A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Sappington is an unincorporated census-designated place in St. Louis County, United States; the population was 7,580 at the 2010 census. Sappington was named for a family of pioneer settlers. Sappington is located at 38°31′45″N 90°22′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the community has a total area of 2.6 square miles, of which 0.1 square miles, or 2.30%, is water. At the 2000 census, there were 7,287 people, 3,403 households and 2,038 families residing in the community; the population density was 2,850.5 per square mile. There were 3,530 housing units at an average density of 1,380.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the community was 96.53% White, 0.64% African American, 0.11% Native American, 1.83% Asian, 0.12% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.03% of the population. There were 3,403 households of which 21.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.3% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.1% were non-families.
36.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.81. 18.5% of the population were under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, 25.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.0 males. The median household income was $44,117 and the median family income was $57,897. Males had a median income of $43,565 and females $30,906; the per capita income was $26,727. About 2.1% of families and 2.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.7% of those under age 18 and 3.7% of those age 65 or over. In 2010, there were 3,520 households and 2,066 families residing in the community; the population density was 2,915 people per square mile. There were 3,756 housing units; the racial makeup of the community was 93.6% White, 1.5% African American, 0.1% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race made up 1.9% of the population. There were 3,520 households of which 18.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.1% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.3% were non-families. 37.6% of all households were made up individuals and 19.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.85. 19.7% of the population were under the age of 18, 4.2% from 18 to 24, 21.3% from 25 to 44, 28.4% from 45 to 64, 24.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.63 males. The Median Household Income was $52,574 and the median family income was $73,364; the per capita income was $31,613. About 5.0% of families and 4.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.6% of those under the age of 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 and over The school district Lindbergh Schools serves Sappington.
Lindbergh High School is in Sappington
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Ballwin is a middle class southwestern suburb of St. Louis, located in St. Louis County, United States; the population was 30,404 as of the 2010 census. Ballwin was established in 1837; the community was named for John Ball, who settled at the town site in 1804. A post office called Ballwin has been in operation since 1866. Ballwin is located at 38°35′41″N 90°32′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.99 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 30,404 people, 11,874 households, 8,631 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,382.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,435 housing units at an average density of 1,383.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.3% White, 2.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 5.6% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.4% of the population. There were 11,874 households of which 34.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.9% were married couples living together, 15% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 27.3% were non-families.
23.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age in the city was 41.2 years. 24.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.2% male and 51.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 31,283 people, 11,797 households, 8,942 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,494.6 people per square mile. There were 12,062 housing units at an average density of 1,347.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.39% White, 10.50% African American, 0.22% Native American, 5.27% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 1.07% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.86% of the population. There were 11,797 households out of which 37.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.6% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.2% were non-families.
20.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.09. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $66,458 and the median income for a family was $77,021. Males had a median income of $56,056 versus $32,202 for females; the per capita income for the city was $29,520. About 2.0% of families and 3.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.1% of those under age 18 and 3.7% of those age 65 or over. Ballwin is home to many schools within Parkway School District, including Claymont, Oak Brook, Sorrento Springs elementary schools, Parkway West High School.
Ballwin contains several schools within Rockwood School District, including Marquette High School, including Ballwin and Woerther elementary schools, as well as Selvidge Middle School. A private school in Ballwin is Holy Infant Catholic School. Lion's Choice, a roast beef fast food chain, was founded in Ballwin. Hindu Temple of St. Louis is located in Ballwin on Weidman Road. City of Ballwin Metro West Fire Protection District
Interstate 255 is a bypass route of I-55 in Greater St. Louis. Along with I-270, it forms a loop around the central portion of the bi-state metro area, it shares its southern terminus with I-270 at the junction with I-55. U. S. Route 50 joins I-255 at Lemay Ferry Road, it crosses the Mississippi River on the Jefferson Barracks Bridge, enters Illinois, turns northeast. There is a junction with I-64, where US 50 breaks off and goes east, further north there is a junction with I-55 again, I-70, US 40, all of which are all co-signed together; the next junction is another one with I-270, the northern terminus of I-255. After that, the limited-access freeway continues on as Illinois Route 255. I-255 is 30.82 miles in length. I-255 begins at an interchange with I-55 and I-270 in Missouri; the beltway is designated as I-270 west of this interchange and as I-255 east east of this interchange. The section of I-255 east from this interchange to the Jefferson Barracks Bridge was first built in the 1960s to carry U.
S. Route 50 traffic across the Mississippi River; the roadway was upgraded between 2002 and 2004. Repairs included the replacement of the Telegraph Road bridge. Once it crosses the Mississippi River and enters Illinois, I-255 is signed as a north/south highway, it is newer than the Missouri section, having been constructed in the 1980s. At the Illinois Route 3 interchange, I-255 turns to the north, it is duplexed with Illinois 3 in Dupo. After Dupo, I-255 turns skirting Cahokia and East St. Louis. An interchange at Mousette Lane in Sauget was constructed in the 1990s and provides motorist access to GCS Ballpark and the St. Louis Downtown Airport. Given its proximity to the airport, this section of I-255 features shorter light poles to better accommodate takeoffs and landings. North of Sauget, I-255 traverses a portion of the Frank Holten State Recreation Area before an interchange with Interstate 64 west of Caseyville; this section of freeway opened in 1986. Traffic can enter and exit I-255 at an interchange with Collinsville Road just east of the Fairmont Park Racetrack.
I-255 meets I-55 / I-70 at an interchange in its original intended terminus. North of this interchange, the control city for I-255 changes from "Chicago" to "To I-270". In the 1980s, I-255 was extended five miles north to meet I-270 in Pontoon Beach, its current terminus. While the I-255 designation ends at the I-270 interchange, the freeway continues north and west for 23 miles as Illinois Route 255; the decision to not extend the I-255 designation to the new freeway reflects the fact that state and not federal funds were used to pay for construction. I-255 route was proposed from I-55/I-244 near Green Park to I-55/70 west of Cahokia Mounds near the intersection with IL 111 when plans surfaced in the 1950s Yellow Book, it was designed to be a four lane highway but was changed to six lanes. Since that routing was to go through the American Bottoms, archaeological investigations had to be conducted prior to any construction, which would become known as the FAI 270 Series; when Cahokia Mounds was designated in the federal register, an alternative alignment for I-255 from I-64 to I-55/70 was selected.
This delayed construction of I-255 until the late 1970s, making it the last interstate highway in metropolitan St. Louis to be built. Both the western and eastern portions of the interstate loop around St. Louis were designated as I-270. However, the route that Illinois selected included an interchange in Pontoon Beach between the new beltway and the existing beltway; as such, two intersecting interstate highways would have carried the same route number. As such, Illinois' Department of Transportation concluded a different route number would be necessary for the eastern leg of the beltway. While I-870 was considered, informal use of I-255 in contemporary local media coverage led to its widespread adoption. By 1980, IDOT announced that the eastern portion of the St. Louis beltway was to be designated as I-255
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for