Swiss Broadcasting Corporation
The Swiss Broadcasting Corporation is the Swiss public broadcasting association, founded in 1931. Headquartered in Bern, the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation is a non-profit organisation, funded through radio and television licence fees and making the remaining income from advertising and sponsorship. Switzerland's system of direct democracy and the fact that the country has four official languages mean that the structure of Swiss public service broadcasting is rather complicated; the actual holders of the broadcasting licences that enable SRG SSR to operate are four regional corporations: German Switzerland: Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen French Switzerland: Radio télévision suisse Italian Switzerland: Radiotelevisione svizzera di lingua italiana Romansh: Radiotelevisiun Svizra Rumantscha These four corporations maintain SRG SSR as a joint central production and broadcasting association. The fifth business unit of the SRG SSR is the ten-language news platform Swissinfo; the association's official name is Schweizerische Radio- und Fernsehgesellschaft in German, Société suisse de radiodiffusion et télévision in French, Società svizzera di radiotelevisione in Italian, Societad svizra da radio e televisiun in Romansh.
The corporate name, SRG SSR, is derived from its initials in German, French and Romansh. In English, the organisation is known as the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation; the moniker "idée suisse", which refers to the public service mission of the organisation, was adopted in 1999 and was removed from the name in May 2011. Europe's third public radio station started broadcasting from Lausanne in 1922, from the start based on a licence fee system. 980 licences were bought in 1923. Within a few years radio cooperatives working along the same principles had started throughout the country. In 1930 it was decided that radio was an important public service that should not be allowed to become a money maker for private interests, that it needed to be structured on a federal basis. In 1931 SRG SSR was founded, as a co-ordination organisation for the regional broadcast associations, received the only licence to broadcast from the Federal Council; the same year it was agreed that all news reports in the new medium had to be provided by the Swiss news agency SDA, a decision that remained unchanged until 1971.
The first national transmitters began operating in 1931: Radio Sottens for French, Radio Beromünster for German, 1933 Radio Monte Ceneri for Italian. In 1938 Romansh was recognised as the country's fourth national language, the Zürich studios began broadcasting programmes in Romansh in between those in German. During the Second World War, SRG SSR filled an important function as a neutral, unbiased supplier of news, reaching far outside Switzerland's borders through shortwave transmissions. Radio Beromünster and Radio Monte Ceneri became known as the only free German and Italian-language radio stations in Europe. In 1950 SRG SSR was one of 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union. In 1939 television test transmissions started in Zürich. In 1953 regular TV transmissions started in German – one hour per evening, five days a week – attracting 920 early TV licence buyers. A year in 1954, French transmissions were broadcast from Geneva. For the Italian-speaking region, the programmes were re-transmitted with Italian subtitles until dedicated Italian studios were built in 1958.
50,000 TV licences were bought the first year. In 1960 the company was renamed Schweizerische Radio- und Fernsehgesellschaft to reflect the addition of television services. In 1964 the Federal Council allowed television advertising, as a means of keeping licence fees down. In 1966 the three main languages were each given a second radio channel, in order to counter the effects of new commercial broadcasters outside the country, whose strong signals were reaching the Swiss population. In the same year a dedicated Romansh broadcasting unit was created in Chur, using some of the new German-language second channel's broadcasting time. In 1968 colour television was introduced, the number of licence fee payers passed one million. In 1978 the radio channels started stereo transmissions. In 1983 the Federal Council relaxed the Swiss media legislation to permit local private and commercial radio channels. SRG SSR countered this threat by launching its third set of channels, aimed at a younger audience. In 1991 SRG SSR underwent a wide-ranging restructuring.
The enterprise organised itself as a private industry association, structured as a holding company under Swiss company law. The name, SRG SSR idée suisse, was introduced. In 1992 Radio Rumantsch was separated from the German-language radio broadcaster, that had housed the Romansh broadcasting activities since 1938, in 1994 the Romansh TV activities were moved over as well and the Romansh company renamed itself Radio e Televisiun Rumantscha. SRG SSR is located in Bern, it is governed by a Board of Directors, appointed by a central council consisting of representatives of the four organisations. Broadcasting is handled by five business units: Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen: handles German-speaking radio and television Radio télévision suisse: handles Fr
History of the Eurovision Song Contest
The history of the Eurovision Song Contest began with an idea of Sergio Pugliese, of the Italian television RAI, approved by Marcel Bezençon of the European Broadcasting Union. The contest was based on the Italian Sanremo Music Festival and was designed to test the limits of live television broadcast technology; the first contest took place on 24 May 1956. As the Contest progressed, the rules grew complex and participation levels rose to pass forty nations at the end of the 20th century; as more countries came on board over subsequent decades and technology advanced, the EBU attempted to keep up with national and international trends. The end of the Cold War in the early 1990s led to a sudden increase in numbers, with many former Eastern Bloc countries queuing up to compete for the first time; this process continued into the 2005 contest, in which both Moldova made their debut. Liechtenstein, Vatican City and Kosovo are the only European countries not to have participated. San Marino took part in the 2008 Eurovision Song Contest in Belgrade, together with Azerbaijan.
Australia made their debut in the 2015 contest and became the first country from the Oceania region to participate in the contest. Although their participation was announced as a one-off event, the country was subsequently invited to participate in the 2016 contest; the earliest period in the Eurovision history is marked by the style of songs which participated and the manner in which the show itself was presented. Famous musical and film stars would participate without prejudice, with Italian winners of the Sanremo Festival and such British names as Patricia Bredin and Bryan Johnson. With a live orchestra the norm in the early years, simple sing-a-long songs on every radio station, the Contest grew into a favourite amongst all age groups across the continent. Iconic songs such as "Volare" and France Gall's "Poupée de cire, poupée de son" hit the sales charts in many countries after their Eurovision performance. In the beginning, it was obvious for the participants that they should sing in their country's national language.
However, as the Swedish entry in 1965, "Absent Friend" was sung in English, the EBU set strict rules on the language in which the songs could be performed. National languages had to be used in all lyrics, including Maltese when the island nation made its debut. Songwriters across Europe soon tagged onto the notion that success would only come if the judges could understand the content, resulting in such entries as "Boom-Bang-A-Bang" and "La La La"; the lyrics were allowed to contain occasional phrases in other languages, utilized for example by the Yugoslavian song in 1969. In 1973, the rules on language use was relaxed, in the following year ABBA would win with "Waterloo"; those "freedom of language" rules would be soon reversed in 1977, to return with apparent permanent status in the 1999 contest, with the intervening years waning from highlights to dead-weight years. The "swinging sixties" and punk scenes were all but missed by the contemporary Eurovision periods, whilst the 1980s saw an increase in balladry with an blanket disregard for electronica or guitar-based pop.
Other than infused pop versions, rap has been next to ignored. One result of the attempt to modernise the songs in the Contest was the abolition of the obligatory use of the live orchestra, to which all songs had to perform; this decision was made in 1997 and removed the automatic requirement for songs to be re-composed for playback with a live orchestra. As of 1999, the host country hasn't been obliged to provide a live orchestra, there hasn't been one since. No attempt has been made to return the Contest to the days of symphonic violins. Live music is not allowed; this rule most exists because there isn't enough time to wire the instruments during the short break between the songs. On the other hand, a backing tape may have no voices on it, singing still must be done live. Before 1997 backing tracks were only if all instruments on tape were featured on stage; this explains the odd situation in 1996, when Gina G, entrant for the United Kingdom, had two computer screens on stage. Other than the earliest contests and every entry has been fixed at a maximum three minutes in length.
Previous performers at the Eurovision Song Contest include: European music History by Year Eurovision Song Contest: The Story Sing Your Heart Out, Europe: The Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest 1969
The Eurovision Song Contest 1969 was the 14th in the series. Four countries won the contest, the first time a tie had occurred. However, there was no rule at the time to cover such an eventuality, so all four countries were declared joint winners. France's win was their fourth. France became the first country to win the contest four times; the Netherlands' win was their third. Spain and the United Kingdom each won for the second time, and it was the first time. This is so far the only occasion; the venue selected to host the 1969 contest was an opera house located in Madrid. The theatre reopened in 1966 as a concert theatre and the main concert venue of the Spanish National Orchestra and the RTVE Symphony Orchestra; the final featured an onstage metal sculpture created by surrealist Spanish artist, Salvador Dalí. The surrealist Spanish artist Salvador Dalí was responsible for designing the publicity material for the 1969 contest as well as the metal sculpture, used on stage, it was the first time that the contest resulted in a tie for first place, with four countries each gaining 18 votes.
Since there was at the time no rule to cover such an eventuality, all four countries were declared joint winners. This caused an unfortunate problem concerning the medals due to be distributed to the winners as there were not enough to go round, so that only the singers received their medals on the night: the songwriters, to some disgruntlement, were not awarded theirs until after the date of the contest. Had the tie-break rule been in place, the Netherlands would have won, having received 6 points from France. United Kingdom would have been runner up, having received 5 points from Sweden. On the other hand, with the present tie-break rule been in place, France would have been the overall winner, with Spain in 2nd place. Both countries received votes from 9 countries, but France received 4 points from 2 countries whereas Spain received 3 points as their highest vote. Austria was absent from the contest because they could not find a suitable representative, but it was rumoured that they refused to participate in a contest staged in Franco-ruled Spain.
Wales wanted to debut with Welsh language broadcaster BBC Cymru, made a national selection called Cân i Gymru, but in the end it was decided they would not participate in the competition – their participation was rejected because Wales is not a sovereign state. Only the BBC has the exclusive right to represent the United Kingdom; each performance had a conductor. These are listed below. Five artists returned in this year's contest. Louis Neefs for Belgium who last represented the nation in 1967. Romuald for Luxembourg who represented Monaco last time in 1964; the table below shows the order in which votes were cast during the 1969 contest along with the spokesperson, responsible for announcing the votes for their respective country. Each national broadcaster sent a commentator to the contest, in order to provide coverage of the contest in their own native language. Details of the commentators and the broadcasting stations they represented are included in the table below. Official website
Refrain (Lys Assia song)
"Refrain" was the winning song of the Eurovision Song Contest 1956, co-written by Émile Gardaz and Géo Voumard, performed by Lys Assia representing Switzerland. It was the first-ever winner of the Contest, but not the first-ever performance by Switzerland; this apparent anomaly is due to the rules of the 1956 Contest allowing each competing country to be represented by two songs. Assia represented Switzerland singing both songs, had performed "Das alte Karussell" in German; the song is in the classic chanson mode and laments the lost loves of the singer's "adolescence". The song was performed 9th on the night of the contest, following the Netherlands' Corry Brokken with "Voorgoed voorbij" and preceding Belgium's Mony Marc "Le plus beau jour de ma vie", it was the winner of the contest, however the number of points given to it was never revealed. The song was succeeded as Contest winner in 1957 by Corry Brokken representing the Netherlands singing "Net als toen"; the song was accompanied at the 1956 contest by Assia with "Das alte Karussell" and was succeeded as Swiss representative at the 1957 contest by Assia with "L'enfant que j'étais"
Céline Marie Claudette Dion ChLD is a Canadian singer. Born into a large family from Charlemagne, she emerged as a teen star in her homeland with a series of French-language albums during the 1980s, she first gained international recognition by winning both the 1982 Yamaha World Popular Song Festival and the 1988 Eurovision Song Contest, where she represented Switzerland. After learning to speak English, she signed on to Epic Records in the United States. In 1990, Dion released her debut English-language album, establishing herself as a viable pop artist in North America and other English-speaking areas of the world. During the 1990s, she achieved worldwide fame after releasing several best-selling English albums, such as Falling into You and Let's Talk About Love, which were both certified diamond in the US, she scored a series of international number-one hits, including "The Power of Love", "Think Twice", "Because You Loved Me", "It's All Coming Back to Me Now", "My Heart Will Go On", "I'm Your Angel".
Dion continued releasing French albums between each English record. During the 2000s, she built her reputation as a successful live performer with A New Day... in Las Vegas Strip, which remains the highest-grossing concert residency of all time, as well as the Taking Chances World Tour, one of the highest-grossing concert tours of all time. Dion's music has been influenced by genres, ranging from R&B to gospel and classical, her recordings are in French and English, although she sings in Spanish, German, Latin and Mandarin Chinese. While her releases have received mixed critical reception, she is regarded as one of pop music's most influential voices, she has won five Grammy Awards, including Record of the Year. Billboard named her the "Queen of Adult Contemporary" for having the most number ones on the radio format for a female artist, she is the second best-selling female artist in the US during the Nielsen SoundScan era. In 2003, she was honoured by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry for selling over 50 million albums in Europe.
She remains the best-selling Canadian artist and one of the best-selling artists of all time with record sales of over 200 million copies worldwide. Dion was born in Charlemagne, Quebec, 15 miles northeast of Montreal, the youngest of 14 children of Thérèse, a homemaker, Adhémar Dion, a butcher, both of French-Canadian descent, she was raised a Roman Catholic in a poor, but, by her own account, happy home in Charlemagne. Music had always been a major part of the Dion family, she was named after the song "Céline", which French singer Hugues Aufray had recorded two years before her own birth. On 13 August 1973, at the age of five, the young Céline made her first public appearance at her brother Michel's wedding, where she performed Christine Charbonneau's song "Du fil des aiguilles et du coton", she continued to perform with her siblings in her parents' small piano bar called Le Vieux Baril, "The Old Barrel". From an early age, she had dreamed of being a performer. In a 1994 interview with People magazine, she recalled, "I missed my family and my home, but I don't regret having lost my adolescence.
I had one dream: I wanted to be a singer." At age 12, she collaborated with her mother and her brother Jacques to write and compose her first song, "Ce n'était qu'un rêve", whose title translates as "It Was Only a Dream" or "Nothing But A Dream". Her brother Michel sent the recording to music manager René Angélil, whose name he discovered on the back of a Ginette Reno album. Angélil was decided to make her a star. In 1981, he mortgaged his home to fund her first record, La voix du bon Dieu, which became a local No. 1 hit and made her an instant star in Quebec. Her popularity spread to other parts of the world when she competed in the 1982 Yamaha World Popular Song Festival in Tokyo and won the musician's award for "Top Performer" as well as the gold medal for "Best Song" with "Tellement j'ai d'amour pour toi". By 1983, in addition to becoming the first Canadian artist to receive a gold record in France for the single "D'amour ou d'amitié", Dion had won several Félix Awards, including "Best Female performer" and "Discovery of the Year".
Further success came when she represented Switzerland in the 1988 Eurovision Song Contest with the song "Ne partez pas sans moi" and won the contest by a close margin in Dublin, Ireland. At age eighteen, after seeing a Michael Jackson performance, Dion told Angélil that she wanted to be a star like Jackson. Though confident in her talent, Angélil realized that her image needed to be changed for her to be marketed worldwide, she receded from the spotlight for a number of months, during which she underwent dental surgery to improve her appearance, was sent to the École Berlitz in 1989 to polish her English. In 1989, during a concert on the Incognito tournée, she injured her voice, she consulted the otorhinolaryngologist William Gould, who gave her an ultimatum: have immediate surgery on her vocal cords or do not utilize them at all for three weeks. Dion underwent vocal training with William Riley. Two years after she learned English, Dion made her debut into the Anglophone market with Unison, the lead single having been recorded by Laura Branigan.
She incorporated the help of many established musicians, including Vito Luprano and Canadian producer David Foster. The album was la