Concord, New South Wales
Concord is a suburb in the inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is 10 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Canada Bay. Concord is known as the'Parklands Suburb' of the Inner West. Concord West is a separate suburb, to the north-west. Concord takes its name from Concord, Massachusetts, in the USA, the site of the Battle of Concord, one of the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War; some historians believe the Sydney suburb was named Concord to encourage a peaceful attitude between soldiers and settlers. The first land grants in the area were made in 1793; the original Concord Council was established in 1883. Concord Council amalgamated with Drummoyne Council in 2000 after 117 years of self governance to form the City of Canada Bay, it is the name of the surrounding parish. Concord features a small shopping strip on Majors Bay Road. Several cafes and restaurants featuring outside dining are located here.
There is a small shopping strip on Cabarita Road. St Luke's Anglican Church is one of the oldest churches in Concord; the church is located at Burton Street near Concord Oval. Its current organ was donated by Dame Eadith Walker, of the famous Walker family on her 21st birthday in 1883. St Mary's Catholic Church is a prominent architectural landmark on Parramatta Road; the first church on the site was built in 1845 until a new church was built in 1874. A school operated in the original church building until a separate school building was built and opened by Cardinal Moran in 1894. A convent for the Sisters of Charity was erected next to the church in 1898; the present church building was completed in 1929. Concord has many parks, including: Queen Elizabeth Park Henley Park Majors Bay Reserve, including Arthur Walker and Ron Routly Reserves. Concord Golf Course, Massey Park, Cintra Park Concord Oval Sid Richards Park Central Park, St Lukes Park, Bayview Park, Edwards Park, Greenlees Park, Goddard Park, Rothwell Park.
State Transit and Transit Systems operate 9 routes via Concord: 439 & L39: Mortlake to the City via Five Dock & Leichhardt 458: Burwood station to Ryde 460: Concord Hospial to Five Dock 464: Mortlake to Ashfield station 466: Cabarita Park to Ashfield station via Bayview Park 502: Bayview Park to the City via Victoria Road 526: One weekday service from Concord High School to Olympic Park wharf via Burwood & Strathfield M41: Hurstville via Campsie and Ryde to MarsfieldConcord West railway station & North Strathfield railway station service the Concord area. The stops are on the Northern line 14 km from Central Station. Sydney Ferries service the Concord area stopping at Cabarita Wharf. Concord was once serviced by an independent tram line which ran from Mortlake and Cabarita junction through Majors Bay Road, though to Burwood Road south though Burwood CBD and terminating at Enfield, its most southern point; this tram system did not join with the rest of the Sydney wide tram network which ceased operating in the early 1960s.
Bus services between Mortlake/Breakfast Point and Cabarita to Burwood follow the old tram lines through the suburb, which were removed in 1948. Few hints of Concord's trams remain today apart from the extra width of Majors Bay Road and Brewer Street in order to accommodate a double track tramway and the existence of Tramway Lane and Cabarita Junction, where the tram tracks split, with one track providing the Mortlake branch and the other the Cabarita branch. Schools in the suburb are Concord Public School Concord High School St Mary's Primary School Mortlake Public School At the 2016 census, there were 14,533 residents in Concord. 62.1% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were Italy 6.4%, China 5.3%, England 2.0%, South Korea 1.8% and India 1.5%. In Concord 57.6% of people only spoke English at home, compared to the national average of 68.5&. Other languages spoken at home included Italian 11.0%, Mandarin 5.8%, Cantonese 3.4%, Greek 3.3% and Arabic 3.3%. The most common responses for religion in Concord were Catholic 45.4%, No Religion 20.2% and Anglican 7.8%.
Notable people who have resided in the suburb have included: Isaac Nichols - Australia Post's first postmaster and original owner of Walker Estate Phillip Wilcher - Australian classical pianist and composer one of the original members of The Wiggles Thomas Walker - Australian politician, prominent land owner in Concord, father of Dame Eadith Campbell Walker. Walker built the Italianate mansion Yaralla in the 1860s, it was extended in the 1890s by John Sulman and is now used as the Dame Eadith Walker Convalescent Hospital. It is listed on the Register of the National Estate. Thomas Walker Convalescent Hospital was built in fulfilment of Walker's will, it too was designed by John Sulman and is on the Register of the National Estate Dame Eadith Walker - Australian philanthropist and major land owner in Concord for much of the late 19th and early 20th Century who aided in establishing Concord Repatriation General Hospital Selwyn Francis Edge - businessman, racing driver, record-breaker. He is principally associated with selling and racing De Dion-Bouton, Gladiator, AC C
Concord is an unincorporated community in Knox County, United States and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district, the Concord Village Historic District. The United States Geographic Names Information System classifies Concord as a populated place, it is located in west of Knoxville. Mail destined for Concord is now addressed to Knoxville, or Farragut; the Village of Concord began to develop in 1854. Before that time, the area was sparsely settled. Large farms were centered on the Tennessee River, relied on a nearby settlement, Campbell's Station, for trade and other urban needs. In 1853, construction of the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad along the north bank of the Tennessee River caused a population and development shift to the area that became Concord. Concord was platted in 1854 on land owned by James M. Rodgers. Mr. Rodgers laid out 55 lots, gave the new town the name Concord, it is believed the name was inspired by the nearby Concord Cumberland Presbyterian Church, of which Rodgers was a member.
He began to sell lots in 1855, but moved to California. Shortly before he moved, he bought several large tracts of land, some which are still intact in some sections of the village. Concord developed after the arrival of the railroad; the first dwelling in Concord, a boarding house, was built by Shadrack Callaway. Combining the existing river transportation with the railroad made Concord the nucleus of several communities on the north side of the river, including Campbell's Station and Ebenezer. On the eve of the Civil War, Congressman T. A. R. Nelson and Knoxville attorney Oliver Perry Temple, both Union supporters, delivered anti-secession speeches before hostile crowds at Concord. During the war, in the fall of 1863 prior to the Battle of Campbell's Station, the 24th Kentucky Infantry and the 103rd Ohio Infantry camped near Concord. During this time supplies were appropriated from several area farms including Callaway's Landing and the Pleasant Forest Cumberland Presbyterian Church one mile north of Concord was dismantled.
The bricks were used to build fireplaces for the Union Army. The railroad created a transportation market with communities in Blount County, including Friendsville and Louisville, which were connected to Concord by ferry, but were not to have rail transportation until the 1890s; the steamboat traveling from Chattanooga to Knoxville and back stopped at Callaway's Landing, hence the name, connecting Concord to Knoxville. In the 1880s, Concord became the center of a large Tennessee marble production industry. Several quarries were located near the Holston River in Calloway's Ridge; the town became the center of marble shipping. Quarries in the Louisville and Friendsville area, on the south side of the river, shipped Tennessee marble to Concord to take advantage of the town's rail connections. In 1883, four marble companies were operating: the Lima and East Tennessee Company, Stamps Wood & Company, the Stewart Company and the Republic Company; the Juanita Company built a mill for sawing and polishing marble.
The last company to quarry marble extensively was the Enterprise Marble Company. None of the buildings associated with the marble industry in Concord remain today. Only the foundation on which a crusher sat remains; the crusher foundation is located in the Rocky Point area of Concord Park and is visible from Concord Road's railroad bridge looking east. By 1887, Concord was the second largest community in Knox County, second to Knoxville; the Village of Concord was a regional transportation center. Tennessee marble, crushed limestone, lime and farm produce were gathered at its public dock. Passenger ferries and commercial boats landed there; the railroad provided passenger connections to other cities. In addition to rail transportation, a paved road from Lenoir City to Knoxville traveled along the railroad from Lenoir City to what is now Olive Road; the road followed what is now Olive Road to Loop Road to Concord Road and north two miles to Kingston Pike. Kingston Pike was the main east-west road out of Knoxville from the early 19th century until Interstate 40/75 was completed through the area in the 1960s.
This road network provided all-weather connections to other highways in the area. In the early 20th century, the town had grown to include several general stores, a brickyard, lime kiln, inn, a saloon, two livery stables, an undertaking establishment, two flour mills, a railroad depot, private schools, a bank, a post office, an ice cream parlor, a drug store, specialty shops, a barber shop and churches. In 1916, fire destroyed much of the business district but it was rebuilt; the Great Depression of the 1930s brought economic hardship to Concord. New building materials lessened the use of Tennessee marble, caused the marble industry to go into a decline from which it never recovered; the impoundment of Fort Loudon Lake inundated about one-third of the town by 1944. Portions of the railroad were relocated to higher adjacent ground and continued to carry freight, but did not provide passenger service; the development of automobiles and new transportation routes contributed to Concord's slow growth.
In the 1970s, the area began to rebound economically as it became a bedroom community for the fast-growing city of Knoxville. Since residential development and land subdivision has continued apace, transforming Concord and its environs into an
Concord Jazz Festival
The Concord Jazz Festival is an annual event, established in 1969 in Concord, California. The festival was launched by Carl Jefferson, a car dealer and jazz enthusiast, who managed to get a group of friends to support the concept; the city agreed to pay for half the cost. The first festival was held on 26 January 1969 in an 8 acre park called the Concord Boulevard Neighborhood Park, adjacent to Concord High School, it attracted 17,000 attendees. Performers in subsequent years included Oscar Peterson, Pearl Bailey, Peter Nero, George Shearing, Ella Fitzgerald, Gerry Mulligan, Dave Brubeck. In May 1975 the Concord Pavilion was opened as a home for the festival, it is an amphitheater in the Concord hills, featuring a roofed area with no walls that covers 3,500 seats, plus room for 4,500 more on the surrounding lawns. The pavilion is used for many other purposes. Carl Jefferson founded Concord Records in 1973, with the Concord Jazz label. In 2004 the Concord Music Group was formed by the merger of Concord Records with Fantasy Records.
The labels have released many classic albums. A few of the live recordings that have been made at the festival: Seven, Come Eleven by jazz guitarists Herb Ellis and Joe Pass, 29 July 1973 "The L. A. Four Scores!" The L. A. Four, 1975 Sugarloaf Suite, Charlie Byrd, 1980 Dynamite "Live" at The Concord Jazz Festival Don Menza The Woody Herman Big Band Live at the Concord Jazz Festival 1981, with Stan Getz. Live at the 1990 Concord Jazz Festival Third Set Ernestine Anderson Fujitsu-Concord 26th Jazz Festival, Charlie Byrd and various artists, 1995
In music, harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing. This means occurring frequencies, pitches, or chords; the study of harmony involves chords and their construction and chord progressions and the principles of connection that govern them. Harmony is said to refer to the "vertical" aspect of music, as distinguished from melodic line, or the "horizontal" aspect. Counterpoint, which refers to the relationship between melodic lines, polyphony, which refers to the simultaneous sounding of separate independent voices, are thus sometimes distinguished from harmony. In popular and jazz harmony, chords are named by their root plus various terms and characters indicating their qualities. In many types of music, notably baroque, romantic and jazz, chords are augmented with "tensions". A tension is an additional chord member that creates a dissonant interval in relation to the bass. In the classical common practice period a dissonant chord "resolves" to a consonant chord.
Harmonization sounds pleasant to the ear when there is a balance between the consonant and dissonant sounds. In simple words, that occurs; the term harmony derives from the Greek ἁρμονία harmonia, meaning "joint, concord", from the verb ἁρμόζω harmozō, " fit together, join". In the past, harmony referred to the whole field of music, while music referred to the arts in general. In Ancient Greece, the term defined the combination of contrasted elements: a lower note, it is unclear whether the simultaneous sounding of notes was part of ancient Greek musical practice. In the Middle Ages the term was used to describe two pitches sounding in combination, in the Renaissance the concept was expanded to denote three pitches sounding together. Aristoxenus wrote a work entitled Harmonika Stoicheia, thought the first work in European history written on the subject of harmony, it was not until the publication of Rameau's Traité de l'harmonie in 1722 that any text discussing musical practice made use of the term in the title, although that work is not the earliest record of theoretical discussion of the topic.
The underlying principle behind these texts is that harmony sanctions harmoniousness by conforming to certain pre-established compositional principles. Current dictionary definitions, while attempting to give concise descriptions highlight the ambiguity of the term in modern use. Ambiguities tend to arise from either aesthetic considerations or from the point of view of musical texture (distinguishing between harmonic and "contrapuntal". In the words of Arnold Whittall: While the entire history of music theory appears to depend on just such a distinction between harmony and counterpoint, it is no less evident that developments in the nature of musical composition down the centuries have presumed the interdependence—at times amounting to integration, at other times a source of sustained tension—between the vertical and horizontal dimensions of musical space; the view that modern tonal harmony in Western music began in about 1600 is commonplace in music theory. This is accounted for by the replacement of horizontal composition, common in the music of the Renaissance, with a new emphasis on the vertical element of composed music.
Modern theorists, tend to see this as an unsatisfactory generalisation. According to Carl Dahlhaus: It was not that counterpoint was supplanted by harmony but that an older type both of counterpoint and of vertical technique was succeeded by a newer type, and harmony comprises not only the structure of chords but their movement. Like music as a whole, harmony is a process. Descriptions and definitions of harmony and harmonic practice may show bias towards European musical traditions. For example, South Asian art music is cited as placing little emphasis on what is perceived in western practice as conventional harmony. Pitch simultaneity in particular is a major consideration. Many other considerations of pitch are relevant to the music, its theory and its structure, such as the complex system of Rāgas, which combines both melodic and modal considerations and codifications within it. So, intricate pitch combinations that sound do occur in Indian classical music—but they are studied as teleological harmonic or contrapuntal progressions—as with notated Western music.
This contrasting emphasis manifests itself in the different methods of performance adopted: in Indian Music improvisation takes a major role in the structural framework of a piece, whereas in Western Music improvisation has been uncommon since the end of the 19th century. Where it does occur in Western music, the improvisation either embellishes pre-notated music or draws from musical models established in notated compositions, therefore uses familiar harmonic schemes. Emphasis on the precomposed in European art music and th
Concord, Campbell County, Virginia
Concord is a census-designated place in Appomattox and Campbell counties in the U. S. state of Virginia. The population as of the 2010 census was 1,458; this town was a stop on the Southside Railroad in the mid-nineteenth century. This became the Atlantic and Ohio Railroad in 1870 and a line in the Norfolk and Western Railway and now the Norfolk Southern Railway. Sylvia Trent-Adams grew up on a farm in Concord. U. S. Route 460 Virginia State Route 24 Eddie Gunter Jr. - Concord Appomattox Court House National Historical Park James River State Park Smith Mountain Lake Leesville Lake Historic Lynchburg Lynchburg Hillcats As of the census of 2000, there were 3,657 people and 1,491 households residing in the ZIP Code Tabulation Area for Concord's ZIP code. Concord Elementary School
A Lego clone is a line or brand of children's construction blocks, mechanically compatible with Lego brand blocks, but is produced by another manufacturer. The blocks were patented by The Lego Group in 1961 as "toy building bricks", the company has since remained dominant in this market; some competitors have moved to take advantage of Lego brand recognition by advertising their own products as compatible with Lego, with statements such as "compatible with leading building bricks". The last underlying patents of the brick design expired in 1978. At least two of the largest clone manufacturers have been challenged in court by Lego; the lawsuits have been unsuccessful, for courts have found the functional design of the basic brick to be a matter of patent rather than trademark law, all relevant Lego patents have expired. Lego itself copied their bricks from British psychologist and inventor Hilary Page in the late 1940s. Lego and Tyco Industries fought in US courts over Tyco's line of interlocking bricks in the 1980s with Tyco prevailing.
On August 31, 1987, the US District Court ruled that Tyco could continue making Super Blocks, its Lego clone bricks, but ordered Tyco to stop using the Lego trademark nor state that they are "Lego, but only cheaper". In Lego's Hong Kong suit against Tyco Super Blocks, Lego received an injunction forcing Tyco to stop cloning Lego brick designed after 1973. Tyco was being sued at the time by Lego in Austria and Canada; the Canadian company Mega Bloks was sued on the grounds that its use of the "studs and tubes" interlocking brick system was a violation of trademarks held by Lego. On November 17, 2005, the Supreme Court of Canada upheld Mega Bloks' right to continue selling the product in Canada. A similar decision was reached by the European Union's Court of First Instance on November 12, 2008, upholding an EU regulatory agency's reversal of opinion following an objection by Mega Bloks against a trademark awarded to Lego in 1999. On September 14, 2010, the European Court of Justice ruled that the 8-peg design of the original Lego brick "merely performs a technical function cannot be registered as a trademark."The English company Best-Lock Construction Toys sued Lego in German courts in 2004 and 2009.
The German Federal Court denied Lego trademark protection for the shape of its bricks in the latter case. The Lego Group did score a success in 2002, when its Swiss subsidiary Interlego AG sued the Tianjin CoCo Toy Co. Ltd. company for copyright infringement. A claims court found many CoCo sets to be infringing. On appeal, the Beijing High People's Court upheld the trial court's ruling. In 2000, Lego filed a three-dimensional trademark for its mini-figures, which Best Lock had duplicated since 1998, thus in 2012, Best Lock sued to get the trademark revoked. On June 16, 2015, European Court of Justice upheld Lego's figure trademark. Lego had in 2009 filed its copyright claims into a U. S. Customs database that lead to the seizure of Best-Lock shipments coming in from Asia. In October 2011, Lego filed in US District Court in Hartford filed against Best-Lock over the mini-figure trademark. Mega Bloks won a case at the EU's top court in 2010 against Lego's trademark registration of a red toy building brick.
Jon Capriola came up with the idea of a light up block, Laser Pegs, in 2002 filed for a patent for the idea in 2006, granted in 2009. Lawrence Rosen of LaRose Industries was approached by Capriola to invest in February 2011 at the American International Toy Fair. Instead, Rosen filed a fast-track patent and received in 2012. LaRose Industries' Cra-Z-Art division started producing Lite Brix light up blocks. In 2013, Capriola's company sued Rosen's for patent infringement, while Rosen filed for dismissal of his patent at U. S. Patent and Trademark Office. In 2014, Light Stax were introduced as another LED light compatible bricks. Stax Hybrids sets came out in September 2018 and build on the Light Stax with Light, Sound and regular Stax bricks allow for light and sound. In 2011, Lego sued Guangdong Jumbo Grand Plastic Moulding Industrial over its compatible BanBao's copycat packaging; the two companies settled their case out of court with Guangdong agreeing to create unique packaging and a new figure, ToBees.
In 2016, Lego announced that it would be taking legal action against the Chinese company Guangdong Loongon, which manufactures the brand Lepin, for selling exact replicas of existing Lego products. †- blocks that Lego cloned K'Nex has limited compatibility Ramagon, by Discovery Toys, has some panels with compatible studs Interlego AG v Tyco Industries Inc
Wendover is a market town and civil parish at the foot of the Chiltern Hills in Buckinghamshire, England. It is situated at the point where the main road across the Chilterns between London and Aylesbury intersects with the once important road along the foot of the Chilterns; the town is some 35 miles north west of London and 5 miles south east of Aylesbury, is popular with commuters working in London. The parish has an area of 5,832 acres and had, at the time of the 2011 census, a population of 7,399. Outside the town of Wendover, the parish is arable and contains many hamlets that nestle in amongst the woodlands on the surrounding hills. Although Wendover has a weekly market, has had a market charter since medieval times, many of its inhabitants identify it as a village, the parish council does not describe itself as a town council; the town name is of Brythonic origin and means "white water", referring to the stream that rises in the adjacent hills and flows through the middle of the town, bringing chalk deposits on its way.
The first known documentary reference to Wendover known as Wændofron, is in the will of Ælfheah, the ealdorman of Hampshire, dates from between 965 and 971. Prior to the Norman Conquest, the manor, which at the time measured 24 hides in area, was held by Edward the Confessor; the settlement appears to have been centred some 600 metres to the south of the present-day focus of the town, near the current location of the parish church of St Mary. By 1086 the manor of Wendovre was in the hundred of Aylesbury, with William the Conqueror as its tenant in chief; the manor remained in royal ownership until 1154, passed back and forth between royal and private ownership several times. Wendover was granted a market charter in 1214, had become a borough by 1228, although it does not appear to have achieved any degree of self-government, it is that around this time the focus moved north to its current location, allowing the market to cater to traffic on the road running along the Chilterns between Chinnor and Tring, as well as that crossing the Chilterns between London and Aylesbury.
The current layout of the older parts of the town show clear signs of medieval town planning the presence of long and rectilinear burgage plots. Both parliamentary and royalist forces visited the town during the Civil War, with looting reported by both sides. Many of the buildings in the town centre, on High Street, Pound Street, Aylesbury Road, date from the 17th century, it is not known whether this is because they needed rebuilding after civil war damage, or is an indication of the prosperity of the town at the time. In 1721, the Wendover to Buckingham Turnpike Trust was established, Wendover became a stop for coach routes to and from London, it is that at this time a number of new inns and hostelries were built along the High Street. The Wendover Arm of the Grand Union Canal was built between 1793 and 1797 and served local industries whilst providing a water supply for the parent canal. In September 1892, the railway reached the town with the opening of Wendover Railway Station on the Metropolitan Railway's line to Aylesbury.
Responsibility for the station was transferred from London Transport, who had inherited it from the Metropolitan Railway, to British Railways, in 1961. In 1913, Alfred de Rothschild, invited the Royal Flying Corps to conduct manoeuvres on his land in the adjacent manor of Halton, the land continued to be used by the British Army throughout the First World War. In 1916 the Royal Flying Corps moved its air mechanics school from Farnborough, Hampshire to Halton, in 1917, the school was permanently accommodated there, in what was to become the current RAF Halton. Whilst the base is not in the parish of Wendover, its close proximity impacted on the town, the surrounding landscape, due to the associated population increases and deforestation to provide wood for construction work. In the latter part of the twentieth century, a number of large scale residential developments appeared to the north of the town. In 1998, the Wendover bypass was built paralleling the railway line to the west of the town centre.
Property values rose in the years after the completion of the bypass, which removed a lot of traffic from the town's narrow streets. In 2010, the proposed route the High Speed 2 rail line from London to the Midlands was published, showing it taking a route in tunnel to the west of the bypass and town centre; as part of a wider campaign against the route, a Wendover lobby group was formed, with a 300 strong protest filmed by the BBC in December 2010. However, despite the opposition, the HS2 bill was passed in 2016, construction contracts let in 2017. Wendover lies at 130 metres above sea level, it occupies a prime position at the northern end of a natural crossing point through the Chiltern Hills, which wrap around the west and east of the town. To the north the land slopes downwards towards the flat, agricultural land of the Aylesbury Vale. To the west the town is overlooked to the east by Wendover Woods; the gap through the Chilterns that Wendover sits astride has long been an important communications route.
It is used by the A413 road between London and Aylsbury, the London to Aylesbury railway line, the new high speed rail link between London and the North, now under construction. At Wendover this route is crossed by the route of the ancient Icknield Way, running along the line of the Chilterns, that has connected Wiltshire to Norfolk since prehistoric times. Besides the town itself, the civil parish includes the hamlets of: Dean, located south of Wendover o