The Bastarnae were an ancient people who between 200 BC and 300 AD inhabited the region between the Carpathian mountains and the river Dnieper, to the north and east of ancient Dacia. The Peucini, denoted a branch of the Bastarnae by Greco-Roman writers, the ethno-linguistic affiliation of the Bastarnae was probably Germanic, which is supported by ancient historians and modern archeology. However, some ancient literary sources imply Celtic or Scytho-Sarmatian influences, the most likely scenario is that they were originally a group of East Germanic tribes, originally resident in the lower Vistula river valley. In ca.200 BC, these tribes migrated, possibly accompanied by some Celtic elements, some elements appear to have become assimilated, to some extent, by the surrounding Sarmatians by the 3rd century. Although largely sedentary, some elements may have adopted a semi-nomadic lifestyle and it has not, so far, been possible to identify archaeological sites which can be conclusively attributed to the Bastarnae.
The archaeological horizons most often associated by scholars with the Bastarnae are the Zarubintsy, the Bastarnae first came into conflict with the Romans during the 1st century BC, when, in alliance with Dacians and Sarmatians, they unsuccessfully resisted Roman expansion into Moesia and Pannonia. Later, they appear to have maintained relations with the Roman empire during the first two centuries AD. 180, when the Bastarnae are recorded as participants in an invasion of Roman territory, in the mid-3rd century, the Bastarnae were part of a Gothic-led grand coalition of lower Danube tribes that repeatedly invaded the Balkan provinces of the Roman empire. Large numbers of Bastarnae were resettled within the Roman empire in the late 3rd century, the origin of the tribal name is uncertain. It is not even whether it was an exonym or an endonym. One possible derivation is from the proto-Germanic word *bastjan means binding or tie, in this case, Bastarnae may have had the original meaning of a coalition or bund of tribes.
It has suggested that the name is linked with the Germanic word bastard. But Batty considers this derivation unlikely, if the name is an endonym, this derivation is unlikely, as most endonyms have flattering meanings. The original homeland of the Bastarnae remains uncertain, babeş identifies the Sidoni, a branch of the Bastarnae which Strabo places north of the Danube delta with the Sidini located by Ptolemy in Pomerania. Batty argues that Greco-Roman sources of the 1st century AD locate the Bastarnae homeland on the side of the Northern Carpathian mountain range. Pliny locates the Bastarnae between the Suebi and the Dacians, the Peutinger Map shows the Bastarnae north of the Carpathian mountains and appears to name the Galician Carpathians as the Alpes Bastarnicae. From Galicia, the Bastarnae expanded into modern-day Moldavia and Bessarabia, Strabo describes the Bastarnae as inhabiting the territory between the Ister and the Borysthenes. He identifies three sub-tribes of the Bastarnae, the Atmoni and Peucini, the latter derived their name from Peuce, a large island in the Danube delta, which they had colonised
The Angles were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period. They founded several of the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England, and their name is the root of the name England, the name comes from the district of Angeln, an area located on the Baltic shore of what is now Schleswig-Holstein. The name of the Angles may have been first recorded in Latinised form, as Anglii and it is thought to derive from the name of the area they originally inhabited, Angeln in modern German, Angel in Danish. This name has been hypothesised to originate from the Germanic root for narrow, meaning the Narrow, i. e. the Schlei estuary, the root would be angh, tight. Another theory is that the name meant hook, as in angling for fish, Julius Pokorny, Gregory the Great in an epistle simplified the Latinised name Anglii to Angli, the latter form developing into the preferred form of the word. The country remained Anglia in Latin, the earliest recorded mention of the Angles may be in chapter 40 of Tacituss Germania written around AD98.
Tacitus describes the Anglii as one of the more remote Suebic tribes compared to the Semnones and Langobardi and he grouped the Angles with several other tribes in that region, the Reudigni, Varini, Eudoses and Nuitones. These were all living behind ramparts of rivers and woods and therefore inaccessible to attack, the Eudoses are the Jutes, these names probably refer to localities in Jutland or on the Baltic coast. The majority of scholars believe that the Anglii lived on the coasts of the Baltic Sea and these Suevi Angili would have been in Lower Saxony or near it, but they are not coastal. The three Suebic peoples are separated from the coastal Chauci, and Saxones, by a series of tribes including, Ptolemy describes the coast to the east of the Saxons as inhabited by the Farodini, a name not known from any other sources. Owing to the uncertainty of this passage, there has been speculation regarding the original home of the Anglii. The ethnic names of Frisians and Warines are attested in these Saxon districts, a second possible solution is that these Angles of Ptolemy are not those of Schleswig at all.
According to Julius Pokorny the Angri- in Angrivarii, the -angr in Hardanger and the Angl- in Anglii all come from the root meaning bend. In other words, the similarity of the names is strictly coincidental, on the other hand, Gudmund Schütte, in his analysis of Ptolemy, believes that the Angles have simply been moved by an error coming from Ptolemys use of imperfect sources. Bede states that the Anglii, before coming to Great Britain, dwelt in a land called Angulus, similar evidence is given by the Historia Brittonum. Danish tradition has preserved record of two governors of Schleswig and son, in their service and Wigo, from whom the royal family of Wessex claimed descent. During the 5th century, the Anglii invaded Great Britain, after which time their name does not recur on the continent except in the title of Suevi Angili. The Angles are the subject of a legend about Pope Gregory I, as the story would be told by the Anglo-Saxon monk and historian Bede, Gregory was struck by the unusual appearance of the slaves and asked about their background
The Menapii were a Belgic tribe of northern Gaul in pre-Roman and Roman times. In geographical terms this corresponds roughly to the modern coast of Flanders. It extended into neighbouring France and the deltas of the southern Netherlands. Their civitas, or administrative capital, under the Roman empire was Cassel, both of these are near Thérouanne, which was the civitas of the neighbouring Morini tribe, and indeed in the Middle Ages Cassel became part of the Diocese of Thérouanne. Cassel was therefore in the extreme of the Menapii lands. A pattern of placing Roman tribal capitals in the south is found in the neighbouring Belgian tribal states, of the Nervii. The positions of such Roman tribal capitals frequently didnt correspond to the centre of a territory in pre-Roman political geography. To the north and east of the Menapii lay the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta, in the time of Caesar, the Menapii had settlements throughout this region and over the Rhine into Germany. During Roman times these islands were under the province of Germania Inferior.
Of these last three, the Marsaci appear to be mentioned in place by Pliny as having a presence on the coast south of the delta, neighbouring the Menapii. The Frisiavones are mentioned within the listing for Belgian Gaul, in one inscription, from Bulla Regia, the Tungri and Frisiavones are grouped together, apparently confirming that the Frisiavones lived inland. It is suggested that the Marsaci and the Sturii could be pagi belonging to the civitas of either the Frisiavones or the Menapii. South of the delta, east of the river Scheldt from the Menapii and it is known that the Toxandri were associated with the civitates of both the Nervii and the Tungri, so they presumably had a presence in both. Apparently following Caesar he said that they dwell amongst marshes and forests, not lofty and they are referred to in Ptolemys 2nd century Geographia, situated above the Nervii, and near the Meuse river. In any case as mentioned above they bordered in Roman times upon the Toxandrians, south of the Menapii were the Atrebates in Artois, and south-west along the coast were the Morini.
The boundary with the Morini in classical times appears to have been the River Aa, the civitas Menapiorum became the civitas Turnencensium. By medieval times, when these Roman districts evolved into medieval Roman Catholic dioceses, Cassel had in fact part of the diocese of Thérouanne. The Menapii were persistent opponents of Julius Caesars conquest of Gaul and they were part of the Belgic confederacy defeated by Caesar in 57 BC, contributing 9,000 men
The Caeroesi were a tribe living in Belgic Gaul when Julius Caesars Roman forces entered the area in 57 BCE. They are known from his account of the Gallic War and they are generally equated with the Cæracates mentioned briefly by Tacitus in his Histories. They were one of a group of tribes listed by his local informants as the Germani, along with the Eburones, Condrusi and Segni. These tribes are referred to as the Germani Cisrhenani, to them from Germani living on the east of the Rhine, outside of the Gaulish. He said that the descendants of the original Germani in his time were the Tungri, the general area of the Belgian Germani was between the Scheldt and Rhine rivers, and north of Luxemburg and the Moselle, which is where the Treverii lived. In modern terms this area includes eastern Belgium, the parts of the Netherlands, and a part of Germany on the west of the Rhine. The Caeroesi appear to have lived in the south of this range, in the Eifel region, in the area which because the Roman pagus of Carucum, this became the Frankish pagus called Caroascus.
A Roman era boundary marker has been found near Neidenbach bei Kyllburg marked FINIS PAGI CARV CVM and this was on the Roman road between Trier, the main Roman city of the Treverii, and Cologne. This was an area, forming a boundary between regions. To the east of Neidenbach, the Vinxtbach, a river flowing eastwards to the Rhine. The name Vinxtbach is in fact thought to derive from the Latin word finis, today the Vinxtbach is still a boundary between modern German dialects, with Ripuarian to the north, and Moselle Frankish to the south. Also nearby is the boundary of modern German Länder of Rheinland-Pfalz. Their name is believed to mean sheep people, and to be Celtic in origin
The Cherusci were a Germanic tribe that inhabited parts of the plains and forests of northwestern Germany, in the area possibly near present-day Hanover, during the 1st century BC and 1st century AD. They led an important war against the Roman Empire, subsequently they were probably absorbed into the tribal confederations such as the Franks and Allemanni. The etymological origin of the name Cherusci is not known with certainty, according to the dominant opinion in scholarship, the name may derive from the ancient Germanic word *herut. The tribe may have named after the deer because it had a totemistic significance in Germanic symbolism. A different hypothesis, proposed in the 19th century by Jacob Grimm and others, derives the name from *heru-, hans Kuhn has argued that the derivational suffix -sk-, involved in both explanations, is otherwise not common in Germanic. He suggested that the name may therefore be a compound of ultimately non-Germanic origin, the first historical mention of the Cherusci occurs in Book 6.10 of Julius Caesars De Bello Gallico, which recounts events of 53 BC.
Caesar relates that he crossed the Rhine again to punish the Suebi for sending reinforcements to the Treveri and he mentions that the Bacenis forest separated the territory of the Cherusci from that of the Suebi. In 12 BC, the Cherusci and other Germanic tribes were subjugated by the Romans and they appear to have been living in the same homeland when Tacitus wrote,150 years later, describing them as living east of the Chauci and Chatti. This is generally interpreted to be an area between the rivers Weser and Elbe, as Rome tried to expand in northern Europe beyond the Rhine, it exploited divisions within the Cherusci, and for some time the tribe was considered a Roman ally. At this time the tribe was split between Arminius and Segestes, Arminius advocated breaking allegiance to Rome and declaring independence, while Segestes wanted to remain loyal. By about 8 AD, Arminius had gained the upper hand, Segestes repeatedly warned Publius Quinctilius Varus, the governor of Gaul, that rebellion was being planned, but Varus declined to act until the rebellion had broken out.
In the year 9, in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, the legions eagle standards, of great symbolic importance to the Romans, were lost. The numbers of three legions, Legio XVII, Legio XVIII, and Legio XIX, were never used again. After the mutinies of the German legions in the year 14, Germanicus decided, at the urging of his men, to march into Germany to restore their lost honor. In 15, after a raid on the Chatti, invaded the lands of the Marsi in 14 AD with 12,000 legionnaires,26 cohorts of auxiliaries. According to Tacitus, an area 50 Roman miles wide was laid to waste with fire and sword, No sex, a Legion eagle from Varuss defeat, either from the XVII or XVIII, was recovered. Then he began a campaign against the Cherusci and he received an appeal to rescue Segestes, who was besieged by Arminius. Segestes was rescued along with a group of relatives and dependents, including Thusnelda, Segestes daughter, Germanicus spared them and gave them land in Gaul
In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, politics, art, architecture, warfare, religion and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.
Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted.
This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid
The largest city on the river Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s. The Rhine and the Danube formed most of the inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days. The many castles and fortifications along the Rhine testify to its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire, in the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism. The variant of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-. The Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- to move, run, the grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, and the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as masculine or feminine, the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in Rhine-kilometers, a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland.
The river length is shortened from the rivers natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century. The total length of the Rhine, to the inclusion of Lake Constance and its course is conventionally divided as follows, The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein near Tamins-Reichenau. Above this point is the catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine. It belongs almost exclusively to the Swiss Canton of Graubünden, ranging from Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Vorderrhein and the Rhine as a whole. The Hinterrhein rises in the Rheinwald valley below Mount Rheinwaldhorn, the Vorderrhein, or Anterior Rhine, springs from Lai da Tuma, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide. A multiday trekking route is signposted along the young Rhine called Senda Sursilvana, the Hinterrhein/Rein Posteriur, or Posterior Rhine, starts from the Paradies Glacier, near the Rheinwaldhorn.
One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory, after three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau. The Vorderrhein arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva, one source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, which is usually indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it. Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Reno di Medel, the Rein da Maighels, and the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the Canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, all streams in the source area are partially, sometimes completely and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants. In its lower course the Vorderrhein flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta through the Flims Rockslide, the whole stretch of the Vorderrhein to the Rhine confluence near Reichenau-Tamins is accompanied by a long-distance hiking trail called Senda Sursilvana
The Frisii were among the migrating Germanic tribes that, following the breakup of Celtic Europe in the 4th century BC, settled along the North Sea. They came to control the area from roughly present-day Bremen to Brugge, in the 1st century BC, the Frisii halted a Roman advance and thus managed to maintain their independence. In the Germanic pre-Migration Period the Frisii and the related Chauci, all of these peoples shared a common material culture, and so cannot be defined archaeologically. On the east they were bordered by the Ampsivarii who lived at the mouth of the Ems until AD58, at which time the Chauci expelled them. The Chauci to the east were eventually assimilated by their descendants the Saxons in the 3rd century. The lands of the Frisii were largely abandoned by c.400 due to Migration wars, climatic deterioration and they lay empty for one or two centuries, when changing environmental and political conditions made the region habitable again. At that time, settlers came to be known as Frisians repopulated the coastal regions.
Medieval and accounts of Frisians refer to these new Frisians rather than to the ancient Frisii, what little is known of the Frisii is provided by a few Roman accounts, most of them military. Pliny the Elder said their lands were forest-covered with tall trees growing up to the edge of the lakes and they lived by agriculture and raising cattle. In his Germania Tacitus would describe all the Germanic peoples of the region as having elected kings with limited powers, the people lived in spread-out settlements. Early Roman accounts of war and raiding do not mention the Frisii as participants, though the neighboring Canninefates, the earliest mention of the Frisii tells of Drusus 12 BC war against the Rhine Germans and the Chauci. The Romans did not attack them after devastating the lands of the Rhine Germans, the account says that the Frisii were won over, suggesting a Roman suzerainty was imposed. Accounts of wars therefore mention the Frisii on both sides of the conflict, though the actions of troops under treaty obligation were separate from the policies of the tribe.
The Frisii were little more than occasional and incidental players in Roman accounts of history, as a consequence, references to them are disjoint and offer little useful information about them. When Drusus brought Roman forces through Frisii lands in 12 BC and won them over, by AD28 the Frisii had had enough. They hanged the Roman soldiers collecting the tax and forced the governor to flee to a Roman fort, the propraetor of Germania Inferior, Lucius Apronius, raised the siege and attacked the Frisii, but was defeated at the Battle of Baduhenna Wood after suffering heavy losses. For whatever reason, the Romans did not seek revenge and the matter was closed, the prestige of the Frisii among the neighboring Germanic tribes was raised considerably. After their experiences with the predatory Roman governor and Lucius Apronius, in AD47, a certain Gannascus of the Canninefates led the Frisii and the Chauci to rebel
Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and an historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman emperors Tiberius, Claudius and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors. These two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus, in AD14, to the years of the First Jewish–Roman War, There are substantial lacunae in the surviving texts, including a gap in the Annals that is four books long. Tacitus is considered to be one of the greatest Roman historians, details about his personal life are scarce. What little is known comes from scattered hints throughout his work, the letters of his friend and admirer Pliny the Younger, and an inscription found at Mylasa in Caria. Tacitus was born in 56 or 57 to an equestrian family, one scholars suggestion of Sextus has gained no approval. Most of the aristocratic families failed to survive the proscriptions which took place at the end of the Republic.
The claim that he was descended from a freedman is derived from a speech in his writings which asserts that many senators and knights were descended from freedmen, but this is generally disputed. His father may have been the Cornelius Tacitus who served as procurator of Belgica and Germania, Pliny the Elder mentions that Cornelius had a son who aged rapidly, which implies an early death. There is no mention of Tacitus suffering such a condition, the friendship between the younger Pliny and Tacitus leads some scholars to conclude that they were both the offspring of wealthy provincial families. The province of his birth remains unknown, though various conjectures suggest Gallia Belgica, Gallia Narbonensis and his marriage to the daughter of Narbonensian senator Gnaeus Julius Agricola implies that he came from Gallia Narbonensis. Tacitus dedication to Fabius Iustus in the Dialogus may indicate a connection with Spain, no evidence exists, that Plinys friends from northern Italy knew Tacitus, nor do Plinys letters hint that the two men had a common background.
Pliny Book 9, Letter 23 reports that, when he was asked if he was Italian or provincial, he gave an unclear answer, since Pliny was from Italy, some infer that Tacitus was from the provinces, probably Gallia Narbonensis. His ancestry, his skill in oratory, and his depiction of barbarians who resisted Roman rule have led some to suggest that he was a Celt. This belief stems from the fact that the Celts who had occupied Gaul prior to the Roman invasion were famous for their skill in oratory, and had been subjugated by Rome. As a young man, Tacitus studied rhetoric in Rome to prepare for a career in law and politics, like Pliny, in 77 or 78, he married Julia Agricola, daughter of the famous general Agricola. Little is known of their life, save that Tacitus loved hunting. He started his career under Vespasian, but entered political life as a quaestor in 81 or 82 under Titus
The Angrivarii were a Germanic tribe of the early Roman Empire mentioned briefly in Ptolemy as the Angriouarroi, which transliterates into Latin Angrivari. They are believed to be the source of the 8th century identity, the name appears earliest in the Annales and Germania of Tacitus as Angrivarii. In post-classical times the name of the people had a number of different spellings in addition to the ones just mentioned, Aggeri, Aggerimenses and they lived in a district called Angria, Angeriensis and Engaria. They lived in Engern, a region west of the Weser river not far from Teutoburg Forest, ancient Engern was a much larger district than todays community, comprising most of the country surrounding the middle Weser, including both flat land, as around Minden, and low hills. It became part of todays Westphalia, the name Angrivarii can be segmented Angri-varii meaning the men of Engern, parallel to Ampsi-varii, the men of the Ems. Julius Pokorny derives the first element from an Indo-European root *ang-, to bend, from this root are derived German Anger, English dialect ing, Danish eng, Swedish äng, Dutch eng/enk, and many other forms in Germanic languages, all meaning meadow, pasture.
The second element -varii is most prolific among Germanic tribal names, commonly taken to mean inhabitants of and its precise etymology remains unclear, but there is a general consensus that it cannot be derived from the PIE root *wihxrós, surviving in English were-wolf. Although the Angrivarii receive brief mention in Ptolemy and the Germania of Tacitus, the wars began in the last years of the reign of Augustus, first emperor of Rome. Augustus died an old but respected man in the year 14 and was celebrated with much pomp and he left a document to be read to the senate posthumously, expressly forbidding extension of the empire beyond the Rhine. News of the will was welcomed by the Germans, thinking it gave them a hand in the region. Germanicus found it necessary to pacify the border, which he did by a combination of scorched earth raids and offers of alliance with Rome - in short and carrot. These raids kept the army of the lower Rhine distracted from the possibility of mutiny, for punitive expeditions Germanicus used the Ems river, which flowed from the heart of the country occupied by the tribes that became the Franks.
These were still under Arminius, who had led the German confederation to the victory in 9, unlike Arminius native tribe, the Cherusci, the loyalty of the other tribes in the confederation was at best equivocal. The Angrivariis defection or revolt in the middle of Arminiuss renewed operations against the Teutoburg Forest must have secured in advance by Germanicus. Even if it was not, an attack soon brought the Angrivariis capitulation. Soon afterwards, they are back in alliance with the Cherusci and opposition to the Romans, setting an ambush at the Cheruscan border and they hid their cavalry in the woods and stationed their infantry on the reverse slope of the bank. The Romans had intelligence of the plan beforehand and they assaulted the embankment, preceding their assault with volleys from slings and spears thrown by machines. Driving the Angrivarii from the bank, they went on to pursue the cavalry in the woods, once again the Angrivarii were totally routed
The Treveri or Treviri were a Belgic tribe who inhabited the lower valley of the Moselle from around 150 BCE, if not earlier, until their eventual absorption into the Franks. Celtic in language, according to Tacitus they claimed Germanic descent, although early adopters of Roman material culture, the Treveri had a chequered relationship with Roman power. Their leader Indutiomarus led them in revolt against Julius Caesar during the Gallic Wars, much later, during the Crisis of the Third Century, the territory of the Treveri was overrun by Germanic Alamanni and Franks and formed part of the Gallic Empire. Under Constantine and his 4th-century successors, Augusta Treverorum became a large, rich, during this period, Christianity began to succeed the imperial cult and the worship of Roman and Celtic deities as the favoured religion of the city. Such Christian luminaries as Ambrose, Martin of Tours, among the surviving legacies of the ancient Treveri are Moselle wine from Luxembourg and Germany and the many Roman monuments of Trier and its surroundings, including neighbouring Luxembourg.
The spelling variants Treveri and Treviri are found in Latin texts from the time of Caesars De Bello Gallico to Tacituss Annales, Latin texts are in general agreement that the first vowel, however, is -e-. For their part, Ancient Greek texts mostly give Τρηούϊροι, variants such as Treberi and Τρίβηροι appear in Pliny and Ptolemy, respectively. A few highly deviant variant forms are attested, Τριήροι in Ptolemy. The name has been interpreted as referring to a river or to crossing the river. They had a goddess of the ford called Ritona and a temple dedicated to Uorioni Deo. treuer- can be compared with the Old Irish treóir guiding, passage through a ford. The first syllable is long and stressed in Latin dictionaries, according to its Celtic etymology. The city of Trier derives its name from the Latin locative in Trēverīs for earlier Augusta Treverorum, in the time of Julius Caesar their territory extended as far as the Rhine north of the Triboci, across the Rhine from them lived the Ubii. Caesar mentions that the Segni and the Condrusi lived between the Treveri and the Eburones, and that the Condrusii and Eburones were clients of the Treveri, Caesar bridged the Rhine in the territory of the Treveri.
They were bordered on the north and west by Belgic tribes, the Tungri, to the south their neighbours were the Mediomatrici. The Rhine valley was removed from Treveran authority with the formation of the province of Germania Superior in the 80s CE, the valley of the Ahr would have marked their northern boundary. Colonia Augusta Treverorum was the capital of their civitas under the Empire, there is strong evidence that the recently excavated oppidum on the Titelberg plateau in the extreme southwest of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was the Treveran capital during the 1st century BCE. The transfer of their activities to Trier followed the construction of Agrippas road linking Trier with Reims which bypassed the Titelberg, during the Roman period, Trier became a Roman colony, and the provincial capital of Belgica itself. It was the frequent residence of a number of emperors, archaeological evidence suggests that the Treveri were divided into five cantons centred respectively on the oppida of the Titelberg, Kastel and the Martberg