Concrete (Pet Shop Boys album)
Concrete is the seventeenth album by the British band Pet Shop Boys. It was released on 23 October 2006. Due to be called Concert, on 20 September 2006, Pet Shop Boys announced that the album was going to be called Concrete, the title that they wanted for the album, it is the first live concert to be released by the band on Audio CD. The performance recorded for the album took place at the Mermaid Theatre on 8 May 2006, as an exclusive for broadcast on BBC Radio 2's Sold on Song programme. Attendance, totalling 600, was by invitation or through winning competitions held by Radio 2 and the band's official website; the event was hosted by the BBC's Stuart Maconie. The 27 May Radio 2 broadcast included an interview conducted by Maconie, but excluded four songs from the running order; the full concert was broadcast on BBC 6 Music on 28 August. Due to the presence of the orchestra, the setlist was composed to consist of songs recorded with an orchestra. Aside from an extensive selection of songs from Fundamental, various non-studio album tracks were chosen, including the arrangement of "Rent" from the Liza Minnelli album Results arranged by Angelo Badalamenti.
"West End Girls" and "It's a Sin" were the only exceptions to the rule, were reworked to integrate the orchestra. Pet Shop Boys are: Neil Tennant Chris LoweOther musicians: Trevor Horn – music director and backing vocals The BBC Concert Orchestra Pete Gleadall – programming Nick Ingman – conductor Anne Dudley – piano, keyboards Phil Palmer – guitar Steve Lipson – guitar Paul Robinson – drums Lol Creme – backing vocals Andy Caine – backing vocals Lucinda Barry – backing vocals Sylvia Mason-James – backing vocals Sally Bradshaw – opera singerGuest singers: Rufus Wainwright Frances Barber Robbie Williams "Left to My Own Devices" "Rent" "You Only Tell Me You Love Me When You're Drunk" "The Sodom and Gomorrah Show" "Casanova in Hell" "After All" "Friendly Fire" "Integral" "Numb" "It's Alright" "Luna Park" "Nothing Has Been Proved" "Jealousy" "Dreaming of the Queen" "It's a Sin" "Indefinite Leave to Remain" "West End Girls" "Radio 2 Concert". Literally. July 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-10. Pet Shop Boys official site All official announcements BBC Radio 2 - Sold on Song Concert page, with photos Boywatch Fan review
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and non-specialty grout. It was developed from other types of hydraulic lime in England in the mid 19th century, originates from limestone, it is a fine powder, produced by heating limestone and clay minerals in a kiln to form clinker, grinding the clinker, adding 2 to 3 percent of gypsum. Several types of Portland cement are available; the most common, called ordinary Portland cement, is grey, but white Portland cement is available. Its name is derived from its similarity to Portland stone, quarried on the Isle of Portland in Dorset, England, it was named by Joseph Aspdin who obtained a patent for it in 1824. However, his son William Aspdin is regarded as the inventor of "modern" Portland cement due to his developments in the 1840s. Portland cement is caustic, so it can cause chemical burns; the powder can cause irritation or, with severe exposure, lung cancer, can contain some hazardous components, such as crystalline silica and hexavalent chromium.
Environmental concerns are the high energy consumption required to mine and transport the cement, the related air pollution, including the release of greenhouse gases, dioxin, NOx, SO2, particulates. The production of Portland cement contributes to about 10% of world carbon dioxide emission. To meet the rising global population, the International Energy Agency estimated that the cement production is set to increase between 12 to 23% by 2050. There are several ongoing researches targeting a suitable replacement of Portland cement by supplementary cementitious materials; the low cost and widespread availability of the limestone and other naturally-occurring materials used in Portland cement make it one of the lowest-cost materials used over the last century. Concrete produced from Portland cement is one of the world's most versatile construction materials. Portland cement was developed from natural cements made in Britain beginning in the middle of the 18th century, its name is derived from its similarity to Portland stone, a type of building stone quarried on the Isle of Portland in Dorset, England.
The development of modern Portland cement began in 1756, when John Smeaton experimented with combinations of different limestones and additives, including trass and pozzolanas, relating to the planned construction of a lighthouse, now known as Smeaton's Tower. In the late 18th century, Roman cement was patented in 1796 by James Parker. Roman cement became popular, but was replaced by Portland cement in the 1850s. In 1811, James Frost produced a cement. James Frost is reported to have erected a manufactory for making of an artificial cement in 1826. In 1811 Edgar Dobbs of Southwark patented a cement of the kind invented 7 years by the French engineer Louis Vicat. Vicat's cement is an artificial hydraulic lime, is considered the'principal forerunner' of Portland cement; the name Portland cement is recorded in a directory published in 1823 being associated with a William Lockwood and others. In his 1824 cement patent, Joseph Aspdin called his invention "Portland cement" because of the its resemblance to Portland stone.
However, Aspdin's cement was nothing like modern Portland cement, but was a first step in the development of modern Portland cement, has been called a'proto-Portland cement'. William Aspdin had left his father's company. In the 1840's William Aspdin accidentally, produced calcium silicates which are a middle step in the development of Portland cement. In 1848, William Aspdin further improved his cement. In 1853, he moved to Germany, where he was involved in cement making. William Aspdin made what could be called'meso-Portland cement'. Isaac Charles Johnson further refined the production of'meso-Portland cement', claimed to be the real father of Portland cement. John Grant of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1859 set out requirements for cement to be used in the London sewer project; this became a specification for Portland cement. The next development in the manufacture of Portland cement was the introduction of the rotary kiln, patented by Frederick Ransome in 1885 and 1886; the Hoffmann'endless' kiln, said to give'perfect control over combustion' was tested in 1860, showed the process produced a better grade of cement.
This cement was made at the Portland Cementfabrik Stern at Stettin, the first to use a Hoffmann kiln.. The Association of German Cement Manufacturers issued a standard on Portland cement in 1878. Portland cement had been imported into the United States from Germany and England, in the 1870s and 1880s, it was being produced by Eagle Portland cement near Kalamazoo, in 1875, the first Portland cement was produced in the Coplay Cement Company Kilns under the direction of David O. Saylor in Coplay, Pennsylvania. By the early 20th century, American-made Portland cement had displaced most of the imported Portland cement. ASTM C150 defines Portland cement as'hydraulic cement produced by pulverizing clinkers which consist of hydraulic calcium silicates containing one or more of the forms of calcium sulfate as an inter ground addition'; the European Standard EN 197-1 uses the following definition: Portland cement clinker is a hydraulic material which shall consist of at l
Nicolaas Thomas Bernhard was an Austrian novelist and poet. Bernhard's body of work has been called "the most significant literary achievement since World War II." He is considered to be one of the most important German-speaking authors of the postwar era. Thomas Bernhard was born in 1931 in Heerlen in the Netherlands, where his unmarried mother Herta Bernhard worked as a maid. From the autumn of 1931 he lived with his grandparents in Vienna until 1937 when his mother, who had married in the meantime, moved him to Traunstein, Bavaria, in Germany. There he was required to join a branch of the Hitler Youth, which he hated. Bernhard's natural father Alois Zuckerstätter was a carpenter and petty criminal who refused to acknowledge his son. Zuckerstätter died in Berlin from gas poisoning in an assumed suicide in 1940. Bernhard's grandfather, the author Johannes Freumbichler, pushed for an artistic education for the boy, including musical instruction. Bernhard went to elementary school in Seekirchen and attended various schools in Salzburg including the Johanneum which he left in 1947 to start an apprenticeship with a grocer.
George Steiner describes Bernhard's schooling as "hideous... under a sadistically repressive system, run first by Catholic priests by Nazis". Bernhard's Lebensmensch was Hedwig Stavianicek, a woman more than thirty-seven years his senior, whom he cared for alone in her dying days, he had met Stavianicek in 1950, the year of his mother's death and one year after the death of his beloved grandfather. Stavianicek was the major support in Bernhard's life and furthered his literary career; the extent or nature of his relationships with women is obscure. Thomas Bernhard's public persona was asexual. Suffering throughout his teens from lung ailments, including tuberculosis, Bernhard spent the years 1949 to 1951 at the Grafenhof sanatorium in Sankt Veit im Pongau, he was always profoundly interested in music. In 1970, he won the Georg Büchner Prize, his lung condition, made a career as a singer impossible. After that he worked as a journalist as a crime reporter, became a full-time writer. After a decade of needing constant medical care for his lungs, Bernhard died in 1989 in Gmunden, Upper Austria, by assisted suicide.
His death was announced only after his funeral. In his will, which aroused great controversy on publication, Bernhard prohibited any new stagings of his plays and publication of his unpublished work in Austria. Bernhard's attractive house in Ohlsdorf-Obernathal 2 where he had moved in 1965 is now a museum and centre for the study and performance of his work. Criticized in Austria as a Nestbeschmutzer for his critical views, Bernhard was acclaimed abroad. While reviled by some Austrians for his outspoken and harsh views of his homeland, including its Nazi past, he was, during his lifetime highly acclaimed in Austria, winning a number of major awards, was seen by many as the pre-eminent writer of the time, his work is most influenced by the feeling of being abandoned and by his incurable illness, which caused him to see death as the ultimate essence of existence. His work features loners' monologues explaining, to a rather silent listener, his views on the state of the world with reference to a concrete situation.
This is true for his plays as well as for his prose, where the monologues are reported second hand by the listener. Alongside his serious and pessimistic views, his works contain some funny observations on life. Bernhard is considered a verbose writer, but Andreas Dorschel has broadened this view by showing that Bernhard’s characters oscillate between excessive speech and economical expressions; as Dorschel argues, the two modes produce a series of oppositions with mutually informing sides. Bernhard's main protagonists scholars or, as he calls them, denounce everything that matters to the Austrian in contumacy-filled tirades against a "stupid populace", he attacks the state respected institutions such as Vienna's Burgtheater, much-loved artists. His work continually deals with the isolation and self-destruction of people striving for an unreachable perfection, since this same perfection would mean stagnancy and therefore death. Anti-Catholic rhetoric is not uncommon. "Es ist alles lächerlich, wenn man an den Tod denkt" was his comment when he received a minor Austrian national award in 1968, which resulted in one of the many public scandals he caused over the years and which became part of his fame.
His novel Holzfällen, for instance, could not be published for years due to a defamation claim by a former friend. Many of his plays—above all Heldenplatz —were met with criticism from many Austrians, who claimed they sullied Austria's reputation. One of the more controversial lines called Austria "a brutal and stupid nation... a mindless, cultureless sewer which spreads its penetrating stench all over Europe." Heldenplatz, as well as the other plays Bernhard wrote in these years, were staged at Vienna's famous Burgtheater by the controversial director Claus Peymann. In death Bernhard caused disturbance by his, as he called it, posth
Concrete (Fear Factory album)
Concrete is an album by Fear Factory, released on July 30, 2002. It contains songs recorded in 1991 which were intended to be the band's first release, half of which were re-recorded a year and released on their debut album Soul of a New Machine. Although released in 2002, Concrete was recorded in 1991 in Blackie Lawless's studios, it was intended to be Fear Factory's first release, but the band wasn't happy with the record deal they were in, so they left their producer, Ross Robinson. When they were taken to court, Robinson won the rights to the album, the band retained the rights to the songs. Fear Factory would re-record eight of the songs for their 1992 debut, Soul of a New Machine, recording under the name "Factoría de Miedo" to hide from their label. Robinson would use the album to promote himself leading to him producing Korn, which would make him the most sought-after nu metal producer of the 1990s. After the band's breakup in 2002, Roadrunner Records released the album to help meet unfulfilled contractual obligations.
Eight of the songs on Concrete were re-recorded in 1992 and released on Soul of a New Machine: "Big God/Raped Souls", "Arise Above Oppression", "Crisis", "Escape Confusion", "Dragged Down by the Weight of Existence", "Desecrate", "Suffer Age", "Self Immolation". "Concrete" was renamed as "Concreto" and re-recorded as a b-side for the "Dog Day Sunrise" single, appeared as a bonus track for the digipak release of Obsolete. "Piss Christ" is not the same song as "Pisschrist". "Ulceration" is named after the band's original name. "Sangre de Niños" was featured on one of the Cry Now, Cry Later 7" compilations released under the "Factoría de Miedo" moniker. "Soulwound" is a renamed and re-recorded version of "Soulwomb". The opening guitar riff in "Echoes of Innocence" was used as a synthesized motif in "A Therapy for Pain", the final track on Demanufacture; the title appears in that song as a lyric. Writing and production credits are adapted from the album liner notes. Burton C. Bell − vocals Dino Cazares − guitar, bass Raymond Herrera − drums Andy Romero − bass Dave Gibney − spoken word intro on "Big God", vocals on "Raped Souls" Ross Robinson − production, mixing Mikey Davis − engineering, mixing Eddy Schreyer − mastering t42design – art direction, design Howard Rosenberg – photography Rick Ferdinande – photography Blackie Lawless's Fort Apache Studio, Los Angeles, CA, USA – engineering, mixing Oasis Mastering, Los Angeles, CA, USA – mastering
Asphalt known as bitumen, is a sticky and viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, is classed as a pitch. Before the 20th century, the term asphaltum was used; the word is derived from the Ancient Greek ἄσφαλτος ásphaltos. The primary use of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete, its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance. In American English, "asphalt" is used for a refined residue from the distillation process of selected crude oils. Outside the United States, the product is called "bitumen", geologists worldwide prefer the term for the occurring variety. Common colloquial usage refers to various forms of asphalt as "tar", as in the name of the La Brea Tar Pits.
Occurring asphalt is sometimes specified by the term "crude bitumen". Its viscosity is similar to that of cold molasses while the material obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil boiling at 525 °C is sometimes referred to as "refined bitumen"; the Canadian province of Alberta has most of the world's reserves of natural asphalt in the Athabasca oil sands, which cover 142,000 square kilometres, an area larger than England. The word "asphalt" is derived from the late Middle English, in turn from French asphalte, based on Late Latin asphalton, the latinisation of the Greek ἄσφαλτος, a word meaning "asphalt/bitumen/pitch", which derives from ἀ-, "without" and σφάλλω, "make fall"; the first use of asphalt by the ancients was in the nature of a cement for securing or joining together various objects, it thus seems that the name itself was expressive of this application. Herodotus mentioned that bitumen was brought to Babylon to build its gigantic fortification wall. From the Greek, the word passed into late Latin, thence into French and English.
In French, the term asphalte is used for occurring asphalt-soaked limestone deposits, for specialised manufactured products with fewer voids or greater bitumen content than the "asphaltic concrete" used to pave roads. The expression "bitumen" originated in the Sanskrit words jatu, meaning "pitch", jatu-krit, meaning "pitch creating" or "pitch producing"; the Latin equivalent is claimed by some to be gwitu-men, by others, subsequently shortened to bitumen, thence passing via French into English. From the same root is derived the Anglo-Saxon word cwidu, the German word Kitt and the old Norse word kvada. In British English, "bitumen" is used instead of "asphalt"; the word "asphalt" is instead used to refer to asphalt concrete, a mixture of construction aggregate and asphalt itself. Bitumen mixed with clay was called "asphaltum", but the term is less used today. In Australian English, the word "asphalt" is used to describe a mix of construction aggregate. "Bitumen" refers to the liquid derived from the heavy-residues from crude oil distillation.
In American English, "asphalt" is equivalent to the British "bitumen". However, "asphalt" is commonly used as a shortened form of "asphalt concrete". In Canadian English, the word "bitumen" is used to refer to the vast Canadian deposits of heavy crude oil, while "asphalt" is used for the oil refinery product. Diluted bitumen is known as "dilbit" in the Canadian petroleum industry, while bitumen "upgraded" to synthetic crude oil is known as "syncrude", syncrude blended with bitumen is called "synbit"."Bitumen" is still the preferred geological term for occurring deposits of the solid or semi-solid form of petroleum. "Bituminous rock" is a form of sandstone impregnated with bitumen. The oil sands of Alberta, Canada are a similar material. Neither of the terms "asphalt" or "bitumen" should be confused with coal tars. Tar is the thick liquid product of the dry distillation and pyrolysis of organic hydrocarbons sourced from vegetation masses, whether fossilized as with coal, or freshly harvested; the majority of bitumen, on the other hand, was formed when vast quantities of organic animal materials were deposited by water and buried hundreds of metres deep at the diagenetic point, where the disorganized fatty hydrocarbon molecules joined together in long chains in the absence of oxygen.
Bitumen occurs as a solid or viscous liquid. It may be mixed in with coal deposits. Bitumen, coal using the Bergius process, can be refined into petrols such as gasoline, bitumen may be distilled into tar, not the other way around; the components of asphalt include four main classes of compounds: Naphthene aromatics, consisting of hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic compounds Polar aromatics, consisting of high molecular weight phenols and carboxylic acids produced by partial oxidation of the material Saturated hydrocarbons. Most natural bitumens a
Concrete poetry is an arrangement of linguistic elements in which the typographical effect is more important in conveying meaning than verbal significance. It is sometimes referred to as visual poetry, a term that has now developed a distinct meaning of its own. Concrete poetry relates more to the visual than to the verbal arts although there is a considerable overlap in the kind of product to which it refers. However, concrete poetry has developed from a long tradition of shaped or patterned poems in which the words are arranged in such a way as to depict their subject. Though the term ‘concrete poetry’ is modern, the idea of using letter arrangements to enhance the meaning of a poem is old; such shaped poetry was popular in Greek Alexandria during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, although only the handful which were collected together in the Greek Anthology now survive. Examples include poems by Simmias of Rhodes in the shape of an egg, wings and a hatchet, as well as Theocritus’ pan-pipes; the post-Classical revival of shaped poetry seems to begin with the Gerechtigkeitsspirale, a relief carving of a poem at the pilgrimage church of St. Valentin in the German town of Hesse.
The text is carved in the form of a spiral on the front of one of the church pews and is one of several decorative designs there created in 1510 by master carpenter Erhart Falckener. Early religious examples of shaped poems in English include "Easter Wings" and "The Altar" in George Herbert’s The Temple and Robert Herrick’s "This crosstree here", set in the shape of a cross, from his Noble Numbers. An alternative religious precursor is Micrography, a technique for creating visual images used by Hebrew artists, which involves organizing small arrangements of Biblical texts such that they form images which illustrate the subject of the text. Micrography allows the creation of images of natural objects by Jews without directly breaking the prohibition of creating "graven images" that might be interpreted as idolatry; the technique is now used by both religious and secular artists and is similar to the use of Arabic texts in Islamic calligraphy. European secular examples include poems in the shape of wine flagons by Rabelais and Charles-François Panard, the Slovene France Prešeren's "A Toast" with stanzas in the shape of wine-glasses.
A popular example was Lewis Carroll's The Mouse's Tale, published in 1865 in his Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. This approach was taken up at the start of the 20th century by Guillaume Apollinaire in his Calligrammes, with poems in, among others, the shape of a necktie, a fountain and raindrops running down a window. In that era there were typographical experiments by members of avant-garde movements such as Futurism and Surrealism in which lay-out moved from an auxiliary expression of meaning to artistic primacy, thus the significance of the sound poetry in Marinetti’s Zang Tumb Tumb is expressed through pictorial means. In Germany Raoul Hausmann claimed that the typographic style of his'Phonemes' allowed the reader to recognise what sound was intended. In Russia the Futurist poet Vasily Kamensky went so far as to term the typography of his Tango with Cows, published in 1914,'ferro-concrete poems', long before the name became current elsewhere. A further move away from overt meaning occurred where ‘poems’ were simplified to a simple arrangement of the letters of the alphabet.
Louis Aragon, for example, exhibited the sequence from a to z and titled it "Suicide", while Kurt Schwitters’ "ZA" has the alphabet in reverse, the Catalan writer Josep Maria Junoy placed just the letters Z and A at the top and bottom of the page under the title "Ars Poetica". During the early 1950s two Brazilian artistic groups producing abstract and impersonal work were joined by poets linked to the São Paulo magazine Noigandres who began to treat language in an abstract way, their work was termed "concrete poetry" after they exhibited along with the artists in the National Exhibition of Concrete Art. The poets included Augusto de Campos, Haroldo de Campos and Décio Pignatari, who were joined in the exhibition by Ferreira Gullar, Ronaldo Azeredo and Wlademir Dias Pino from Rio de Janeiro. In 1958 a Brazilian concrete poetry manifesto was published and an anthology in 1962. Houédard claimed that it was the 1962 publication in The Times Literary Supplement of a letter from the Portuguese E.
M. de Melo e Castro that awakened British writers such as himself, Ian Hamilton Finlay and Edwin Morgan to the possibilities of Concrete Poetry. However, there were by this time other European writers producing similar work, principally Eugen Gomringer, who considered that a poem should be "a reality in itself" rather than a statement about reality, "as understood as signs in airports and traffic signs"; the difficulty in defining such a style is admitted by Houédard’s statement that "a printed concrete poem is ambiguously both typographic-poetry and poetic-typography". Another difficulty of definition is caused by the way such works cross artistic boundaries into the areas of music and sculpture, or can alternatively be defined as sound poetry, visual poetry, found poetry and typewriter art. Henri Chopin’s work was related to his musical treatment of the word. Kenelm Cox was a kinetic artist "interested in the linear, serial aspects of visual experience but in the process of change," whose revolving machines transcended the static page in being able to express this.
Ian Hamilton Finlay’s concrete poetry began on the page but moved towards three dimensional figuration and afterwards to site-specific art in the creation of his sculpture garden at Little Sparta. The Italian Maurizi
Concrete is a town in north-central Skagit County, United States. The population was 732 at the 2010 census; the town of Concrete is included in the Mount Vernon-Anacortes, Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area. The town of Concrete has undergone several incarnations, the earliest being a settlement at the northwestern junction of the Baker and Skagit Rivers, known as "Minnehaha." Amasa "Peg-Leg" Everett was one of the earliest settlers and in 1890, the townsite was platted by another settler, Magnus Miller. Shortly thereafter, a post office was established and the town name changed to "Baker." In 1905, a settlement across the Baker River came into being due to the building of the Washington Portland Cement Company and was named "Cement City." After the Superior Portland Cement Company plant was built in Baker in 1908, it was decided to merge the two towns. Inhabitants of the new community settled on the name "Concrete" and the town was so christened and incorporated on May 8, 1909; the town of Concrete is home to many old and original buildings, as well as a couple of engineering milestones: Built in 1916–1918 and so named for the Scottish immigrant, local settler, Skagit County Commissioner who promoted its construction.
The naming occurred after Henry Thompson was killed by a logging train in 1918. At the time, its graceful arch was the longest single-span reinforced concrete bridge in the world or just in the West and has been listed on the Washington State and National Historic Register since 1976; until 1972, when the Washington State Department of Transportation re-routed Highway 20 outside the town, the Thompson Bridge was the only connecting thoroughfare across the Baker River and into eastern Skagit County. The bridge was designed by Bowerman and McCloy Consulting Engineers of Seattle, built by J. R. Wood Contractors of Seattle, it underwent a complete rehabilitation in 2003-2004. The engineer for the rehabilitation was Entranco, Inc. of Bellevue and the contractor for the rehabilitation was One Way Construction of Sedro-Woolley, Washington. Concrete High School was built in 1952. Constructed with the typical and necessary scholastic appointments and one visible and unusual difference: the central portion of the building was built over the road leading to it.
To make the best use of the property, South Superior Avenue passes beneath the building. The building replaced the previous high school building in the center of town; the hallways and the wood shop were used during the filming of the Michael Caton-Jones film, This Boy's Life in 1992. Concrete High School's school colors are purple and gold and their team mascot is the Lion. CHS's sports teams participate in the Northwest 2B/1A league under the Washington Interscholastic Activities Association. Concrete's Future Business Leaders of America was the fastest growing in the state during the 2012-13 school year. Located in the heart of Concrete Town Center on Main Street, the Concrete Herald Building was built in 1918 as a Model T Ford garage complete with a gas-station out front; when the building was converted to be the Brommer Logging facility, a large apartment was added to the upper story. It was shortly after this that Concrete Herald owner and editor Charles M. "Chuck" Dwelley took over the building and made it into a modern printing facility and new home of The Concrete Herald.
When Robert and June Fader purchased the newspaper upon Dwelley's retirement in late 1970, the building remained the home for the weekly. When the building and newspaper were sold in 1990, the facility became a printing shop until the current owners turned the first floor into a liquor store franchise through the state liquor control board; the Concrete Herald Building has remained a liquor store to this date. As for Concrete Herald, Concrete Mayor Jason Miller has given rebirth to the newspaper after purchasing the Upriver Community News from another local resident; as of May 6, 2009, Concrete Herald began a monthly publication schedule. The newspaper is sold in various locations throughout Skagit County. Built in 1908 as a grade-school, this wooden, clapboard building was located on Main Street across from the bank where classes were taught until 1910; when the building was no longer used as a schoolhouse, it was moved to its present location on West Main Street, next to the current post office.
In its present location, the building has served alternately as a library, senior-citizen center, the city's current town hall with a satellite office for the Skagit County Sheriff's Department. Built in 1923, the stage of the Concrete Theatre has entertained audiences with vaudeville, boxing matches, silent films and what were known as "the talkies"; the building is listed on the Washington Heritage Register At the time Lower Baker Dam was completed in 1925 and two years raised to 293 feet, it was the highest hydroelectric dam in the world. It is owned and maintained by Puget Sound Energy. Author Tobias Wolff spent a large part of his teenage years in the Concrete area. Wolff's memoir This Boy's Life chronicles his early life living in eastern Skagit County and attending Concrete High School. In 1993, the novel was turned into a feature film starring Leonardo DiCaprio, Robert De Niro, Ellen Barkin; the movie's exterior scenes of Concrete were filmed in the town of Concrete and the surrounding area and a number of local residents were used as extras.
In order to fit the "look" of 1950s-era Concrete, the town itself was transformed back in time "Hollywood style" for the weeks that filming took plac