Roller cone bit
A roller-cone bit is a drill bit used for drilling through rock, for example when drilling for oil and gas. The bits are sub divided into different categories depending on soil condition. There are three main categories: soft and hard formation bits. Soft formation rock bits are used in unconsolidated sands, soft lime stones, red beds and shale. Medium formation bits are used in calcites, lime stones, hard shale, while hard formation bits are used in hard shale, mudstones, cherty lime stones and hard and abrasive formations; the cutting structure of the bits varies according to the rock formation. Soft bits will have longer protruding teeth or chisel-shaped buttons, fewer, more arranged teeth. Medium formation bits will have much closer teeth than soft formation bits, the protrusion of the teeth is reduced; the teeth are short and arranged on hard formation bits. Because of the shorter teeth the penetration of the rock bit during drilling is less than with soft or medium formation bits, but the other bits cannot be used in hard strata.
The bits are further classified based on their internal bearings. Each bit has each one will rotate on its own axis during drilling. While the bits are fixed to the drilling rigs, the rotation of the drill pipe will be in a clockwise direction and the roller cones are rotated in an anti-clockwise direction; each roller cone is rotated on its own axis with the help of the bearing. Again, the bearings are classified into three types: Open bearing bits, Sealed Bearing Bits and Journal Bearing bits
Fred P. Cone
Frederick Preston Cone was an American politician who served as the 27th Governor of Florida. Frederick Preston Cone was born in the Benton community of northern Columbia County, Florida to William Henry Cone and Sarah Emily Branch on September 28, 1871, his father was a state senator prior to the American Civil War. He received his education at Jasper Normal College. Although he never received a law degree, in 1892 he passed the Florida bar exam and began a successful law practice in Lake City, Florida. In 1911 Cone and eight other prominent Lake Citians decided to open a bank. With $50,000 in capital, the Columbia County Bank opened in February 1912 and grew with the community. Cone retained his leadership role on the board of directors until shortly before his death; the bank celebrated its centennial in 2012. Cone married his first wife, Ruby Scarborough, the union bore one child in 1902, a daughter named Jessie. Ruby died in 1923, he wed again in 1930 to Mildred Victoria Thompson. He held membership in Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine and Rotary International.
Cone began his political career as Mayor of Lake City, served three terms there. He was elected to and served in the Florida Senate from 1907 to 1913, serving as the senate president in 1911. Cone was active in national politics, attending the 1924 and 1928 Democratic National Conventions as a delegate before chairing the Florida delegation in 1932. Cone was elected as Florida governor in November 1936 and was inaugurated on January 5, 1937, he had just turned 65, he had problems with his health. Subsequent Governor Spessard Holland thought, it was the height of the Great Depression in the United States, Florida was suffering like every other state. During Cone's tenure, Florida A & M University President J. R. E. Lee was able to secure higher salaries for teachers and administrators at the university despite the statement by Gov. Cone, a Democrat and a strict segregationist, that "no Negro was worth $4000 a year."At that time, Florida governors held little real power. The 1885 state constitution limited the governor's power – a reaction to the bitter memories of the reconstruction era following the Civil War.
The governor was just one of seven elected cabinet members. Political scientist V. O. Key, Jr. described politics in Florida as "every man for himself". Many state boards and departments answered to a specific cabinet member or to the legislature directly; the cabinet as a whole decided many issues. The governor's power was vested in three tools: Patronage: Under the spoils system, the governor spent more than half his time appointing commissioners, officers and bureaucrats throughout government, which provided leverage with other elected officials. Veto: The use and threat of legislative veto was used to influence the contents of many bills, or to gain favors, which would be called in for important matters. Persuasion: Citizens and the press listened to the governor, who helped shape public opinion and citizens were encouraged to contact other elected officials and convey their opinions. Cone was a "hands-off" governor, he believed that the governor should not interfere in operation of state agencies or deliberations of the legislature.
However, Cone did not hesitate to reject legislation he disliked, using the veto more than any prior governor. The state badly needed new revenue streams, but business opposed a sales tax and a 1924 amendment to the state constitution prohibited a state income tax. Property taxes were the primary revenue of cities and counties, the gas tax funded most of the state's activities; as a result, nothing was accomplished. During his term, the Florida Highway patrol was created, although Cone opposed new taxes, he funded the agency by fees assessed on driver's licenses. To encourage tourism, the state sponsored a 110,000-square-foot exhibition at the 1939 New York World's Fair, the largest of any state. Florida's presentation recreated a tropical paradise and included 45 exhibits depicting natural resources, points of interest and the latest discoveries in science and industry. In 1940, rather than run for a second term as governor, Cone made an unsuccessful bid for the U. S. Senate seat held by Park Trammell, who had died in office.
Cone was defeated in the Democratic primary by Charles O. Andrews, who won the general election. After leaving the governor's office on January 7, 1941, Cone returned to Lake City, he died there in 1948 and was buried at the Prospect Primitive Baptist Cemetery near White Springs, Florida in Hamilton County. Politics of the United States Buccellato, Robert. "Florida Governors Lasting Legacies." South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. 2015 "Fred Cone" at Florida Memory, State Library & Archives of Florida Fred P. Cone at Find a Grave
A cone is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta that contains the reproductive structures. The familiar woody cone is the female cone; the male cones, which produce pollen, are herbaceous and much less conspicuous at full maturity. The name "cone" derives from the fact; the individual plates of a cone are known as scales. The male cone is structurally similar across all conifers, differing only in small ways from species to species. Extending out from a central axis are microsporophylls. Under each microsporophyll is several microsporangia; the female cone contains ovules. The female cone structure varies more markedly between the different conifer families, is crucial for the identification of many species of conifers; the members of the pine family have cones. These pine cones the woody female cones, are considered the "archetypal" tree cones; the female cone has two types of scale: the bract scales, the seed scales, one subtended by each bract scale, derived from a modified branchlet. On the upper-side base of each seed scale are two ovules that develop into seeds after fertilization by pollen grains.
The bract scales develop first, are conspicuous at the time of pollination. The scales open temporarily to receive gametophytes close during fertilization and maturation, re-open again at maturity to allow the seed to escape. Maturation takes 6–8 months from pollination in most Pinaceae genera, but 12 months in cedars and 18–24 months in most pines; the cones open either by the seed scales flexing back when they dry out, or by the cones disintegrating with the seed scales falling off. The cones are conic, cylindrical or ovoid, small to large, from 2–60 cm long and 1–20 cm broad. After ripening, the opening of non-serotinous pine cones is associated with their moisture content—cones are open when dry and closed when wet; this assures that the small, wind disseminated seeds will be dispersed during dry weather, thus, the distance traveled from the parent tree will be enhanced. A pine cone will go through many cycles of opening and closing during its life span after seed dispersal is complete; this process occurs with older cones while attached to branches and after the older cones have fallen to the forest floor.
The condition of fallen pine cones is a crude indication of the forest floor's moisture content, an important indication of wildfire risk. Closed cones indicate damp conditions; as a result of this, pine cones have been used by people in temperate climates to predict dry and wet weather hanging a harvested pine cone from some string outside to measure the humidity of the air. Members of the Araucariaceae have the bract and seed scales fused, have only one ovule on each scale; the cones are spherical or nearly so, large to large, 5–30 cm diameter, mature in 18 months. In Agathis, the seeds are winged and separate from the seed scale, but in the other two genera, the seed is wingless and fused to the scale; the cones of the Podocarpaceae are similar in function, though not in development, to those of the Taxaceae, being berry-like with the scales modified, evolved to attract birds into dispersing the seeds. In most of the genera, two to ten or more scales are fused together into a swollen, brightly coloured, edible fleshy aril.
Only one or two scales at the apex of the cone are fertile, each bearing a single wingless seed, but in Saxegothaea several scales may be fertile. The fleshy scale complex is 0.5–3 cm long, the seeds 4–10 mm long. In some genera, the scales are minute and not fleshy, but the seed coat develops a fleshy layer instead, the cone having the appearance of one to three small plums on a central stem; the seeds have a hard coat evolved to resist digestion in the bird's stomach. Members of the cypress family differ in that the bract and seed scales are fused, with the bract visible as no more than a small lump or spine on the scale; the botanical term galbulus is sometimes used instead of strobilus for members of this family. The female cones have one to 20 ovules on each scale, they have peltate scales, as opposed to the imbricate cones described above, though some have imbricate scales. The cones are small, 0.3–6 cm or 1⁄8–2 3⁄8 inches long, spherical or nearly so, like those of Nootka cypress, while others, such as western redcedar and California incense-cedar, are narrow.
The scales are arranged either spirally, or in decussate whorls of two or three four. The genera with spiral scale arrangement were treated in a separate family in the past. In most of the genera, the cones are woody and the seeds have two narrow wings, but in three genera, the seeds are wingless, in Juniperus, the cones are fleshy and
Cone beam reconstruction
In microtomography X-ray scanners, cone beam reconstruction is one of two common scanning methods, the other being Fan beam reconstruction. Cone beam reconstruction uses a 2-dimensional approach for obtaining projection data. Instead of utilizing a single row of detectors, as fan beam methods do, a cone beam systems uses a standard charge-coupled device camera, focused on a scintillator material; the scintillator converts X-ray radiation to visible light, picked up by the camera and recorded. The method has enjoyed widespread implementation in microtomography, is used in several larger-scale systems. An X-ray source is positioned across from the detector, with the object being scanned in between.. Projections from different angles are obtained in one of two ways. In one method, the object being scanned is rotated; this has the advantage of simplicity in implementation. The second method involves rotating the X-ray source and camera around the object, as is done in ordinary CT scanning and SPECT imaging.
This adds complexity and cost to the system, but removes the need to rotate the object. The method is referred to as cone-beam reconstruction because the X-rays are emitted from the source as a cone-shaped beam. In other words, it begins as a tight beam at the source, expands as it moves away. Computed tomography Industrial CT scanning Tomographic reconstruction
Marvin Dorwart Cone was an American painter in the regionalist style. Cone was born in Cedar Rapids and lived there most of his life, he graduated from Washington High School in 1910. Cone attended college and traveled to Paris with his contemporary and high-school friend, Grant Wood. After his return to the United States, Cone helped to found the Stone City Art Colony, he was a professor at Coe College for more than forty years. Most of his paintings can now be seen at the Cedar Rapids Museum of Art; some of his sketches can been found in the permanent collection of the University of Northern Iowa Gallery of Art in Cedar Falls. "Untitled," a painted scene of doors in an interior, can be seen at the Blanden Memorial Art Museum in Fort Dodge, Iowa. In 1906 he began a lifelong friendship with Grant Wood, he graduated from Coe College in 1914 and studied for several years at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. He enlisted in the Iowa National's Guard's 34th Infantry Division in 1917, during which time he won a training camp design competition with a "Red Bull" insignia, which the unit wears to this day.
He left for France in 1917. In 1919, he studied for about five months at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in France; when he returned to Cedar Rapids that year, he continued to pursue his interest in art. He considered commercial art, but chose instead to accept a position teaching French at Coe College for the 1919–1920 academic year. Upon his return to Cedar Rapids, Cone renewed his friendship with Grant Wood and resumed his active involvement with the local art association. Cone and Wood went abroad in the summer of 1920; the visit proved influential, resulting in a stunning series of impressionistic views of picturesque cityscapes and landscapes, Paris streets and gardens, the French countryside. Architecture and landscape fascinated Cone for the rest of his life, he returned to Paris with his wife Winnifred in 1929 and traveled to Mexico in 1939. Cone lived all his 74 years in Cedar Rapids, where he married, raised a family, for more than four decades taught art at Coe College. Although he never achieved great fame, he was respected by his contemporaries.
Marvin Cone sought to evoke his inner vision of nature rather than to create a realistic depiction of the rural landscape. To Cone, nature was a vehicle for revealing certain truths, his paintings integrated his firsthand observation of nature. He once said, "The purpose of art is not to reproduce life, but to present an editorial, a comment on life.... The artist does not set out to imitate nature. What would be the purpose of that? Let the camera with its clever mechanism imitate. Art, such as poetry and painting, is a portion of the experience of the artist; when we see ideals, they become real to us. Art makes it audible or visual, it symbolizes the whole of life. We believe in something we can see.” Cedar Rapids Museum of Art
Martin Cone was a Catholic priest in the United States and served as the sixth president of St. Ambrose College in Davenport, Iowa from 1930 to 1937, he was a native of Clinton and studied for the priesthood at St. Mary’s Seminary in Baltimore, where he was ordained a priest for the Diocese of Davenport on June 12, 1912, he did graduate studies at The Catholic University of America in Washington, DC and the University of Iowa where he earned a doctorate. He was assigned to the faculty of St. Ambrose College after ordination. Cone was a social worker who taught social sciences at St. Ambrose for 16 years before becoming president. While serving at the college he was pastor of St. Patrick’s parish in Villa Nova. Cone led the effort to bring Catholic Charities to the diocese in the late 1920s, served as its first director from 1929 until his death in 1963, he had an interest in St. Vincent’s Home in Davenport where he helped to improve the living conditions of the children and professionalized the staff.
As president at St Ambrose he took over at the beginning of the Great Depression. Cone is credited with building the faculty, taking over at a time when priests were paid $15 a month for teaching. Cone instituted summer sessions on campus, he was instrumental in developing a college for women in Davenport that would become Marycrest College. In the 1930s he worked with Msgrs. William Shannahan and George Giglinger to develop a local radio program on WOC that featured Catholic topics. In 1937 he joined the board of The Catholic Messenger. Bishop Henry Rohlman nominated Father Cone for papal honors twice. In 1931 Pope Pius XI named him a Domestic Prelate. Pope Pius XII named him a Protonotary Apostolic in 1941. After his presidency Msgr. Cone was appointed pastor and rector of Sacred Heart Cathedral, vicar general of the Diocese of Davenport; when Bishop Rohlman became coadjutor archbishop of Dubuque in 1944, Msgr. Cone became administrator of the diocese until Bishop Ralph Leo Hayes was named Bishop of Davenport.
In the 1940s he helped organize the diocese’s participation in the War Emergency and Relief Collection, sponsored by the National Catholic Welfare Council. He died in Davenport in 1963 at the age of 80
A growth cone is a large actin-supported extension of a developing or regenerating neurite seeking its synaptic target. Their existence was proposed by Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal based upon stationary images he observed under the microscope, he first described the growth cone based on fixed cells as "a concentration of protoplasm of conical form, endowed with amoeboid movements". Growth cones are situated on the tips of either dendrites or axons, of the nerve cell; the sensory, motor and adaptive functions of growing axons and dendrites are all contained within this specialized structure. The morphology of the growth cone can be described by using the hand as an analogy; the fine extensions of the growth cone are pointed filopodia known as microspikes. The filopodia are like the "fingers" of the growth cone. Filopodia are the dominant structures in growth cones, they appear as narrow cylindrical extensions which can extend several micrometres beyond the edge of the growth cone.
The filopodia are bound by a membrane which contains receptors, cell adhesion molecules that are important for axon growth and guidance. In between filopodia—much like the webbing of the hands—are the "lamellipodia"; these are flat regions of dense actin meshwork instead of bundled F-actin as in filopodia. They appear adjacent to the leading edge of the growth cone and are positioned between two filopodia, giving them a "veil-like" appearance. In growth cones, new filopodia emerge from these inter-filopodial veils; the growth cone is described in terms of three regions: the peripheral domain, the transitional domain, the central domain. The peripheral domain is the thin region surrounding the outer edge of the growth cone, it is composed of an actin-based cytoskeleton, contains the lamellipodia and filopodia which are dynamic. Microtubules, are known to transiently enter the peripheral region via a process called dynamic instability; the central domain is located in the center of the growth cone nearest to the axon.
This region is composed of a microtubule-based cytoskeleton, is thicker, contains many organelles and vesicles of various sizes. The transitional domain is the region located in the thin band between the central and peripheral domains. Growth cones are molecularly specialized, with transcriptomes and proteomes that are distinct from those of their parent cell bodies. There are many cytoskeletal-associated proteins, which perform a variety of duties within the growth cone, such as anchoring actin and microtubules to each other, to the membrane, to other cytoskeletal components; some of these components include molecular motors that generate force within the growth cone and membrane-bound vesicles which are transported in and out of the growth cone via microtubules. Some examples of cytoskeletal-associated proteins are Fascin and Filamin, myosin, mDia; the dynamic nature of growth cones allows them to respond to the surrounding environment by changing direction and branching in response to various stimuli.
There are three stages of axon outgrowth, which are termed: protrusion and consolidation. During protrusion, there is a rapid extension of filopodia and lamellar extensions along the leading edge of the growth cone. Engorgement follows when the filopodia move to the lateral edges of the growth cone, microtubules invade further into the growth cone, bringing vesicles and organelles such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Consolidation occurs when the F-actin at the neck of the growth cone depolymerizes and the filopodia retract; the membrane shrinks to form a cylindrical axon shaft around the bundle of microtubules. One form of axon branching occurs via the same process, except that the growth cone “splits” during the engorgement phase; this results in the bifurcation of the main axon. An additional form of axon branching is termed collateral branching. Collateral branching, unlike axon bifurcations, involves the formation of a new branch from the established axon shaft and is independent of the growth cone at the tip of the growing axon.
In this mechanism, the axon generates a filopodium or lamellipodium which following invasion by axonal microtubules can develop further into a branch extending perpendicular from the axon shaft. Established collateral branches, like the main axon, exhibit a growth cone and develop independently of the main axon tip. Overall, axon elongation is the product of a process known as tip growth. In this process, new material is added at the growth cone while the remainder of the axonal cytoskeleton remains stationary; this occurs via two processes: mechanical tension. With cytoskeletal dynamics, microtubules polymerize into the growth cone and deliver vital components. Mechanical tension occurs when the membrane is stretched due to force generation by molecular motors in the growth cone and strong adhesions to the substrate along the axon. In general growing growth cones are small and have a large degree of stretching, while slow moving or paused growth cones are large and have a low degree of stretching.
The growth cones are continually being built up through construction of the actin microfilaments and extension of the plasma membrane via vesicle fusion. The actin filaments depolymerize and disassemble on the proximal end to allow free monomers to migrate to the leading edge of the actin filament where it can polymerize and thus reattach. Actin filaments are consta