Digital rights management
Digital rights management schemes are various access control technologies that are used to restrict usage of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works. DRM technologies try to control the use and distribution of copyrighted works, the use of digital rights management is not universally accepted. Furthermore, works can become permanently inaccessible if the DRM scheme changes or if the service is discontinued, the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Free Software Foundation consider the use of DRM systems to be an anti-competitive practice. Worldwide, many laws have been created which criminalize the circumvention of DRM, communication about such circumvention, such laws are part of the United States Digital Millennium Copyright Act, and the European Unions Copyright Directive. The term DRM is referred to as copy protection, technical protection measures, copy prevention, or copy control. The advent of digital media and analog-to-digital conversion technologies has vastly increased the concerns of copyright-owning individuals and these concerns are particularly prevalent within the music and movie industries, because these sectors are partly or wholly dependent on the revenue generated from such works.
This, combined with the Internet and popular file-sharing tools, has made unauthorized distribution of copies of copyrighted digital media much easier, DRM technologies enable content publishers to enforce their own access policies on content, such as restrictions on copying or viewing. These technologies have been criticized for restricting individuals from copying or using the content legally, DRM is in common use by the entertainment industry. However, Apple dropped DRM from all iTunes music files around 2009, for instance, tractor companies try to prevent the DIY repairing by the owning farmers under usage of DRM-laws as DMCA. Digital Rights Management Techniques include, Restrictive Licensing Agreements, The access to materials, copyright. Some restrictive licenses are imposed on consumers as a condition of entering a website or when downloading software, Scrambling of expressive material and embedding of a tag, This technology is designed to control access and reproduction of information.
This includes backup copies for personal use, computer games sometimes use DRM technologies to limit the number of systems the game can be installed on by requiring authentication with an online server. Most games with this restriction allow three or five installs, although some allow an installation to be recovered when the game is uninstalled. In mid-2008, the publication of Mass Effect marked the start of a wave of titles primarily making use of SecuROM for DRM, the use of the DRM scheme in 2008s Spore backfired and there were protests, resulting in a considerable number of users seeking an unlicensed version instead. This backlash against the limit was a significant factor in Spore becoming the most pirated game in 2008. Additionally, other games that use intrusive DRM such as BioShock, Crysis Warhead. Although Ubisoft has not commented on the results of the experiment, Ubisoft formally announced a return to online authentication on 9 February 2010, through its Uplay online gaming platform, starting with Silent Hunter 5, The Settlers 7, and Assassins Creed II.
Silent Hunter 5 was first reported to have been compromised within 24 hours of release, the Uplay system works by having the installed game on the local PCs incomplete and continuously downloading parts of the game-code from Ubisofts servers as the game progresses
Television encryption, often referred to as scrambling, is encryption used to control access to pay television services, usually cable or satellite television services. Pay television exists to make revenue from subscribers, and sometimes those subscribers do not pay, the prevention of piracy on cable and satellite networks has been one of the main factors in the development of Pay TV encryption systems. The early cable-based Pay TV networks used no security and this led to problems with people connecting to the network without paying. Consequently, some methods were developed to frustrate these self-connectors, the early Pay TV systems for cable television were based on a number of simple measures. The most common of these was a filter that would effectively stop the channel being received by those who had not subscribed. These filters would be added or removed according to the subscription, as the number of television channels on these cable networks grew, the filter-based approach became increasingly impractical.
Other techniques such as adding an interfering signal to the video or audio began to be used as the simple solutions were easily bypassed. As the technology evolved, addressable set-top boxes became common, and more complex scrambling techniques such as encryption of the audio or video cut. Encryption was used to protect satellite-distributed feeds for cable television networks, some of the systems used for cable feed distribution were expensive. As the DTH market grew, less secure systems began to be used, all of these analogue scrambling techniques were easily defeated. In France, Canal+ launched a service in 1984. It was claimed that it was an unbreakable system, unfortunately for that company, an electronics magazine, Radio Plans, published a design for a pirate decoder within a month of the channel launching. In the USA, HBO was one of the first services to encrypt its signal using the VideoCipher II system, one of FilmNets main attractions was that it would screen hard-core porn films on various nights of the week.
The VideoCipher II system proved somewhat difficult to hack. Analog and digital pay television have several conditional access systems that are used for pay-per-view, analog-only cable television systems relied on set-top boxes to control access to programming, as television sets originally were not cable-ready. Analog encryption was typically limited to channels such as HBO or channels with adult-oriented content. In those cases, various proprietary video synchronization suppression methods were used to access to programming. This, however lead to a part of the video signal being received as audio as well
Laptops are folded shut for transportation, and thus are suitable for mobile use. Although originally there was a distinction between laptops and notebooks, the former being bigger and heavier than the latter, as of 2014, there is often no longer any difference. Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in education, Internet surfing using sites such as YouTube and for personal multimedia, most 2016-era laptops have integrated webcams and built-in microphones. Laptops can be powered either from a battery or by an external power supply from an AC adapter. Hardware specifications, such as the speed and memory capacity. Design elements, form factor, and construction can vary significantly between models depending on intended use, as portable computers evolved into the modern laptop, they became widely used for a variety of purposes. The terms laptop and notebook are used interchangeably to describe a computer in English. Regardless of the etymology, by the late 1990s, the terms were interchangeable, as the personal computer became feasible in 1971, the idea of a portable personal computer soon followed.
A personal, portable information manipulator was imagined by Alan Kay at Xerox PARC in 1968, the IBM Special Computer APL Machine Portable was demonstrated in 1973. This prototype was based on the IBM PALM processor, the IBM5100, the first commercially available portable computer, appeared in September 1975, and was based on the SCAMP prototype. As 8-bit CPU machines became widely accepted, the number of portables increased rapidly, the Osborne 1, released in 1981, used the Zilog Z80 and weighed 23.6 pounds. It had no battery, a 5 in CRT screen, in the same year the first laptop-sized portable computer, the Epson HX-20, was announced. The Epson had an LCD screen, a battery. Both Tandy/RadioShack and HP produced portable computers of varying designs during this period, the first laptops using the flip form factor appeared in the early 1980s. The Dulmont Magnum was released in Australia in 1981–82, but was not marketed internationally until 1984–85, the US$8,150 GRiD Compass 1101, released in 1982, was used at NASA and by the military, among others.
The Sharp PC-5000, Ampere and Gavilan SC released in 1983, the Gavilan SC was the first computer described as a laptop by its manufacturer, while the Ampere had a modern clamshell design. The Toshiba T1100 won acceptance not only among PC experts but the market as a way to have PC portability. From 1983 onward, several new techniques were developed and included in laptops, including the touchpad, the pointing stick
The card is usually provided by the local cable operator, typically for a nominal monthly fee. Some technologies not only refer to the card, but to a device that uses the card. Some CableCARD technologies can be used with devices that have no physical CableCARD, the CableCARD was the outcome of a U. S. It was believed that this would provide consumers with more choices, up to 2016, less than 2% of set-top boxes were purchased by consumers in the retail market since CableCARD was rolled out, indicating that CableCARD failed in its objective. Some argued that the CableCARD initiative actually cost Americans billions of dollars in fees, increased energy consumption. The portion of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 which resulted in the creation of CableCARDs is known as Section 629, multichannel video programming refers to cable or satellite television. The thought was that consumers would benefit from wider choices due to competition between consumer electronics manufacturers unaffiliated with cable companies, the FCC was charged with working with the industry to carry out the directives of the 1996 law.
The separable security device was referred to in FCC regulations as a Point of Deployment module, after many requests for delay from the cable industry, the first CableCARD devices became available from third party manufacturers in August 2004. As of November 1,2011, all US cable operators were required to allow self-installation of CableCARDs by consumers, a major concern was that cable operators were not motivated to provide efficient security access mechanisms to equipment competitors. This rule is referred to as the integration ban, and was unsuccessfully challenged in the courts. The deadline was shifted forward twice until it went into effect on July 1,2007, the ban on integrated security ended in December 2015. CableCARD is a term trademarked by CableLabs for the Point of Deployment module defined by standards including SCTE28, SCTE41, CEA-679, the cable tuner, QAM demodulator, and MPEG decoder are part of the host equipment. The card performs any conditional access and decryption functions, and provides a MPEG-2 transport stream to the host, the card receives messages sent over the out-of-band signaling channel by the cable companys headend servers and forwards them to the host.
CableCARDs may be used to both standard definition and high definition channels as long as they are not part of a switched video system. CableCARDs are not necessary for viewing unscrambled digital cable channels if the user has a QAM tuner—a feature in some televisions, CableCARD support is most common on higher end televisions that include a special slot for the CableCARD and a built-in cable tuner. The card acts like a key to unlock the channels and services to which the cable customer has subscribed. Televisions that support CableCARD should be labeled by the manufacturer as digital cable ready, Interactive features such as video on demand rely on the CableCARD Host device being an OpenCable Host Device and have nothing to do with the physical card. This makes the use of the phrase CableCARD2.0 as a requirement for video on demand misleading
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it. Encryption does not of itself prevent interference, but denies the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor, in an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm, generating ciphertext that can only be read if decrypted. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually uses an encryption key generated by an algorithm. It is in possible to decrypt the message without possessing the key. An authorized recipient can decrypt the message with the key provided by the originator to recipients. In symmetric-key schemes, the encryption and decryption keys are the same, communicating parties must have the same key before they can achieve secure communication. In public-key encryption schemes, the key is published for anyone to use. However, only the party has access to the decryption key that enables messages to be read.
Public-key encryption was first described in a document in 1973. Encryption has long used by militaries and governments to facilitate secret communication. It is now used in protecting information within many kinds of civilian systems. Encryption can be used to protect data at rest, such as stored on computers. In recent years, there have been reports of confidential data, such as customers personal records. Encrypting such files at rest helps protect them should physical security measures fail, in response to encryption of data at rest, cyber-adversaries have developed new types of attacks. There have been reports of data in transit being intercepted in recent years. Data should be encrypted when transmitted across networks in order to protect against eavesdropping of network traffic by unauthorized users, standards for cryptographic software and hardware to perform encryption are widely available, but successfully using encryption to ensure security may be a challenging problem. A single error in design or execution can allow successful attacks.
Sometimes an adversary can obtain unencrypted information without directly undoing the encryption, see, e. g. traffic analysis, TEMPEST, or Trojan horse
In computing, PC Card is a configuration for computer parallel communication peripheral interface, designed for laptop computers. Originally introduced as PCMCIA, the PC Card standard as well as its successors like CardBus were defined and developed by the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association and it was originally designed as a standard for memory-expansion cards for computer storage. The existence of a general standard for notebook peripherals led to many kinds of devices being made available based on its configurability, including network cards, modems. The PCMCIA1.0 card standard was published by the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association in November 1990 and was adopted by more than eighty vendors. It corresponds with the Japanese JEIDA memory card 4.0 standard, sanDisk launched its PCMCIA card in October 1992. The company was the first to introduce a writeable Flash RAM card for the HP 95LX and these cards conformed to a supplemental PCMCIA-ATA standard that allowed them to appear as more conventional IDE hard drives to the 95LX or a PC.
This had the advantage of raising the limit on capacity to the full 32M available under DOS3.22 on the 95LX. It soon became clear that the PCMCIA card standard needed expansion to support smart I/O cards to address the emerging need for fax, modem, LAN, harddisk and it needed interrupt facilities and hot plugging, which required the definition of new BIOS and operating system interfaces. This led to the introduction of release 2.0 of the PCMCIA standard and JEIDA4.1 in September 1991, many notebooks in the 1990s had two adjacent type-II slots, which allowed installation of two type-II cards or one, double-thickness, type-III card. The cards were used in early digital SLR cameras, such as the Kodak DCS300 series. However, their use as storage expansion is no longer common. The PC Card port has been superseded by the ExpressCard interface since 2003, some Japanese brand consumer entertainment devices such as TV sets include a PC Card slot for playback of media. PC Card = PCMCIA Card, 16-bit or 32-bit PC Card 32-bit version = Cardbus 16-bit vs.
32-bit,32 bit includes DMA or bus mastering, 16-bit does not Types I–III, Type I, configuration thickness 3.3 mm Type II, 16-bit or 32-bit. Configuration thickness 5.0 mm Type III, 16-bit or 32-bit, configuration thickness 10.5 mm PC Card was superseded by ExpressCard in 2003. PCMCIA stands for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, the group of companies that defined the standard and this acronym was difficult to say and remember, and was sometimes jokingly referred to as People Cant Memorize Computer Industry Acronyms. To recognize increased scope beyond memory, and to aid in marketing and this was the name of the standard from version 2 of the specification onwards. These cards were used for wireless networks and other functions in notebook PCs, all PC Card devices use a similar sized package which is 85.6 millimetres long and 54.0 millimetres wide, the same size as a credit card. The shape is used by the Common Interface form of conditional-access modules for DVB broadcasts
Digital terrestrial television
Digital terrestrial television is a technological evolution of broadcast television and an advancement over analog television. A terrestrial implementation of digital television uses a aerial to broadcast to a conventional television antenna instead of a satellite dish or cable television connection. The amount of data that can be transmitted is directly affected by channel capacity, the modulation method in DVB-T is COFDM with either 64 or 16-state Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. In general, a 64QAM channel is capable of transmitting a bit rate. 16 and 64QAM constellations can be combined in a single multiplex, the DVB-T standard is not used for terrestrial digital television in North America. Instead, the ATSC standard calls for 8VSB modulation, which has similar characteristics to the vestigial sideband modulation used for analog television. This provides considerably more immunity to interference, but is not immune — as DVB-T is — to multipath distortion, both systems use the MPEG transport stream and H.
262/MPEG-2 Part 2 video codec specified in MPEG-2, they differ significantly in how related services are encoded. DTTV is received either via a digital set-top box, TV gateway or integrated tuner included with television sets, some set-top-boxes and TV gateways include digital video recorder functionality. This is quite common in the UK, see external links, indoor aerials are even more likely to be affected by these issues and possibly need replacing. Main articles, List of digital television deployments by country, Digital television transition Afghanistan started digital transmissions in MPEG-4 on Sunday,31 August 2014, Afghanistan adopted DVB-T2 system for digital television. India adopted DVB-T system for television in July 1999. The first DVB-T transmission was started on 26 January 2003 in the four metropolitan cities by Doordarshan. Currently the terrestrial transmission is available in digital and analog formats. 4 high power DVB-T transmitters were set up in the top 4 cities, an additional 190 high power, and 400 low power DVB-T2 transmitters have been approved for Tier I, II and III cities of the country by 2017.
The Indian telecom regulator, TRAI, had recommended the I&B to allow private broadcast companies to use the DTT technology, so far, the Indian I&B ministry only permits private broadcast companies to use satellite, cable and IPTV based systems. Israel started digital transmissions in MPEG-4 on Sunday,2 August 2009, Israel was the first nation in the Middle East and the first non-European nation to shut down its analogue TV distribution system. The new service which is operated by the Second Authority for Radio, according to government decisions, the system will expand to include two additional multiplexes that will carry new channels and HD versions of the existing channels. In this matter nothing has been decided upon until the end on 2012, on 20 March 2013 it was announced that Thomson Broadcast had won a major contract with The Second Authority for Television and Radio for the extension of its nationwide DVB-T/DVB-T2 network
Common Scrambling Algorithm
The Common Scrambling Algorithm is the encryption algorithm used in the DVB digital television broadcasting for encrypting video streams. CSA was specified by ETSI and adopted by the DVB consortium in May 1994 and it is being succeeded by CSA3, based on a combination of 128-bit AES and a confidential block cipher, XRC. However, CSA3 is not yet in any significant use, so CSA continues to be the dominant cipher for protecting DVB broadcasts, CSA was largely kept secret until 2002. The patent papers gave some hints, but important details, like the layout of the so-called S-boxes, without these, free implementations of the algorithm were out of question. Initially, CSA was to remain implemented in hardware only, in 2002 FreeDec was released, implementing CSA in software. Though released as only, disassembly revealed the missing details. With CSA now publicly known in its entirety, cryptanalysts started looking for weaknesses, the CSA algorithm is composed of two distinct ciphers, a block cipher and a stream cipher.
When used in encryption mode the data are first encrypted using the 64 bits block cipher in CBC mode, the stream cipher is applied from packet start. The block cipher process 64 bits blocks in 56 rounds and it uses 1 byte from expanded key on each round. The first 32 round of the cipher are used for initialization. The first 64 bits of data are used as initialization vector during this phase and are left unchanged, the stream cipher generates 2 bits of pseudo-random stream on each round which are xored starting at bit 64 of the packet. Were CSA to be broken, encrypted DVB transmissions would be decipherable, the stream cipher part of CSA is prone to bit slicing, a software implementation technique that allows decryption of many blocks, or the same block with many different keys, at the same time. This significantly speeds up a brute force search implemented in software, however, as all operations are on 8-bit subblocks, the algorithm can be implemented using regular SIMD, or a form of “byteslicing”.
Both techniques are used in libdvbcsa, an implementation of CSA. Cryptanalysis is made difficult by the fact that most data is protected both by the block and the stream cipher. While the CSA algorithm uses 64-bit keys, most of the time, only 48 bits of the key are unknown, since bytes 3 and 7 are used as parity bytes in CA systems, and may be easily recalculated. This opens up for possible known plaintext attacks when combined with knowledge of the plaintext structure. For instance, as the first three bytes of the PES header is known to always be 0x000001, it would be possible to launch a brute force attack, however,48 bits, even if small by todays standards, is a significant amount of keyspace to search through
Cisco Videoscape is a former Israeli development group that has been acquired by Cisco, which develops software for the pay TV industry. NDS Group was established in 1988 as an Israeli start up company and it was acquired by Cisco in 2012. The company is headquartered in Staines, United Kingdom. Filling The Executive Chairman and CEO roles at NDS is Abe Peled with former CEO Dave Habiger having left in 2012, the companys major product is the VideoGuard conditional access system, which is used by more than 85 leading pay TV operators around the world. NDS technology includes end to end connections for satellite, broadband IPTV, Hybrid, OTT, NDS provides advanced advertising, professional services and system integration services. New ways to secure content on PCs, and other devices are displayed at IBC, Cisco Systems announced the acquisition of the company in March,2012. It was acquired successfully and in 2014 its name was changed into Videoscape, the company was based on technology developed by the Israeli cryptographer Adi Shamir and his partner Amos Fiat.
Shamir and Fiat devised a solution for the encryption system used in satellite broadcasts. In 1992, one year after finalizing its product, the company was acquired by its customer, News Corp, for $15 million. In 1999, the company trading as a public company on the NASDAQ stock exchange. In 2009, Permira and News Corporation announced a $3.6 billion arrangement for buying the public holding in NDS, in July 2010, Orbis Technology acquired Alphameric Solutions, a provider of technology to the bookmaking marketplace, from Alphameric PLC for £15.5 million. In February 2011, Orbis Technology was sold by NDS for £208 million, in June 2002, NDS acquired Visionik A/S, a Danish company which provides digital interactive broadcast technology. In August 2003, NDS acquired all the property assets of a French interactive TV technology company Interactif Delta Production S. A. In October 2006, NDS acquired Danish game design company ITE, on December 4,2006, NDS acquired Jungo, which provides software for residential gateways, for an aggregate consideration of up to $107.5 million in cash.
On March 15,2012, Cisco Systems announced its intent to acquire NDS Group and it was acquired successfully and in 2014 its name was changed into Videoscape, becoming a part of Cisco. In 1996, NDS was investigated by Israeli authorities for allegations of tax irregularities, none was proven but NDS paid a $3m settlement to close the case. In 2002, Canal Plus accused NDS of extracting the UserROM code from the MediaGuard cards, Canal Plus brought a $3 billion lawsuit against NDS but dropped the action. News Corporation agreed to buy Canal Pluss struggling Italian operation Telepiu, EchoStar alleged that in the 90’s NDS was responsible for the compromise of EchoStar’s satellite television programming platform through the posting of code on the DR7 website
Sky UK Limited is a telecommunications company which serves the United Kingdom. Sky provides television and broadband services, fixed line and mobile telephone services to consumers. It is the UKs largest pay-TV broadcaster with 11 million customers as of 2015 and it was the UKs most popular digital TV service until it was overtaken by Freeview in April 2007. Its corporate headquarters are based in Isleworth, formed in November 1990 by the equal merger of Sky Television and British Satellite Broadcasting, Sky became the UKs largest digital subscription television company. Following Skys 2014 acquisition of Sky Italia and a majority 90. 04% interest in Sky Deutschland in November 2014, the United Kingdom operations changed the company name from British Sky Broadcasting Limited to Sky UK Limited, still trading as Sky. Sky UK Limited is an owned subsidiary of Sky plc, with its current company directors being Andrew Griffith. Griffith acts as the Chief Financial Officer and the Managing Director for the commercial businesses division, after the two companies merged, subscribers could get access to both channels, and the sports channel Sky Sports became encrypted.
In the autumn of 1991, talks were held for the broadcast rights for Premier League for a five-year period, ITV were the current rights holders, and fought hard to retain the new rights. ITV had increased its offer from £18m to £34m per year to control of the rights. BSkyB joined forces with the BBC to make a counter bid, Murdoch described sport as a battering ram for pay-television, providing a strong customer base. A few weeks after the deal, ITV went to the High Court to get an injunction as it believed their bid details had been leaked before the decision was taken. ITV asked the Office of Fair Trading to investigate since it believed Rupert Murdochs media empire via its newspapers had influenced the deal. A few days neither action took effect, ITV believed BSkyB was telephoned and informed of its £262m bid, and Premier League advised BSkyB to increase its counter bid. BSkyB retained the rights paying £670m 1997–2001 deal, but was challenged by On Digital for the rights from 2001–2004, in May 2006, the Irish broadcaster Setanta Sports was awarded two of the six Premier League packages that the English FA offered to broadcasters.
Sky picked up the four for £1. 3bn. In February 2015, Sky bid £4. 2bn for a package of 120 premier league games across the three seasons from 2016 and this represented an increase of 70% on the previous contract and was said to be £1bn more than the company had expected to pay. The move has been followed by staff cuts, increased subscription prices, in September 1993, BSkyB launched Sky Multichannels which was the present digital platforms analogue predecessor. Sky Multichannels was a package that gave access not only to Skys own channels
A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card is any pocket-sized card that has embedded integrated circuits. Smart cards are made of plastic, generally polyvinyl chloride, but sometimes polyethylene terephthalate based polyesters, since April 2009, a Japanese company has manufactured reusable financial smart cards made from paper. Smart cards can be either contact or contactless smart card, Smart cards can provide personal identification, data storage, and application processing. Smart cards may provide strong security authentication for single sign-on within large organizations, in 1968 and 1969 Helmut Gröttrup and Jürgen Dethloff jointly filed patents for the automated chip card. Roland Moreno patented the memory card concept in 1974, an important patent for smart cards with a microprocessor and memory as used today was filed by Jürgen Dethloff in 1976 and granted as USP4105156 in 1978. Three years later, Motorola used this patent in its CP8, at that time, Bull had 1,200 patents related to smart cards.
In 2001, Bull sold its CP8 division together with its patents to Schlumberger, in 2006, Axalto and Gemplus, at the time the worlds top two smart card manufacturers and became Gemalto. The first mass use of the cards was as a card for payment in French pay phones. After the Télécarte, microchips were integrated into all French Carte Bleue debit cards in 1992, customers inserted the card into the merchants point of sale terminal, typed the personal identification number, before the transaction was accepted. Only very limited transactions are processed without a PIN, smart-card-based electronic purse systems store funds on the card so that readers do not need network connectivity. They entered European service in the mid-1990s and they have been common in Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, Finland, UK, Denmark and Portugal. Since the 1990s, smart-cards have been the Subscriber Identity Modules used in European GSM mobile phone equipment, Mobile phones are widely used in Europe, so smart cards have become very common.
Europay MasterCard Visa -compliant cards and equipment are widespread, the United States started using the EMV technology in 2014. Historically, in 1993 several international payment companies agreed to develop specifications for debit and credit cards. The original brands were MasterCard and Europay, the first version of the EMV system was released in 1994. In 1998 the specifications became stable, eMVcos purpose is to assure the various financial institutions and retailers that the specifications retain backward compatibility with the 1998 version. EMVco upgraded the specifications in 2000 and 2004, EMV compliant cards were first accepted into Malaysia in 2005 and into United States in 2014. MasterCard was the first company that was allowed to use the technology in the United States, the United States has felt pushed to use the technology because of the increase in identity theft
Basic Interoperable Scrambling System
Basic Interoperable Scrambling System, usually known as BISS, is a satellite signal scrambling system developed by the European Broadcasting Union and a consortium of hardware manufacturers. Prior to its development, ad hoc or occasional use satellite news feeds were transmitted either using proprietary encryption methods, unencrypted satellite feeds allowed anyone with the correct equipment to view the program material. Proprietary encryption methods were determined by encoder manufacturers, and placed major compatibility limitations on the type of satellite receiver that could be used for each feed, BISS was an attempt to create an open platform encryption system, which could be used across a range of manufacturers equipment. BISS-E is a variation where the decoder has stored one secret BISS-key entered by for example a rightsholder and this is unknown to the user of the decoder. The user is sent a 16-digit hexadecimal code, which is entered as a session key and this session key is mathematically combined internally to calculate a BISS-1 key that can decrypt the signal.
Only a decoder with the correct secret BISS-key will be able to decrypt a BISS-E feed and this gives rightsholder control as to exactly which decoder can be used to decrypt/decode a specific feed. Any BISS-E encrypted feed will have a corresponding BISS-1 key that will unlock it, BISS-E is amongst others used by EBU to protect UEFA Champions League and other high-profile satellite feeds