan Domínguez de Mendoza established a short-lived Quicuchabe mission. In 1855, the county's oldest community, was founded as a trading post for the ranching activities of John Chisum. Coleman County was formed from Brown and Travis Counties in 1858; the county is named for Robert M. Coleman, a signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence.1861 Rich Coffey settles the communities of Leaday and Voss.
In 1876, the site was chosen for the county seat. The community of Santa Anna was established in 1879, it is named after the Santa Anna Mountains. In 1886 the Santa Fe Railway completed a spur to Coleman from nearby Coleman Junction. In 1908, the first oil well came in near Trickham. In 1914 the Santa Fe completed the Coleman Cutoff between Coleman and Clovis; this put Coleman on the road's main line. Coleman's distinctive brick-and-stucco Santa Fe depot was completed in 1915. Oil was discovered north of Coleman on the J. P. Morris ranch in 1917; the Coleman County Medical Center opened in 1923. By 1925, tenant farmers comprised 63% of local agriculture. In 1930, the Coleman County population peaked at 23,669; the Coleman County oilfields produce over a million barrels in 1948. In 2000, Wind Clean Corporation, harnessing energy from wind power, was founded. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,281 square miles, of which 1,262 square miles is land and 19 square miles is covered by water.
U. S. Highway 67 U. S. Highway 84 U. S. Highway 283 State Highway 153 State Highway 206 Callahan County Brown County McCulloch County Concho County Runnels County Taylor County As of the census of 2000, 9,235 people, 3,889 households, 2,609 families resided in the county; the population density was 7 people per square mile. The 5,248 housing units averaged 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.53% White, 2.19% African American, 0.62% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 6.53% from other races, 1.91% from two or more races. About 14% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 3,889 households, 27.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.80% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.90% were not families. The average household size was 2.33, the average family size was 2.88. In the county, the population was distributed as 23.60% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 22.70% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 23.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $25,658, for a family was $31,168. Males had a median income of $25,993 versus $17,378 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,911. About 15.50% of families and 19.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.40% of those under age 18 and 14.90% of those age 65 or over. These school districts serve Coleman County: Bangs ISD Coleman ISD Cross Plains ISD Panther Creek Consolidated ISD Santa Anna ISD Coleman Novice Santa Anna Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Coleman County Coleman County government's website Coleman County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas Historic Coleman County materials, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Bexar County, Texas
Bexar County is a county of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,714,773, a 2017 estimate put the population at 1,958,578, it is the fourth-most populated in Texas. Its county seat is San Antonio, the second-most populous city in Texas and the seventh-largest city in the United States. Bexar County is included in TX metropolitan statistical area. Bexar County includes Government Canyon State Natural Area in the northwestern part of the county. Bexar County was created on December 20, 1836, encompassed the entire western portion of the Republic of Texas; this included the disputed areas of western New Mexico northward to Wyoming. After statehood, 128 counties were carved out of its area; the county was named for San Antonio de Béxar, one of the 23 Mexican municipalities of Texas at the time of its independence. San Antonio de Béxar—originally Villa de San Fernando de Béxar—was the first civil government established by the Spanish in the province of Texas; the municipality was created in 1731 when 55 Canary Islanders settled near the system of missions, established around the source of the San Antonio River.
The new settlement was named after the Presidio San Antonio de Béjar, the Spanish military outpost that protected the missions. The presidio, located at the San Pedro Springs, was founded in 1718 and named for Viceroy Balthasar Manuel de Zúñiga y Guzmán Sotomayor y Sarmiento, second son of the Duke of Béjar; the modern city of San Antonio in the U. S. state of Texas derived its name from San Antonio de Béjar. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,256 square miles, of which 1,240 sq mi is land and 16 sq mi is water. Bexar County is in south-central Texas, about 190 miles west of Houston and 140 mi from both the US-Mexican border to the southwest and the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast; the Balcones Escarpment bisects the county from west to northeast. South of the escarpment are the South Texas plains; the San Antonio River rises from springs north of Downtown San Antonio, flows southward and southeastward through the county. Bexar County has a comprehensive "wagon wheel" freeway system, with radial freeways and beltways that encircle Downtown San Antonio, allowing for simplified countywide freeway access, in a manner much like the freeways around Houston or Dallas.
San Antonio is unique, however, in that unlike Houston or Dallas, none of these highways is tolled. Kendall County Comal County Guadalupe County Wilson County Atascosa County Medina County Bandera County San Antonio Missions National Historical Park As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,714,773 people residing in the county. Of those, 72.9% were White, 7.5% Black or African American, 2.4% Asian, 0.8% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 12.7% of some other race and 3.5% of two or more races. 58.7% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, 1,392,931 people, 488,942 households, 345,681 families were residing in the county; the population density was 1,117 inhabitants per square mile. There were 521,359 housing units at an average density of 418 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.86% White, 7.18% Black or African American, 0.80% Native American, 1.61% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 17.80% from other races, 3.64% from two or more races. About 54.35 % of the population were Latino of any race.
Of 488,942 households, 36.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.50% were married couples living together, 15.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were not families. About 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.33. A Williams Institute analysis of 2010 census data found there were about 6.2 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was distributed as 28.50% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 30.60% from 25 to 44, 19.90% from 45 to 64, 10.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household was $38,328, for a family was $43,724. Males had a median income of $30,756 versus $24,920 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,363.
About 12.70% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.40% of those under age 18 and 12.20% of those age 65 or over. The Bexar County jail facilities are at 200 North Comal in downtown San Antonio, operated by the Bexar County Sheriff's Office. In late 2012, press reports noted an increase in the number of suicides at the facility; the issue was a topic of debate in the election for sheriff that year. The jail holds an average of about 3,800 prisoners in 2012, with a total capacity of 4,596, making it the fourth-largest in the state; the Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Dominguez Unit, a state jail for men, in an unincorporated section of Bexar County. In the fall of 2013, Bexar County opened BiblioTech - Bexar County's Digital Library, the nation's first bookless library. In 2016, for the third consecutive year, Bexar County increased the appraised value of businesses and residences. Most will hence find their prop
The Suma were an indigenous people who lived in northern part of the Mexican state of Chihuahua and western part of the U. S. state of Texas. They were nomadic hunter gatherers who practiced no agriculture; the Suma merged with Apache groups and the Mestizo population of northern Mexico, are extinct as a distinct people. Confusion is rife concerning the complex mix of indigenous peoples who lived near the Rio Grande in west Texas, they are collectively called Jumanos, a name which should only be applied to the Plains Indians who lived in the Pecos River and Concho River valleys of Texas but traveled to and traded with the people in the Rio Grande Valley. Near La Junta de los Rios, the junction of the Rio Grande and the Rio Conchos, were a large number of farming villages whose inhabitants were given more than a dozen names by the Spanish, it is unclear whether the La Junta Indians belonged to a single ethnic group and spoke the same language or were instead a mixture of languages and peoples.
Unclear is whether they were related to the more nomadic Jumano. Upstream on the Rio Grande from La Junta were the people who came to be called the Suma, further upstream from El Paso northward were the Manso Indians; the Manso and the Suma appear to have had similar cultures, although it is uncertain whether they spoke the same or similar languages. One theory is that the Indians of the El Paso and La Junta regions were intermixed when the Spanish arrived and that the Spaniards separated them into groups for "ease of government and increased control." The opposite is proposed: that the Manso, Jumano, La Junta Indians may have become mixed together in reaction to the threat from the Spanish and their diminishing population due to slave raids and European introduced diseases. The Suma lived, at least during winter, along 130 miles of the Rio Grande southeast from El Paso, their range extended westward from the Rio Grande valley 200 miles to the future municipalities of Janos and Nuevo Casas Grandes, Chihuahua.
The Janos and Jocomes people of northwestern Chihuahua were sub-tribes or related to the Suma. As hunter-gatherers the Suma had no fixed habitations. During summer they dispersed in small groups to exploit the plant and animal resources of this territory; the Suma, said early visitors, "are hunters. They have no knowledge whatsoever of agriculture, have no fixed homes, or ranches, live a carefree life."The Suma raided their agricultural neighbors, the Opata, to the west in Sonora. The language of the Suma is unknown. Scholars have speculated. Athabaskan affiliations have been proposed; the Suma and their neighbors the Manso are believed to be the descendants of the Jornada Mogollon culture. About 1450, the Mogollon pueblos near El Paso were abandoned and the Mogollon people seem to have abandoned agriculture to become hunter/gatherers; the Suma were not politically united, but rather seem to have been a group of related autonomous bands and sub-tribes each of which acted independently. The Suma were encountered by Cabeza de Vaca in 1535, but the first definite mention of them was by Antonio de Espejo in 1583 who called them the Caguates.
He was received cordially by more than one thousand of them near the Rio Grande. The first mention of them by the name "Suma" came in 1630; the Suma at the time were at war with the Opata in endangering Franciscan missions. In 1659, a mission was established for the Manso and the "Zumanas", in present-day downtown Ciudad Juárez, in 1663 another mission was established for them near the city of Chihuahua; some of the Suma and Jumano sought Spanish protection from the growing danger of Apache raids. Others joined the Apache. By 1680, the Missions at El Paso were ministering including Sumas, but the Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico caused an additional 2,000 Spaniards and allied Indians to take refuge in El Paso and stretched resources to their limits. A famine resulted in 1683-1684, in 1684 the Indians revolted and fled the missions; some of the Sumas returned to the mission that same year, unable to find enough food to survive. However, some of the Suma and Jocomes continued to be hostile to the Spanish, finding a stronghold in the Chiricahua Mountains in Arizona and becoming associated with the Apache and absorbed by them over time.
A Chiricahua Apache band, the Chokone or Xocone, may be named after the Jocomes. During the 18th century, the Suma living at the Mission of San Lorenzo near El Paso were servants of the priests, grew crops, worked as laborers, adopted many Spanish customs, they revolted in 1710, 1726, 1745, 1749, fleeing the mission and taking refuge in the mountains with the Apache. San Lorenzo Mission had a population of 300 in the 1750s. A smallpox epidemic in the 1780s killed most of the Sumas living at the mission and they soon lost their ethnic identity; the last known man identifying himself as Suma died in 1869. The bloodline descendants of the Suma are the Mestizo inhabitants of Ciudad Juarez, El Paso as well as San Buenaventura and Nuevo Casas Grandes along with other cities where missions were established for them. Bolton, H. E.. The Jumano Indians in Texas, 1650-1771; the Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, 20, 66-84. Bolton, H. E.. Spanish exploration in the southwest, 1542-1706. New York.
Griffin, William B.. Southern periphery: East. In A. Ortiz
Menard County, Texas
Menard County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 2,242, its seat is Menard. The county was created in 1858 and organized in 1871, it is named for the founder of Galveston, Texas. Around 8000, early Native American inhabitants arrived. Native Americans included Comanche and Lipan Apache. In 1757, Father Alonso Giraldo de Terreros founded Presidio San Luis de las Amarillas, as a support for Santa Cruz de San Sabá Mission, for the Apache Indians. In the 1830s, James Bowie and Rezin P. Bowie, scoured the San Saba valley seeking a silver mine that the Spanish had believed to be in the area, they are unsuccessful, but the legend of the Lost Bowie Mine known as the Lost San Saba Mine or the Los Almagres Mine, fed the imagination of treasure-seekers for the next 150 years. Camp San Saba was established in 1852 to protect settlers from Indian attacks; the state legislature formed Menard County from Bexar County in 1858. The county was named for the founder of Galveston.
Menardville known as Menard, became the county seat. By 1870, the county population was 667: 295 were white, 372 were black due to the Buffalo Soldiers at Fort McKavett; the next year, county residents elected their own officials. The county had an immigrant influx from Mexico. In 1911, the Fort Worth and Rio Grande Railroad Company arrived. Gas deposits plugged for lack of a market; the local Parent-Teacher Association offered free lunches for needy children in 1931. In 1934, the Texas Relief Cannery was in operation; the Drought Relief Program bought cattle and sheep from area ranchers. A gas well is redrilled in 1941, produced about seven million cubic feet of gas. In 1946, aA small oilfield was discovered northeast of Fort McKavett, but was abandoned the following year. By the 1960s, oil and gas production had an average annual yield more than 270,000 barrels. In the 1980s, of the county's 40 oilfields, about 20 were still active, producing 132,000 to 185,000 barrels annually. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 902 square miles, of which 902 square miles are land and 0.2 square miles is covered by water. U. S. Highway 83 U. S. Highway 190 U. S. Highway 377 State Highway 29 Concho County McCulloch County Mason County Kimble County Schleicher County Sutton County Tom Green County As of the census of 2000, 2,360 people, 990 households, 665 families resided in the county; the population density was 3 people per square mile. The 1,607 housing units averaged 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.54% White, 0.51% African American, 0.64% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 9.79% from other races, 1.14% from two or more races. About 31.69% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 990 households, 28.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.00% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.80% were not families. Around 30.40% of all households was made up of individuals and 17.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was distributed as 24.20% under the age of 18, 5.30% from 18 to 24, 21.90% from 25 to 44, 26.60% from 45 to 64, 21.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,762, for a family was $30,872. Males had a median income of $21,953 versus $20,000 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,987. About 20.00% of families and 25.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.90% of those under age 18 and 19.10% of those age 65 or over. Menard Beyer Crossing Callan Erna Fivemile Crossing Hext Saline Fort McKavett Sunnyside List of museums in Central Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Menard County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Menard County Library of Congress Historic American Buildings Survey Menard County from the Handbook of Texas Online Texas Beyond History, Mission San Saba
The Tonkawa are a Native American tribe indigenous to present-day Texas. They once spoke the now-extinct Tonkawa language, a language isolate. Today, many descendants are enrolled in the federally recognized Tonkawa Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. In the 16th century, the Tonkawa tribe had around 1,879 members with their numbers diminishing to around 1,600 by the late 17th century due to fatalities from new infectious diseases and conflict with other tribes, most notably the Apache. By 1921, only 34 tribal members remained, their numbers have since recovered to close to 700 in the early 21st century. Most live in Oklahoma; the Tonkawa's autonym is Tickanwa•tic. The name Tonkawa is derived from the Waco tribal word, meaning "they all stay together"; the Tonkawa tribe operates a number of businesses which have an annual economic impact of over $10,860,657. Along with several smoke shops, the tribe runs 3 different casinos: Tonkawa Indian Casino and Tonkawa Gasino located in Tonkawa and the Native Lights Casino in Newkirk, Oklahoma.
The annual Tonkawa Powwow is held on the last weekend in June to commemorate the end of the tribe's own Trail of Tears when the tribe was forcefully removed and relocated from its traditional lands to present-day Oklahoma. Scholars once thought. Recent research, has shown that the tribe inhabited northwestern Oklahoma in 1601. By 1700, the stronger and more aggressive Apache had pushed the Tonkawa south to the Red River which forms the border between current-day Oklahoma and Texas. In the 1740s, some Tonkawa were involved with the Yojuanes and others as settlers in the San Gabriel Missions of Texas along the San Gabriel River. In 1758, the Tonkawa along with allied Bidais, Wichitas and Yojuanes went to attack the Lipan Apache in the vicinity of Mission Santa Cruz de San Sabá, which they destroyed; the tribe continued their southern migration into Texas and northern Mexico, where they allied with the Lipan Apache. In 1824, the Tonkawa entered into a treaty with Stephen F. Austin to protect Anglo-American immigrants against the Comanche.
At the time, Austin was an agent recruiting immigrants to settle in the Mexican state of Coahuila y Texas. In 1840 at the Battle of Plum Creek and again in 1858 at the Battle of Little Robe Creek, the Tonkawa fought alongside the Texas Rangers against the Comanche; the Tonkawas visited the capital city of Austin during the days of the Republic of Texas and during early statehood. In 1859, the United States escorted the Tonkawa and a number of other Texas Indian tribes to a new home at the Wichita Agency in Indian Territory, placed them under the protection of nearby Fort Cobb; when the American Civil War started, the troops at the fort received orders to march to Fort Leavenworth, leaving the Indians at the Wichita Agency unprotected. In response to years of animosity, a number of pro-Union tribes, including the Delawares and Penateka Comanches, attacked the Tonkawas as they tried to escape; the fight, known as the Tonkawa Massacre killed nearly half of the remaining Tonkawas, leaving them with little more than 100 people.
The tribe returned to Texas where they remained for the rest of the Civil War. In October, 1884, the United States removed them, once again, to the new Oakland Agency in northern Indian Territory, where they remain to this day; this journey involved going to Cisco, where they boarded a railroad train that took them to Stroud in Indian Territory, where they spent the winter at the Sac and Fox Agency. The Tonkawas travelled 100 miles to the Ponca Agency, arrived at nearby Fort Oakland on June 30, 1885. On October 21, 1891, the tribe signed an agreement with the Cherokee Commission to accept individual allotments of land; the Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma incorporated in 1938. The Tonkawa were made up of various groups, many of which are no longer known by name; these groups are counted as Tonkawa: Eurycea tonkawae Jeffrey D. Carlisle: Tonkawa Indians from the Handbook of Texas Online
Paint Rock, Texas
Paint Rock is a town in and the county seat of Concho County, United States. The population was 273 at the 2010 census, down from 320 at the 2000 census; the town's name comes from Indian pictographs painted on cliffs overlooking the nearby Concho River. These pictographs cover nearly half a mile upstream from the town of Paint Rock; some of the pictures painted on the rocks include animals, human figures, handprints. Paint Rock is located in northern Concho County at 31°30′28″N 99°55′24″W, along U. S. Route 83. Eden is 20 miles to the south and Ballinger is 16 miles to the north via US 83, while San Angelo is 32 miles to the west via secondary roads. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town of Paint Rock has a total area of 1.64 square miles, all of it land. A chapter titled "An Episode of Paint Rock" is devoted to the town in the 1895 book, A Lone Star Bo-Peep, Other Tales of Texan Ranch Life written by Howard Seely; the chapter chronicles the week of May 5, 1883, in Paint Rock and features several local residents in the text.
As of the census of 2000, 320 people, 110 households, 83 families resided in the town. The population density was 192.7 people per square mile. The 126 housing units averaged 75.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 77.19% White, 2.81% Native American, 19.69% from other races, 0.31% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos were 28.44% of the population. Of the 110 households, 41.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.5% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.5% were not families. About 21.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.45. In the town, the population was distributed as 30.6% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.0 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $32,500, for a family was $33,750. Males had a median income of $21,786 versus $21,250 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,965. About 13.0% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.7% of those under age 18 and 11.1% of those age 65 or over. The town is served by the Paint Rock Independent School District; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Paint Rock has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa on climate maps. Paint Rock in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of North Texas. Shows key Indian pictograph images with possible links to historical or astronomical events they may record