Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th-, 15th- and 16th-century Catholic Church which held that supreme authority in the Church resided with an Ecumenical council, apart from, or against, the pope. The movement emerged in response to the Western Schism between rival popes in Avignon; the schism inspired the summoning of the Council of Pisa, which failed to end the schism, the Council of Constance, which succeeded and proclaimed its own superiority over the Pope. Conciliarism reached its apex with the Council of Basel, which fell apart; the eventual victor in the conflict was the institution of the Papacy, confirmed by the condemnation of conciliarism at the Fifth Lateran Council, 1512–17. The final gesture however, the doctrine of Papal Infallibility, was not promulgated until the First Vatican Council of 1870; the 13th and 14th centuries were a period of challenges to papal authority in Catholic Europe. These new challenges were marked by the secular kings of Europe. In particular the quarrel between Philip IV of France and Pope Boniface VIII over the right to tax the clergy in France was heated.
Philip was excommunicated and Boniface was accused of corruption and sodomy. In his "Unam sanctam", Boniface asserted that the papacy held power over both the spiritual and temporal worlds and that only God could judge the pope. Philip responded by sending knights to Italy to arrest Boniface. Though the mission failed, the Pope died just three weeks after his release because of the trauma of the experience and a high fever; this was followed by the move of the Roman papacy to Avignon, France in 1309, where it would remain until 1377. Although the move had precedent, the Avignon Papacy's image was damaged by accusations of corruption, favoritism toward the French, heresy. Indeed, Pope Clement VI, criticized for his apparent extravagant lifestyle asserted that his "predecessors did not know how to be Pope." During the span of the Avignon Papacy all the popes and most Cardinals and curial officials were French. The reputation of the Avignon Papacy led many to question the absolute authority of the pope in governing the universal Catholic Church.
The Western Schism, was a dispute between the legal elections of Pope Urban VI in Rome and Pope Clement VII in Avignon. The schism became politicized as the kings of Europe chose to support whichever pope served their best interests. Both popes chose successors and thus the schism continued after Urban and Clement's deaths. In this crisis, conciliarism took center stage as the best option for deciding which pope would step down; the cardinals decided to convene the Council of Pisa to decide who would be the one pope of the Catholic Church. The council was a failure and led to the election of a third pope; the Council of Constance ended the Schism by deposing two Popes – the third Pope abdicated – and electing a successor in Martin V. The Council decreed to maintain the council as the primary church body from on, though Martin did not ratify this decision; the papal curia's apparent inability to implement church reform resulted in the radicalisation of conciliarism at the Council of Basel, which at first found great support in Europe but in the end fell apart.
Parts sided with the Pope to form the Council of Florence, whereas the conciliar party in Basel elected another antipope before losing its support among European governments. At the convening of the Fifth Lateran Council, Pope Julius II reasserted the supremacy of papal authority over that of the councils. Populated by cardinals opposed to conciliarism, the Lateran Council condemned the authority of conciliary bodies. In fact, the council was an essential copy of the pre-Conciliar councils such as Lateran IV, William of Ockham wrote some of the earliest documents outlining the basic understanding of conciliarism, his goal in these writings was removal of Pope John XXII, who had revoked a decree favoring ideas of the Spiritual Franciscans about Christ and the apostles owning nothing individually or in common. Some of his arguments include that the election by the faithful, or their representatives, confers the position of pope and further limits the papal authority; the universal church is a congregation of the faithful, not the Catholic Church, promised to the Apostles by Jesus.
While the universal Church cannot fall into heresy, it is known that the Pope has fallen into heresy in the past. Should the pope fall into heresy a council can be convened without his permission to judge him. William stated that because it is a "universal" church, that the councils should include the participation of lay men and women. In his Defensor Pacis, Marsilius of Padua agreed with William of Ockham that the universal Church is a church of the faithful, not the priests. Marsilius focused on the idea that the inequality of the priesthood has no divine basis and that Jesus, not the pope, is the only head of the Catholic Church. Contradicting the idea of Papal infallibility, Marsilius claimed that only the universal church is infallible, not the pope. Marsilius differed from Ockham in his denial to the clergy of coercive power. Conciliar theorists like Jacques Almain rejected Marsilius's argument to that effect, preferring more traditional clericalism modified to be more constitutional and democratic in emphasis.
Conciliar theory has its roots and foundations in both history and theology, arguing that many of the most important decisions of the Catholic Church have been made through conciliar means, beginning with the First Council of Nicaea. Conciliarism drew
"Black Balloon" is a song recorded by the Goo Goo Dolls. It was released in June 1999 as the fourth single from the band's 1998 album, Dizzy Up the Girl, reached number three in Canada, number 16 in the United States and number 23 in Iceland; the song, according to lead singer John Rzeznik, is based on a woman, struggling with a heroin addiction and her lover, trying to save her. He has said that it is about "seeing someone you love, so great just screw up so bad." Speculation as to the exact subject matter of the song has been attributed to the ex-wife of bassist Robby Takac. Like many other songs by Goo Goo Dolls, "Black Balloon" uses an unusual alternate tuning. Several electric guitars used in the introduction and the acoustic rhythm guitar are tuned to an open D-flat fifth chord, it was half-stepped on the album version. The video for the song opens with a woman blowing smoke into a soap bubble; the video changes focus and shows various scenes from a 1950s or 1960s era swim club while the band performs the song.
Tracy Phillips is found in this video as well. The video was done by Nancy Bardwell. During live performances of the song, fans can be seen inflating black balloons and batting them around in the crowd; the track was moderately successful at rock radio, reaching number 13 and number 28 on Billboard's Modern Rock Tracks and Mainstream Rock Tracks charts, respectively. It became the fourth pop hit for the band, reaching number 16 on the Billboard Hot 100. In Canada, the song reached number three on the RPM Top Singles chart, giving the Goo Goo Dolls their fourth top-three hit in that country. Outside North America, the song only managed to chart in the United Kingdom in February 2000, debuting at number 76 falling out of the top 100 the next week. United States release "Black Balloon" - 4:10 "Slide" - 3:33United Kingdom release "Black Balloon" - 4:01 "Black Balloon" - 4:10 "Naked" - 3:44Australia release "Black Balloon" "Lazy Eye" "Naked" "Flat Top" Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Francis Edward Barbour was an American football player and businessman. He played quarterback for the Yale University football team in 1890 and 1891 and helped lead the 1891 Yale team to a perfect 13–0 record and a national championship, he was the head coach of the University of Michigan football team in 1892 and 1893, compiling an overall record of 14–8 in two years as head coach. Barbour had a lengthy business career. After spending 17 years with the New York Central Railroad, he joined the Beech-Nut Packing Company in 1910 and established its chewing gum business, he remained with Beech-Nut for 38 years and served as chairman of the board from 1946 to 1948. Barbour was born in Bangor, Maine in 1870, his father, William McLeod Barbour, was a minister who emigrated from Scotland to the United States in 1851, became a professor of theology at Yale University. His mother was a native of New York. At the time of the 1880 Census, Barbour was ten years old and residing in New Haven, Connecticut with his parents and four older siblings.
Barbour attended the public schools in New Haven, subsequently enrolled at the Phillips Exeter Academy. He was the captain of Exeter's football team in 1888. Barbour attended Yale University and graduated Ph. B. at Yale's Sheffield Scientific School in 1892. While at Yale, he was the quarterback of the Yale Bulldogs football teams of 1890 and 1891; the 1891 Yale team was coached by Walter Camp and included College Football Hall of Fame inductees, Pudge Heffelfinger, Frank Hinkey, Josh Hartwell and Lee McClung. With Barbour as the starting quarterback, the 1891 team finished with a perfect 13–0 record and a national championship. In November 1891, The New York Times wrote: "Barbour has made great improvements since last year, is one of the best men on the Yale team, he is cool, passes well and sure, uses his signals to good advantage and is an excellent player. He is considered a much superior player to the Harvard quarterback." In 1892, Barbour was hired as the head football coach at the University of Michigan.
He was the school's second head football coach. In the three years before Barbour's arrival, Michigan had played a total of 17 games; as the coach of the 1892 Michigan Wolverines football team, Barbour expanded the team's schedule to twelve games and took the team on its first extended road trip to the West. Over the course of a two-week period from October 15 to 29, 1892, Barbour's team played five road games against Wisconsin, Minnesota, DePauw and Northwestern; the 1892 team defeated Chicago, 18–10, in a game played at Toledo, but suffered two losses to Cornell. Barbour returned the following year as the coach of the 1893 Michigan Wolverines football team; the 1893 team improved to 7–3. The team closed the season with five consecutive wins over Purdue, DePauw, Northwestern and Chicago by a combined score of 202 to 24; the team's 72–6 victory over Northwestern was the team's second highest point total in the first 22 years of the program's history. Barbour compiled an overall record of 14–8 in two years as head coach.
He returned to Michigan in 1894 for part of the season to assist in developing the football team. The 1894 team compiled a 9–1–1 record and outscored its opponents by a combined score of 244 to 84. At Yale, Barbour had played for Walter Camp, regarded as the "Father of American Football." At Michigan, Barbour was credited with bringing the "Yale methods" to Michigan and laying the foundation for the championship teams that followed in 1894 and 1895. In 1900, a student publication called The Inlander summarized Barbour's legacy as follows:"In 1893 Frank Barbour, an old Yale quarterback, coached Michigan and taught the men, who afterward made Michigan famous, Yale methods, he was not a great coach in every sense of the term, but he knew the game and had a class of apt scholars. From him Michigan learned the style of interference which, with the right kind of men, has always been successful. From him'Jimmie' Baird learned the quarterback's duties so well that in the end the pupil undoubtedly passed the teacher."
Barbour had a lengthy career in business. He was associated with the New York Central & Hudson Valley Railroad from 1892 to 1909, he worked as a traffic clerk for the New York Central Railroad and lived in Montreal, Canada from 1892 to 1898. He served for a time as a passenger agent for the Rutland Railway, owned by the New York Central Railroad, in Rutland, Vermont. In 1898, he was appointed as traveling agent for the railroad. In 1902, he was appointed general agent of the passenger department of the New York Central & Hudson River R. R. at Montreal, where he resided for a second time from 1902 to 1907. Barbour's brother had been involved in founding the originator of Chiclets. In 1910, Barbour went into business with his brother-in-law, Bartlett Arkell, who had founded the Beech-Nut Packing Company; until that time, Beech-Nut had been a producer of high-grade foodstuffs. On Barbour's recommendation, Beech-Nut entered the chewing gum business. Barbour traveled extensively in Guatemala, British Honduras and the Yucatán to procure the company's supply of chicle, the rubbery sap of the sapota tree, the key ingredient in chewing gum.
Barbour served as a director of Beech-Nut from 1910 to 1948 and became vice president in 1921. Chewing gum became Beech-Nut's most successful product, providing $11 million of the company's $18 million in sales in 1935; as of 1925, Barbour and Arkell were the vice president and president of Beec