Leeds is a tri-county municipality located in Jefferson, St. Clair, Shelby counties in the State of Alabama and is an eastern suburb of Birmingham; as of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 11,773. Leeds was founded during the final years of the post-Civil War Reconstruction Era, it housed their families of Lehigh, a Portland cement manufacturing plant. The War of 1812, geography and three cultures shaped the history of Leeds. Lying at the crossroads of ancient Native-American paths in the center of Alabama, Leeds drew European and African-American settlers to a land of fertile growing seasons and rich sources of coal and mineral ore; the early settlers built churches and schools with many remaining in Cedar Grove, Oak Ridge, Ohanafeefee and Mt. Pleasant; the principal survey of Leeds was entered into Jefferson County Map Book 10, page 21, in 1908. The settlement, dating to 1818 and incorporating on April 27, 1887 as "Leeds", has existed along the banks of the Little Cahaba River. James Hamilton, a Scottish-Irish American veteran of the War of 1812 and first sheriff of Shelby County, settled in Cedar Grove in 1816.
John Richard Ingram Pashal Stewart, a Cherokee English teacher and American veteran of the War of 1812, settled at Ohanafeefee Village c.1840. At Oak Ridge in 1820 or 1821, European settlers formed Shiloh Cumberland Presbyterian Church, the first CPC congregation in middle Alabama. By 1887, the original railroad pioneers included free African-American settlers who came to work at the Leeds cement plant and the Central of Georgia as the Georgia Pacific railroads; some gravitated to historic Mt. Pleasant Church where a handful of freed slaves had founded Scott City, Hillard Holley, Ciscero Davis, Jeff Harris, Bill Johnson started Leeds Negro/Primary School in 1921; the tale of John Henry was believed to have originated in Leeds. In this folk story, John Henry, the "steel-drivin' man", raced and won against a steam engine in the laying of railroad that penetrated the Oak Mountain Tunnel in Leeds. Retired chemistry professor and folklorist John Garst, of the University of Georgia, has argued that the contest happened at the Coosa Mountain Tunnel or the Oak Mountain Tunnel of the Columbus and Western Railway in Leeds on September 20, 1887.
Based on documentation that corresponds with the account of C. C. Spencer, who claimed in the 1920s to have witnessed the contest, Garst speculates that John Henry may have been a man named Henry, born a slave to P. A. L. Dabney, the father of the chief engineer of that railroad, in 1850. Since 2007, the city of Leeds has honored John Henry's legend during an annual festival held on the third weekend in September, the Leeds Downtown Folk Festival & John Henry Celebration. Leeds is located at 33°32′44″N 86°33′27″W within Jefferson County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.5 square miles, of which 22.4 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 11,773 people, 4,818 households; the population density was 514.9 people per square mile. There were 5,221 housing units at an average density of 205.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.7% White, 14.3% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2% from two or more races.
6.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,818 households out of which 21.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.5% were non-families. 14.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48. Not much family data was found. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.9% under the age of 18 and 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. No gender ratios were found; the median income for a household in the city was $44,149. The per capita income for the city was $22,716. About 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line. Leeds is served by the Leeds City School District. In 2009, the City of Leeds Board of Education authorized the construction—completed by the Wyatt Construction Company—of two new schools, Leeds Middle School and Leeds High School, they now have completed both schools. The Leeds BOE authorized the renovations of and additions to Leeds Elementary School, which began in 2008.
These renovations were made by the Wyatt Construction Company, include an expanded office and a new awning around the front of the school. In 2013, Leeds Elementary School gained attention for asking parents for permission to administer corporal punishment to their children. Alabama is one of 19 states that allow corporal punishment in schools, ranks third in the rate of students subjected to physical punishment. Leeds Primary School was constructed in 2016 to house Pre-K through 2nd graders to ease overcrowding at its elementary school; the school opened that same year. On December 4, 2008, the Leeds High School Greenwave football team won the Class 3A AHSAA State Football Championship and finished the year 15-0. On February 28, 2009, the Greenwave basketball team won the 3A AHSAA State Basketball Championship. On December 6, 2010 the Greenwave football team won the Class 3A AHSAA State Football Championship and finishing the year 15-0. On December 5, 2014 the Greenwave football team won the Class 4A AHSAA State Football Championship and finished the year 14-1.
On December 5, 2015 the Greenwave football team won the 4A AHSAA State Football Championship and finished the year 14-1. On February 14, 2015 the Greenwave wrestling team w
Bessemer is a city southwest of Birmingham in Jefferson County, United States. The population was 27,456 at the 2010 Census, it is within the Birmingham-Hoover, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area, of which Jefferson County is the center. It developed as an industrial city in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the town was founded in the postbellum era by the Bessemer Land and Improvement Company, named after Henry Bessemer and owned by coal magnate Henry F. DeBardeleben, he had inherited Daniel Pratt's investments. The mayor and councilmen voted to incorporate the city of Bessemer on September 9, 1887. Located 16 miles southwest of Birmingham, Bessemer grew and its promoters believed that it might overtake the other city in economic power. Given the iron ore and limestone deposits in the area, the city became a center of steelmaking from about 1890 through the 20th century, it attracted rural migrants from across the South, as well as European immigrants. By the 1950s, the city was majority African American in population.
The industry went through considerable restructuring in the late 20th century, jobs moved out of the area. Steel is no longer made here. Bessemer is located 18 miles southwest of Birmingham. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 40.8 square miles, of which 40.7 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Bessemer is situated in the midst of the iron ore and limestone district of Alabama, in the southern part of Jones Valley. Iron ore was mined on the hills on the city's southeast side, coal was mined to the north and west, limestone deposits were nearby. All three ingredients were necessary for steelmaking, which led to the area becoming a major steel center from about 1890 through the twentieth century. Steel is no longer made within the city limits, but is still manufactured in the neighboring city of Fairfield; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Bessemer has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
As of the 2013 American Community Survey, there were 27,336 people residing in the city. 72.0% were African American, 24.0% White, 0.1% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% from some other race and 0.4% from two or more races. 3.2 % were Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 29,672 people, 11,537 households, 7,868 families residing in the city; the population density was 729.0 people per square mile. There were 12,790 housing units at an average density of 314.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 69.55% Black or African American, 28.93% White, 0.28% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. 1.14% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 11,537 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.6% were married couples living together, 29.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.8% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.12. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $23,066, the median income for a family was $28,230. Males had a median income of $29,413 versus $21,552 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,232. About 24.2% of families and 27.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.8% of those under age 18 and 24.7% of those age 65 or over. In 1900, Bessemer ranked eighth in population in the state, second in amount of capital invested in manufacturing, fourth in the value of its manufactured product for the year. By 1911, ore mining, iron smelting, the manufacture of iron and coke were the chief industries of Bessemer.
Truck farming was an important industry, dating from the area's agricultural past. Both blacks and whites from rural areas were attracted to the city for its new work opportunities. African Americans moved into industrial jobs and became part of integrated unions. Today, ore mining has ended. Manufacturing remains a factor, with the U. S. Pipe and Foundry ductile pipe plant on the city's north side. On May 9, 2007, U. S. Pipe announced; the site was selected, among other reasons, for having available space for potential future expansions. U. S. Pipe is the largest domestic producer of Ductile Iron pipe in sizes 4 inch through 64 inch; the city was once home to a large railroad car manufacturing factory, operated by Pullman Standard for many decades and by Trinity Industries. With railroad restructuring in the late 20th century and other manufacturing moving offshore, this plant ceased most production in the 1990s. Other industries have relocated to this facility; the decline of mining and exodus of the steelmaking and railcar manufacturing industries resulted in extensive loss of jobs.
The city has lost population since a peak in 1970. It faced an economic crisis in the early to mid-1980s, as unemployed workers constituted more than one-third of the workforce. Since that time the c
Homewood is a city in southeastern Jefferson County, United States. It is a suburb of Birmingham, located on the other side of Red Mountain due south of the city center; as of the 2010 census its population was 25,167, in 2016 the estimated population was 25,613. The first settlers of the area which would become Homewood arrived in the early 1800s; the area's population, did not grow until Birmingham suffered a major cholera epidemic in 1873. Speculators soon began buying up land and developing communities in the countryside surrounding Birmingham. Many of the smaller communities which would become Homewood were developed during this time period, including Rosedale, Grove Park and Oak Grove. Edgewood saw the greatest amount of development; the community contained an Electric Railway leading to downtown Birmingham by 1911 and a man-made lake by 1915. The lake was created by the construction of a dam along Shades Creek near Columbiana Road. Two parallel roads were graded on either side of the lake with the intention of creating a race track around the lake, however these plans never came to fruition.
The roads became Lakeshore Drive and South Lakeshore Drive. In 1926, a local attorney named Charles Rice started a movement to merge several of the communities surrounding Birmingham. In September of the same year, Rosedale and Grove Park voted to incorporate under the name Homewood; the city of Hollywood, Alabama was annexed into Homewood in 1929. In 1955, Oak Grove was annexed into Homewood; the Great Depression and a polio epidemic, which sickened 80 children in Homewood damaged Homewood's economy and social landscape. The regional economy picked up after the outbreak of World War II and the accompanying steel boom in Birmingham, where production ramped up in order to contribute to the war effort. During the 1940s, Homewood's police and fire departments doubled in size to accommodate a 73.9 percent increase in the city's population from 1940 to 1950. In 1959, Homewood voters defeated a move by Birmingham to annex the city. A second attempt succeeded in July 1964, but voting irregularities and lawsuits prevented the outcome of that election in the courts until September 9, 1966, when the Alabama Supreme Court ruled the 1964 vote null and void.
In a special election on December 13, 1966, a vote for annexation failed with 65 percent of Homewood residents voting against the annexation. Homewood avoided the worst of the turmoil associated with the Civil Rights Movement and, more the Southern Christian Leadership Conference's 1963 Birmingham campaign. However, in September 1963, the Shades Valley Sun newspaper reported on a racially motivated bombing on Central Avenue in Rosedale. In 1970, Homewood created its own school system, breaking away from the Jefferson County school system; the new Homewood High School opened in December 1972. Hollywood is a former town annexed into Homewood, Alabama, in 1929. A historic district of much of the area is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as Hollywood Historic District; the district is bounded by U. S. Highway 31, U. S. Highway 280, Lakeshore Drive and is significant for the Mission Revival and Spanish Colonial Revival architectural style of surviving houses and other buildings. Clyde Nelson began developing Hollywood Boulevard as a residential subdivision in 1926.
He employed a sales force of 75, armed with the memorable slogan "Out of the Smoke Zone, Into the Ozone", to entice Birmingham residents over Red Mountain. Architect George P. Turner designed many of the new homes in the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture, which had become fashionably linked with the glamour of Hollywood, California in the early days of the motion picture industry there. Turner nodded to the English Tudor style, widespread in Birmingham and over the mountain; the Hollywood Country Club on Lakeshore Drive and the American Legion Post 134 were built at this time. In order to support his new development, Nelson created the area's first autobus line and extended the first natural gas pipeline into Shades Valley. Hollywood incorporated as a town on January 14, 1927 with Clarence Lloyd as its first and only mayor; the town was annexed into Homewood on October 14, 1929. The Great Depression ended development of the subdivision. In 2002, the Hollywood Historic District was registered with the National Register of Historic Places, is home to The American Institute of Architects -nominated houses like 11 Bonita Drive.
The listing includes one contributing site, over a 815 acres area. Homewood is located at 33°28′6″N 86°48′29″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.3 square miles, all land. The city, along with the rest of Jefferson County, lies atop iron and limestone deposits. Shades Creek, part of the Cahaba River system, runs through Homewood; as of the census of 2000, there were 25,043 people, 10,688 households, 5,878 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,014.7 people per square mile. There were 11,494 housing units at an average density of 1,383.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.75% White, 15.30% Black or African-American, 0.20% Native American, 2.57% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.00% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. 2.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,688 households out of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.0% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female h
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Fairfield is a city in western Jefferson County, United States. It is located southeast of Pleasant Grove; the population was 11,117 at the 2010 census. This city was founded in 1910 in which the featured speaker at the dedication ceremony was former President Theodore Roosevelt, it was named Corey, after an executive of U. S. Steel Corporation; the name was changed to the city in which the President of U. S. Steel lived, Connecticut, it was planned as a model city by the Tennessee Coal and Railroad Company to house workers in their new Fairfield Works plant, now owned by U. S. Steel, similar to its northeastern city of Ensley, it was incorporated on January 1, 1919. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.5 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,381 people, 4,600 households, 3,141 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,503.8 people per square mile. There were 4,960 housing units at an average density of 1,403.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 8.90% White, 90.23% Black or African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 0.48% from two or more races. 0.59% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,600 households out of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were married couples living together, 28.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.17. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 79.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 73.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,845, the median income for a family was $38,552.
Males had a median income of $30,833 versus $25,143 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,607. About 16.5% of families and 21.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.7% of those under age 18 and 25.3% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 11,117 people, 4,229 households, 2,738 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,176.3 people per square mile. There were 4,935 housing units at an average density of 1,410 per square mile; the racial makeup of the city was 94.6% Black or African American, 4.2% White, 0.0% Native American, 0.0% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.7% from other races, 0.4% from two or more races. 1.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,229 households out of which 24.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.3% were married couples living together, 31.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.3% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.10. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 14.3% from 18 to 24, 20.7% from 25 to 44, 28.9% from 45 to 64, 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 79.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,242, the median income for a family was $41,841. Males had a median income of $34,854 versus $29,788 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,221. About 22.2% of families and 24.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.5% of those under age 18 and 21.7% of those age 65 or over. Fairfield has its own school system, independent from Jefferson County; the system includes three elementary schools, Forest Hills Middle School, Fairfield High Preparatory School, an alternative all-grades school. The city is home to Miles College, a black college operated by the CME Church.
The school was founded in 1898. Though the United States steel making industry has gone through a decline through the last half of the 20th Century, U. S. Steel's Fairfield Works continues to be a major employer, though not in the levels seen around the 1950s. Advances in steel-making technology have enabled the works to produce the same amount of product as during that era, but with a much smaller workforce. Portions of the Works have been closed over the years, but many parts of the complex have been reopened by smaller industries, some of which are steel-related. Fairfield is traversed by I-20/I-59. Three railroads serve the area: CSX Transportation, Norfolk Southern Railway, short-line Birmingham Southern Railroad, headquartered in Fairfield; the city's downtown area features a number of small businesses service-related. Other retail businesses are concentrated along Aronov Drive, northwest of Western Hills Mall, though those strip malls have declined due to closures of Kmart, Winn-Dixie, Sears locations.
Walmart shut its doors in early 2016. All public bus transportation was terminated in July 2016 for failure to pay the bill; the water board has threatened to cut off all water to public buildings because of non payment. Western Hills Mall is the city's major shopping mall. Federal judge U. W. Clemon was born in Fairfield. Former NFL playe
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Hoover is a city in Jefferson and Shelby counties in north central Alabama, United States. The largest suburb near Birmingham, the city had a population of 84,848 as of the 2015 US Census estimate. Hoover is part of the Birmingham-Hoover, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Birmingham-Hoover-Talladega, AL Combined Statistical Area. Hoover's territory is along the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. Hoover is home to the Riverchase Galleria, one of the largest shopping centers in the Southeast and one of the largest mixed-use centers in the U. S, it includes retail and office space. The Birmingham Barons Minor League Baseball team, which traces its history to 1885, played its home games at the 10,800-seat Hoover Metropolitan Stadium until 2013, when it moved to Birmingham; this suburban area near the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains had been known as the Green Valley community since the 1930s. The City of Hoover was incorporated in 1967, named for William H. Hoover, a local insurance company owner and co-founder of the American States' Rights Association, which promoted white supremacy and neo-Nazism in its publications..
The city's small City Hall included space for the police department. On September 8, 1980, the city annexed the Riverchase business and residential community, gaining large office buildings and workers to increase the city's tax base; when Interstate I-459 was opened, a major interchange with Interstate I-65 was constructed within the borders of Hoover, improving access. In 1986 the Riverchase Galleria multi-use complex opened, it has attracted new residents and businesses to the area. The city has grown fast, aided by its annexations of territory as well as new developments; the city has expanded its facilities, now operates a Municipal Center and Public Safety Center. The city expects to continue to increase in population, which has risen since 2008, it numbered 81,619 as of the 2010 Census. Hoover is located at 33°23′11″N 86°48′18″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 43.65 square miles, of which 43.13 square miles is land and 0.51 square miles is water. The municipal government has operated under the Mayor-Council form of government since incorporation.
The Mayor and City Council are elected on a non-partisan basis to concurrent four-year terms of office, which begin on October 1 of election year. Policy-making and legislative authority is vested in the City Council, which consists of seven "at-large" elected members The city council is responsible for considering local resolutions and ordinances, adopting an annual budget, appointing members to local boards and committees; the Mayor is responsible for enforcing the city's policies and ordinances. The Riverchase Galleria shopping-hotel-office complex generates tax revenues for the city; the Riverchase Office Park, other office parks and buildings throughout Hoover, house many large corporations. Major shopping centers in the city include Riverchase Galleria on US 31, Patton Creek on SR 150, Village at Lee Branch on US 280; the Central Business District is intersected by US 31, SR 150, US 280. I-65 and I-459 intersect in the city. Hoover 2015 annual financial report, ranking by largest sales and use taxpayers: Costco Wal-Mart Sam's Club Belk Target Regions Bank Publix Home Depot Best Buy Macy's Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama - 3,000 Hoover Board of Education - 1,773 Regions Financial - 1,765 AT&T Inc. - 1,143 City of Hoover - 745 Walmart - 650 T-Mobile 500 BE&K - 302 Hoover Fire Department is a full-time career department operating from ten fire stations throughout the city.
The city has one battalion. There are eight engine companies, two quints, one ladder trucks, three ALS rescue/ambulances, two battalion chief cars. All engine companies are staffed with a minimum of three, with at least two being firefighter/paramedics. All engines are classified ALS; the department operates one heavy rescue truck, one hazmat unit. Hoover Fire Department holds a Class 1 ISO rating. In 2016, the department responded to over 10,000 calls. Hoover's first chief of police was Oscar Davis. In 2006, the police force of the city of Hoover purchased 104 Chevrolet police Tahoes to support sustainability; the Hoover Police Department now has the largest law enforcement fleet in the nation to run on E85, a fuel, 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline. President George W. Bush visited the city in September 2006 to see the fleet and fueling facility. Hoover operates its own enhanced 911 emergency call center, which has 24 operator positions, 2 communication supervisors, 1 department manager and is staffed 24/7.
Hoover provides traffic, severe weather, disaster information, details on special events on low-power AM radio. As of the census of 2000, there were 62,742 people, 25,191 households, 17,406 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,454.6 people per square mile. There were 27,150 housing units at an average density of 629.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.66% White, 6.77% Black, 0.16% Native American, 2.89% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.40% from ot