David Warren Brubeck was an American jazz pianist and composer, considered one of the foremost exponents of cool jazz. He wrote a number of jazz standards, including "In Your Own Sweet Way" and "The Duke". Brubeck's style ranged from refined to bombastic, reflecting both his mother's attempts at classical training and his own improvisational skills, his music is known for employing unusual time signatures as well as superimposing contrasting rhythms and tonalities. Brubeck experimented with time signatures throughout his career, recording "Pick Up Sticks" in 64, "Unsquare Dance" in 74, "World's Fair" in 134, "Blue Rondo à la Turk" in 98, he was a composer of orchestral and sacred music and wrote soundtracks for television, such as Mr. Broadway and the animated miniseries This Is America, Charlie Brown. Incorrectly attributed to Brubeck, the song "Take Five", which has become a jazz standard, was composed by Brubeck's long-time musical partner, alto saxophonist Paul Desmond. Appearing on one of the top-selling jazz albums, Time Out, written in 54 time, "Take Five" has endured as a jazz classic associated with Brubeck.
Dave Brubeck was born in the San Francisco Bay Area city of Concord and grew up in a city located in the Mother Lode called Ione, California. His father, Peter Howard "Pete" Brubeck, was a cattle rancher, his mother, who had studied piano in England under Myra Hess and intended to become a concert pianist, taught piano for extra money, his father had Swiss ancestry and Native American Modoc lineage, while his maternal grandparents were English and German. Brubeck did not intend to become a musician, but took lessons from his mother, he could not read music during these early lessons, attributing this difficulty to poor eyesight, but "faked" his way through well enough that this deficiency went unnoticed. Intending to work with his father on their ranch, Brubeck entered the College of the Pacific in Stockton, studying veterinary science, he changed to music on the urging of the head of zoology, Dr. Arnold, who told him "Brubeck, your mind's not here. It's across the lawn in the conservatory. Please go there.
Stop wasting my time and yours." Brubeck was nearly expelled when one of his professors discovered that he could not read music on sight. Several of his professors came forward, arguing that his ability to write counterpoint and harmony more than compensated, demonstrated his familiarity with music notation; the college was still afraid that it would cause a scandal, agreed to let Brubeck graduate only after he had promised never to teach piano. After graduating in 1942, Brubeck was drafted into the U. S. Army, he served in Europe in the Third Army. He volunteered to play piano at a Red Cross show and was such a hit that he was spared from combat service and ordered to form a band, he created one of the U. S. armed forces' first racially integrated bands, "The Wolfpack". While serving in the military, Brubeck met Paul Desmond in early 1944, he returned to college after serving nearly four years in the army, this time attending Mills College in Oakland. He studied under Darius Milhaud, who encouraged him to study fugue and orchestration, but not classical piano.
While on active duty, he received two lessons from Arnold Schoenberg at UCLA in an attempt to connect with high modernist theory and practice. However, the encounter did not end on good terms since Schoenberg believed that every note should be accounted for, an approach which Brubeck could not accept, although according to his son Chris Brubeck, there is a twelve-tone row in The Light in the Wilderness, Dave Brubeck's first oratorio. In it, Jesus's twelve disciples are introduced each singing their own individual notes. In 1949, Sheedy was talked into making the first recording of Brubeck's octet and his trio, but Sheedy was unable to pay his bills and in 1949 turned his masters over to his record stamping company, the Circle Record Company, owned by Max and Sol Weiss. The Weiss brothers soon changed the name of their business to Fantasy Records; these initial Brubeck records sold well, he recorded and issued new records for Fantasy. Soon the company was shipping 40,000 to 50,000 copies of Brubeck records each quarter, making enormous profits.
In 1951, Brubeck damaged several neck vertebrae and his spinal cord while diving into the surf in Hawaii. He would remark that the rescue workers who responded had described him as a "DOA". Brubeck recovered after a few months, but suffered with residual nerve pain in his hands for years after; the injury influenced his playing style towards complex, blocky chords rather than speedy, high-dexterity, single-note runs. Brubeck organized the Dave Brubeck Quartet with Paul Desmond on alto saxophone, they took up a long residency at San Francisco's Black Hawk nightclub and gained great popularity touring college campuses, recording a series of albums with such titles as Jazz at Oberlin, Jazz at the College of the Pacific, Brubeck's debut on Columbia Records, Jazz Goes to College. When Brubeck signed with Fantasy Records, he thought he had a half interest in the company and he worked as a sort of A & R man for the label, encouraging the Weiss
Christian Scott known as Christian Scott aTunde Adjuah, is an American jazz trumpeter and producer. Scott is the nephew of jazz saxophonist Donald Harrison. Scott has been Grammy nominated twice. Christian Scott is known for his signature'whisper technique', noted as emphasizing breath over vibration at the mouth piece creating a unique tone. Scott was born on March 31, 1983, in New Orleans, Louisiana, to Cara Harrison and Clinton Scott III and has a twin brother, Kiel. At the age of 13 he started learning with jazz alto saxophonist Donald Harrison. By 14, he was accepted into the New Orleans Center for Creative Arts, where he studied jazz under the guidance of program directors Clyde Kerr, Jr. and Kent Jordan. On graduating from NOCCA, Scott received a scholarship to attend Berklee College of Music in Boston, where he graduated in 2004. Between 2003 and 2004, while attending Berklee, he was member of the Berklee Monterey Quartet, recorded as part of the Art:21 student cooperative quintet, studied under the direction of Charlie Lewis, Dave Santoro, Gary Burton.
He majored in professional music with a concentration in film scoring. Christian Scott was discovered by Kenneth Shurtlift, former distributor at Concord Records, who forwarded Scott's music to Concord Music Group. Scott was signed to the label in 2005. Scott's debut album Rewind, it received a Grammy nomination. Scott received the Edison Award in 2010 and 2012. Since 2002, Scott has released 12 studio albums, two live recordings. In 2016, Scott has appeared on the public television series Articulate. 2002 Christian Scott – Impromp2 Records / Omni American Music 2004 Two of a Kind – Nagel Heyer Records w/ Donald Harrison 2006 Rewind That – Concord Records 2007 Anthem – Concord Records 2008 Live at Newport – Concord Records 2010 Yesterday You Said Tomorrow – Concord Records / UMG / OmniAmerican Music 2011 Ninety Miles – Concord Picante w/ Stefon Harris and David Sanchez 2012 Christian aTunde Adjuah – Concord Records / UMG / OmniAmerican Music 2012 Ninety Miles Live at Cubadisco – Concord Picante 2015 Stretch Music – Ropeadope/Stretch Music 2017 Ruler Rebel – Ropeadope/Stretch Music 2017 Diaspora – Ropeadope/Stretch Music 2017 The Emancipation Procrastination – Ropeadope/Stretch Music 2019 Ancestral Recall – Ropeadope/Stretch Music 1999 Paradise Found – Donald Harrison 2001 Real Life Stories – Donald Harrison 2003 Karin Williams – Karin Williams 2005 Blueprint of a Lady:Sketches of Billie Holiday – Nnenna Freelon 2006 Every Road I Walked – Grace Kelly 2006 Survivor – Donald Harrison 2006 What is Love – Erin Boheme 2007 Return From Mecca – X Clan 2007 Planet Earth – Prince 2008 Blueprints of Jazz, Vol 1 – Mike Clark 2008 Charlie Brown TV Themes – David Benoit 2008 Global Noize – Global Noize 2008 It's Christmas – Ledisi 2011 Tutu Revisited – Marcus Miller 2014 Inner Dialogue – Sarah Elizabeth Charles Christian Scott - trumpet, flugelhorn, soprano trombone Braxton Cook - alto saxophone, straight alto saxophone Joe Dyson - drums, pan-African drums Corey Fonville - drums Lawrence Fields - piano Kristopher Funn - bass Dominic Minix - guitar Elena Pinderhughes - flute & vocals Esperanza Spalding - bass Matthew Stevens - guitar Thomas Pridgen - drums Aaron Parks - piano Walter Smith III - sax Jamire Williams - drums Luques Curtis - bass Zaccai Curtis - piano Marcus Gilmore - drums Milton Fletcher Jnr - piano christianscott.tv Performance for NPR's Tiny Desk Concerts
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Sir James Paul McCartney is an English singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, composer. He gained worldwide fame as the bass guitarist and singer for the rock band the Beatles considered the most popular and influential group in the history of popular music, his songwriting partnership with John Lennon remains the most successful in history. After the group disbanded in 1970, he pursued a solo career and formed the band Wings with his first wife and Denny Laine. McCartney is one of performers of all time. More than 2,200 artists have covered his Beatles song "Yesterday", making it one of the most covered songs in popular music history. Wings' 1977 release "Mull of Kintyre" is one of the all-time best-selling singles in the UK. A two-time inductee into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, an 18-time Grammy Award winner, McCartney has written, or co-written, 32 songs that have reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100, as of 2009 he had 25.5 million RIAA-certified units in the United States. McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr all received appointment as Members of the Order of the British Empire in 1965 and, in 1997, McCartney was knighted for services to music.
McCartney is one of the wealthiest musicians in the world, with an estimated net worth of US$1.2 billion. McCartney has released an extensive catalogue of songs as a solo artist and has composed classical and electronic music, he has taken part in projects to promote international charities related to such subjects as animal rights, seal hunting, land mines, vegetarianism and music education. He is the father of five children. James Paul McCartney was born on 18 June 1942 in Walton Hospital, England, where his mother, Mary Patricia, had qualified to practise as a nurse, his father, James McCartney, was absent from his son's birth due to his work as a volunteer firefighter during World War II. McCartney has one younger brother named a stepsister, Ruth; the children were baptised in their mother's Catholic faith though their father was a former Protestant, who had turned agnostic. Religion was not emphasised in the household. McCartney attended Stockton Wood Road Primary School in Speke from 1947 until 1949, when he transferred to Joseph Williams Junior School in Belle Vale because of overcrowding at Stockton.
In 1953, with only three others out of ninety examinees, he passed the 11-Plus exam, meaning he could attend the Liverpool Institute, a grammar school rather than a secondary modern school. In 1954, he met schoolmate George Harrison on the bus from his suburban home in Speke; the two became friends. McCartney's mother, was a midwife and the family's primary wage earner, she rode a bicycle to her patients. On 31 October 1956, when McCartney was 14, his mother died of an embolism. McCartney's loss became a point of connection with John Lennon, whose mother, had died when he was 17. McCartney's father was a trumpet pianist, who had led Jim Mac's Jazz Band in the 1920s, he kept an upright piano in the front room, encouraged his sons to be musical and advised McCartney to take piano lessons. However, McCartney preferred to learn by ear; when McCartney was 11, his father encouraged him to audition for the Liverpool Cathedral choir, but he was not accepted. McCartney joined the choir at St Barnabas' Church, Mossley Hill.
McCartney received a nickel-plated trumpet from his father for his fourteenth birthday, but when rock and roll became popular on Radio Luxembourg, McCartney traded it for a £15 Framus Zenith acoustic guitar, since he wanted to be able to sing while playing. He found it difficult to play guitar right-handed, but after noticing a poster advertising a Slim Whitman concert and realising that Whitman played left-handed, he reversed the order of the strings. McCartney wrote his first song, "I Lost My Little Girl", on the Zenith, composed another early tune that would become "When I'm Sixty-Four" on the piano. American rhythm and blues influenced him, Little Richard was his schoolboy idol. At the age of fifteen on 6 July 1957, McCartney met John Lennon and his band, the Quarrymen, at the St Peter's Church Hall fête in Woolton; the Quarrymen played a mix of rock and roll and skiffle, a type of popular music with jazz and folk influences. Soon afterwards, the members of the band invited McCartney to join as a rhythm guitarist, he formed a close working relationship with Lennon.
Harrison joined in 1958 as lead guitarist, followed by Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe on bass, in 1960. By May 1960 the band had tried several names, including Johnny and the Moondogs and the Silver Beetles, they adopted the name the Beatles in August 1960 and recruited drummer Pete Best shortly before a five-engagement residency in Hamburg. The Beatles were informally represented by Allan Williams. In 1961, Sutcliffe left McCartney reluctantly became their bass player. While in Hamburg, they recorded professionally for the first time and were credited as the Beat Brothers, who were the backing band for English singer Tony Sheridan on the single "My Bonnie"; this resulted in attention from Brian Epstein, w
James Vernon Taylor is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist. A five-time Grammy Award winner, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2000, he is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 100 million records worldwide. Taylor achieved his breakthrough in 1970 with the No. 3 single "Fire and Rain" and had his first No. 1 hit in 1971 with his recording of "You've Got a Friend", written by Carole King in the same year. His 1976 Greatest Hits album has sold 12 million US copies. Following his 1977 album, JT, he has retained a large audience over the decades; every album that he released from 1977 to 2007 sold over 1 million copies. He enjoyed a resurgence in chart performance during the late 1990s and 2000s, when he recorded some of his most-awarded work, he achieved his first number-one album in the US in 2015 with his recording Before This World. He is known for his popular covers, such as "How Sweet It Is" and "Handy Man", as well as originals such as "Sweet Baby James".
James Vernon Taylor was born at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston on March 12, 1948, where his father, Isaac M. Taylor, worked as a resident physician, his father came from a wealthy Scottish family from the South. His mother, the former Gertrude Woodard, studied singing with Marie Sundelius at the New England Conservatory of Music and was an aspiring opera singer before the couple's marriage in 1946. James was the second of five children, the others being Alex, Kate and Hugh. In 1951, his family moved to Chapel Hill, North Carolina, when Isaac took a job as an assistant professor of medicine at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, they built a house in the Morgan Creek area off the present Morgan Creek Road, sparsely populated. James would say, "Chapel Hill, the Piedmont, the outlying hills, were tranquil, beautiful, but quiet. Thinking of the red soil, the seasons, the way things smelled down there, I feel as though my experience of coming of age there was more a matter of landscape and climate than people."
James attended public primary school in Chapel Hill. Isaac's career prospered, but he was away from home, on military service at Bethesda Naval Hospital in Maryland, or as part of Operation Deep Freeze in Antarctica in 1955 and 1956. Isaac Taylor rose to become dean of the UNC School of Medicine from 1964 to 1971. Beginning in 1953, the Taylors spent summers on Martha's Vineyard. James first learned to play the cello as a child in North Carolina and switched to the guitar in 1960, his guitar style evolved, influenced by hymns and the music of Woody Guthrie, his technique derived from his bass clef-oriented cello training and from experimenting on his sister Kate's keyboards: "My style was a finger-picking style, meant to be like a piano, as if my thumb were my left hand, my first and third fingers were my right hand." He began attending Milton Academy, a preparatory boarding school in Massachusetts in fall 1961. Summering before with his family on Martha's Vineyard, he met Danny Kortchmar, an aspiring teenage guitarist from Larchmont, New York.
The two began listening to and playing blues and folk music together, Kortchmar realized that Taylor's singing had a "natural sense of phrasing, every syllable beautifully in time. I knew James had that thing." Taylor wrote his first song on guitar at 14, he continued to learn the instrument effortlessly. By the summer of 1963, he and Kortchmar were playing coffeehouses around the Vineyard, billed as "Jamie & Kootch". Taylor faltered during his junior year at Milton, feeling uneasy in the high-pressure college prep environment despite good scholastic performance; the Milton headmaster would say, "James was more sensitive and less goal-oriented than most students of his day." He returned home to North Carolina to finish out the semester at Chapel Hill High School. There, he joined. Having lost touch with his former school friends in North Carolina, Taylor returned to Milton for his senior year. There, Taylor soon descended into depression. In late 1965 he committed himself to the renowned McLean Hospital in Belmont, where he was treated with Thorazine and where the organized days began to give him a sense of time and structure.
As the Vietnam War escalated, Taylor received a psychological rejection from Selective Service System when he appeared before them with two white-suited McLean assistants and was uncommunicative. Taylor earned a high school diploma in 1966 from the hospital's associated Arlington School, he would view his nine-month stay at McLean as "a lifesaver... Like a pardon or like a reprieve," and both his brother Livingston and sister Kate would be patients and students there as well; as for his mental health struggles, Taylor would think of them as innate and say: "It's an inseparable part of my personality that I have these feelings." At Kortchmar's urging, Taylor checked himself out of McLean and moved to New York City to form a band. They recruited Joel O'Brien of Kortchmar's old band King Bees, to play drums, Taylor's childhood friend Zachary Wiesner (son of noted academic J
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers
AFI is an American rock band from Ukiah, formed in 1991. The band's lineup stabilized in 1998 with lead vocalist Davey Havok and backing vocalist Adam Carson, bassist Hunter Burgan, guitarist Jade Puget. Burgan and Puget play keyboards and contribute programming and backing vocals, while Havok and Carson are the sole remaining original members. A hardcore punk band, they have since delved into many genres, starting with horror punk and following through post-hardcore and emo into alternative rock and gothic rock. AFI has released ten studio albums, ten EPs, one live album and one DVD; the band first reached substantial commercial success with their fifth album, The Art of Drowning, which peaked at number 174 on the Billboard 200. They broke into the mainstream with their sixth, Sing the Sorrow, which peaked at number five on the Billboard 200 and remained on the chart for 51 weeks; the album was supported by popular singles "Girl's Not Grey" and "Silver and Cold", both of which peaked at number seven on America's Hot Modern Rock Tracks chart in 2003.
"The Leaving Song Pt. II" was released as a single, reaching number 16 on the chart. Sing the Sorrow was certified Platinum by the RIAA in 2006 and is AFI's best-selling release, having sold over 1.26 million copies as of September 2009. AFI's seventh album, Decemberunderground, debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and featured the hit single "Miss Murder", which topped the Hot Modern Rock Tracks chart and reached number 24 on the Billboard Hot 100. Another single, "Love Like Winter", reached number four on the Modern Rock Tracks chart; the album was certified Platinum by the RIAA in 2013. Decemberunderground was followed three years by Crash Love, four years by Burials; the band's tenth and latest album, AFI, was released on January 20, 2017, peaked at number five on the Billboard 200, making it their second-highest chart position. Their latest release is The Missing Man EP from December 2018. While still in high school in Ukiah, Davey Havok, Mark Stopholese and Vic Chalker formed a band called AFI in November 1991.
While the meaning of the initialism "AFI" stems from the full title "A Fire Inside," band members have stated that the name originated from the titles "Asking for It" and "Anthems for Insubordinates." At the time, the band did not know. Stopholese suggested Adam Carson, who had a drum kit join the band. Stopholese learned guitar and Chalker learned bass, but Chalker was soon replaced by Geoff Kresge and AFI made its first EP in recording Dork with the now defunct band Loose Change, which included future AFI lead guitarist Jade Puget. AFI's beginnings were somewhat inauspicious, as Davey Havok laughed in a 1999 interview, "We were amazed that we got our shit together enough to put out a split 7-inch with Jade's band at the time."AFI disbanded when its members attended different colleges, one of, UC Berkeley where members of the band lived and practiced for a time in the basement of the Delta Chi fraternity house on Channing Way. Kresge moved to New York where he played with street punk band Blanks 77.
The members of the band decided to pursue playing in AFI full-time after enjoying an positive experience and enthusiastic crowd response at a reunion show at the Phoenix Theater in Petaluma, California, in 1993. Between 1993 and 1995, the band released several vinyl EPs independently, their first full-length, Answer That and Stay Fashionable was released July 4, 1995, on Wingnut Records, was produced by Tim Armstrong. The album featured fast and upbeat hardcore songs, with humorous lyrical themes, which are well-vocalized in songs such as "Nyquil", "Cereal Wars", "I Wanna Get a Mohawk"; the album's cover is a parody of the film Reservoir Dogs's promotional poster. The album title takes. Audio samples from both films/shows and European Vacation are featured in several of the album's tracks, namely "Don't Make Me Ill" and "High School Football Hero". AFI signed on to Dexter Holland of The Offspring's label, they would remain with the label until the release of the 336 EP. Around this time they coined the term'East Bay hardcore' to describe their genre of music.
In 1996, AFI released their second album, Very Proud of Ya. The songs "Cruise Control" and "Love Is a Many Splendored Thing" from Very Proud of Ya were used in the 1996 independent film Mary Jane's Not a Virgin Anymore, first screened in 1997 and featured Havok in a small role. Two songs from their previous album, "Yurf Rendenmein" and "Two of A Kind", were re-recorded for this album. After several tours in support of the album Very Proud of Ya, Kresge decided to leave the group, his spot was filled by Hunter Burgan for the remaining Very Proud of Ya tour dates. Burgan went on to help AFI record Shut Your Mouth and Open Your Eyes and was invited to become the full-time bassist. Future AFI lead guitarist Jade Puget provided background vocals and additional guitar on Shut Your Mouth and Open Your Eyes, with his name credited as'Jade "The Playah" Puget', making it the first album to feature all four current members of the band; the release of Shut Your Mouth and Open Your Eyes is notable because AFI started to gather a larger following.
When asked about the band's beginnings, Davey Havok stated to Revolver Magazine, "T