The Rio Grande is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico. The Rio Grande begins in south-central Colorado in the United States, along the way, it forms part of the Mexico–United States border. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, its length was 1,896 miles in the late 1980s. Depending on how it is measured, the Rio Grande is the fourth- or fifth-longest river system in North America. The river serves as part of the border between the U. S. state of Texas and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León. A very short stretch of the river serves as part of the boundary between the U. S. states of Texas and New Mexico. Since the mid–20th century, heavy consumption of farms and cities along with many large diversion dams on the river has left only 20% of its natural discharge to flow to the Gulf. Near the rivers mouth, the heavily irrigated lower Rio Grande Valley is an important agricultural region, the Rio Grande is one of 19 Great Waters recognized by Americas Great Waters Coalition.
The Rio Grandes watershed covers 182,200 square miles, many endorheic basins are situated within, or adjacent to, the Rio Grandes basin, and these are sometimes included in the river basins total area, increasing its size to about 336,000 square miles. The Rio Grande rises in the part of the Rio Grande National Forest in the U. S. state of Colorado. The river is formed by the joining of several streams at the base of Canby Mountain in the San Juan Mountains and it continues on a southerly route through the desert cities of Albuquerque, and Las Cruces to El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. In the Albuquerque area, the river flows past a number of historic Pueblo villages, including Sandia Pueblo, below El Paso, it serves as part of the border between the United States and Mexico. The official river border measurement ranges from 889 miles to 1,248 miles, a major tributary, the Rio Conchos, enters at Ojinaga, below El Paso, and supplies most of the water in the border segment. Other well-known tributaries include the Pecos and the smaller Devils, which join the Rio Grande on the site of Amistad Dam.
Despite its name and length, the Rio Grande is not navigable by ocean-going ships, in New Mexico, the river flows through the Rio Grande rift from one sediment-filled basin to another, cutting canyons between the basins and supporting a fragile bosque ecosystem on its flood plain. From El Paso eastward, the flows through desert. Although irrigated agriculture exists throughout most of its stretch, it is extensive in the subtropical Lower Rio Grande Valley. The river ends in a small, sandy delta at the Gulf of Mexico, during portions of 2001 and 2002, the mouth of the Rio Grande was blocked by a sandbar
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ. The church is headquartered in Salt Lake City and has established congregations, according to the church, it has over 70,000 missionaries and a membership of over 15 million. It is ranked by the National Council of Churches as the fourth-largest Christian denomination in the United States and it is the largest denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement founded by Joseph Smith during the period of religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening. Adherents, often referred to as Latter-day Saints, or, less formally, view faith in Jesus Christ and his atonement as fundamental principles of their religion. The church has a canon which includes four scriptural texts, the Bible, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants. The current president is Thomas S. Monson, individual members of the church believe that they can receive personal revelation from God in conducting their lives.
The president heads a hierarchical structure with various levels reaching down to local congregations, drawn from the laity, lead local congregations. Male members, after reaching age 12, may be ordained to the priesthood, Women do not hold positions within the priesthood, but do occupy leadership roles in some church auxiliary organizations. Both men and women may serve as missionaries, and the church maintains a large missionary program which proselytizes, faithful members adhere to church laws of sexual purity, health and Sabbath observance, and contribute ten percent of their income to the church in tithing. The LDS Church was formally organized by Joseph Smith on April 6,1830, Smith intended to establish the New Jerusalem in North America, called Zion. In 1831, the moved to Kirtland and began establishing an outpost in Jackson County, Missouri. However, in 1833, Missouri settlers brutally expelled the Latter Day Saints from Jackson County, the Kirtland era ended in 1838, after a financial scandal rocked the church and caused widespread defections.
Smith regrouped with the church in Far West, Missouri. Believing the Saints to be in insurrection, the Missouri governor ordered that the Saints be exterminated or driven from the State, in 1839, the Saints converted a swampland on the banks of the Mississippi River into Nauvoo, which became the churchs new headquarters. Nauvoo grew rapidly as missionaries sent to Europe and elsewhere gained new converts who flooded into Nauvoo, Smith introduced polygamy to his closest associates. He established ceremonies, which he stated the Lord had revealed to him, to allow people to become gods in the afterlife. He introduced the church to an accounting of his First Vision. This vision would come to be regarded by the LDS Church as the most important event in history since the resurrection of Jesus
The Conejos River is a tributary of the Rio Grande, approximately 92.5 miles long, in south-central Colorado in the United States. It drains an area of the eastern San Juan Mountains west of the San Luis Valley. It rises from snowmelt along the continental divide west of Conejos Peak in western Conejos County and it flows briefly northeast, through Platoro Reservoir, southeast through the Rio Grande National Forest, east along the New Mexico border through a scenic canyon. It enters the corner of the San Luis Valley from the west near Conejos. It is impounded at Platoro Reservoir for flood control and to manage irrigation in the San Luis Valley, the river is wide and shallow along much of its course. It descends steeply in several areas, including at Pinnacle Canyon, off limits to white settlement during the New Spain years, the river was the site of early land grants to settlers from the government of Mexico in the 1830s. The first settlement of 50 families along the river, in the Guadalupe Grant in 1833, was destroyed in an attack by Native Americans, josé Jacques established the first white settlement on the river in 1851.
The town of Conejos was founded in the 1854 by Lafayette Head, List of Colorado rivers List of tributaries of the Rio Grande USGR, San Luis Valley Project Rio Grandes Hispanic Heritage
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2,1890. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time, the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, the total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing. The public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the right answer was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in America, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850. The 1890 census announced that the region of the United States no longer existed. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement, by 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line. This prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis, the original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available.
Almost all the schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington. Some 25% of the materials were presumed destroyed and another 50% damaged by smoke, the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21,1933, and the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935. The other censuses for which information has been lost are the 1800 and 1810 enumerations. Mayo-Smith, The Eleventh Census of the United States
Colorado General Assembly
The Colorado General Assembly is the state legislature of the State of Colorado. It is a legislature that was created by the 1876 state constitution. Its statutes are codified in the Colorado Revised Statutes, the session laws are published in the Session Laws of Colorado. Colorados legislature is similar to those of states, except unlike many states Colorado does not give its lieutenant governor any legislative authority. The first meeting of the Colorado General Assembly took place from November 1,1876, succeeding sessions met every two years until 1950, when it began to meet annually. The Colorado Constitution establishes a system of government based on the separation of powers doctrine with power divided among the executive, the General Assembly is bicameral, composed of the Colorado House of Representatives and the Colorado Senate. The House has 65 members and the Senate 35, Members of the House are elected to 2-year terms, and members of the Senate are elected to 4-year terms. General legislative elections are held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in each even-numbered year, the entire House is elected in each general election.
Senators are elected in two such that, as nearly as possible, one-half of the senators are elected in each general election. House members are limited to 4 consecutive terms in office, term-limited former members of both houses can run again after a 4-year break. It is possible for individuals who have registered to vote. Minor party candidates can gain access to the election ballot through a minor party caucus process. Unaffiliated candidates can gain access to the election ballot by petition. Vacancies in legislative offices are filled by political party vacancy committees. The state auditor is appointed by the General Assembly, as are members of independent boards. Currently, the Colorado General Assembly has split majorities, with the Republican Party controlling the Senate, Democrats hold the Governors office. With the notable exceptions listed below, the Colorado General Assembly operates in a quite similar to the United States Congress. Regular sessions are held annually and begin no than the second Wednesday in January, regular sessions last no more than 120 days
The Theatines or the Congregation of Clerics Regular of the Divine Providence are a religious order of the Catholic Church, with the post-nominal initials C. R. The order was founded by Saint Cajetan, Paolo Consiglieri, Bonifacio da Colle, Carafa was Bishop of Chieti, Chieti is a city of the Abruzzi in Central Italy, from which the congregation adopted its specific name, to distinguish it from other congregations modelled upon it. The Theatines combined the pursuit of evangelical perfection traditional among religious orders with apostolic service generally expected of diocesan clergy and it was Caraffa who wrote the constitutions of the order. Cajetan consecrated his order to the Cross, which he adopted as its emblem, and it was approved on June 24 of that year, by Pope Clement VII in the Brief Exponi Nobis. On September 14, feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross and his companions made solemn profession before the altar of St. Peters Basilica in Rome. Giovanni Battista Bonziano, Bishop of Caserta, a papal delegate.
Caraffa was chosen the first General, the chief object of the order was to recall the clergy to an edifying life and the laity to the practice of virtue. They founded oratories and hospitals, devoted themselves to preaching the Gospel and they were exclusive and formidably austere. They wore the black cassock of the local clergy and maintained a modest lifestyle. The prohibition on both owning property and soliciting alms tended to limit applicants to members of the aristocracy, in 1546 they were briefly joined with the Somaschi Fathers, but as the object of the respective orders differed, they separated in 1555. In 1527 their house in Rome was sacked by the army of Charles V, and they founded many beautiful churches, among them that of SantAndrea della Valle in Rome, a gift of Costanza Piccolomini DAragona, Duchess of Amalfi. This church is a masterpiece of Carlo Maderno and contains paintings by Domenichino. The Theatines still operate the church, in France, through the efforts of Cardinal Mazarin, they built the Church of St.
Anne la Royale opposite the Louvre in 1644. In Spain, under Philip II, the Theatine Cardinal Paolo Burali dArezzo, in Portugal, John IV, in 1648, gave the Theatines a splendid house and college for the education of noble youth. In England, under Henry VIII, Thomas Goldwell, Bishop of St. Asaph, in Bavaria, the Theatine Church St. Kajetan was built from 1663 to 1690, founded by Elector Ferdinand Maria. The Theatines were the first to found papal missions in, Ava, Mingrelia, founded by Andrea Borromeo, the East Indies, Arabia, in 1626 Theatines went to Persia. Theatine manuscripts dating from 1530 until the end of the 18th century show there were established in a number of other countries also. By 1700 the Theatines numbered 1400, by the end of the eighteenth century, decline had set in, exacerbated by political upheavals
Old Spanish Trail (trade route)
The Old Spanish Trail is an historical trade route that connected the northern New Mexico settlements of Santa Fe, New Mexico with those of Los Angeles and southern California. Approximately 700 mi long, the trail ran through areas of mountains, arid deserts. It is considered one of the most arduous of all trade routes established in the United States. Explored, in part, by Spanish explorers as early as the late 16th century, the name of the trail comes from the publication of John C. Frémont’s Report of his 1844 journey for the U. S. Topographical Corps, guided by Kit Carson, from California to New Mexico. The name acknowledges the fact that parts of the trail had been known to the Spanish since the 16th century, frémonts report named a trail that had already been in use for about 15 years. The trail is important to New Mexico history because it established an arduous, the trail is a combination of known trails that were established by Spanish explorers and traders with the Ute and other Indian tribes.
The eastern parts of what called the Old Spanish Trail, including southwest Colorado. The same trail was used by the first Americans to reach California by land, the Mojave desert section of the Mohave Trail is now a jeep trail called the Mojave Road. Upon the return of Antonio Armijo, the governor of New Mexico immediately announced the success to his superiors in Mexico City, as a reward, the governor officially named Armijo Commander for the Discovery of the Route to California. Armijos route was documented by him in a report to the governor, after this date, the route began to be used by traders for usually a single annual round trip. Word spread about the successful trade expedition and some commerce began between Santa Fe and Los Angeles. This route ran northwest to the Colorado and Green Rivers, crossed over to the Sevier River and it passed southward to the Santa Clara River, linking up with Armijos route to California. California had many horses and mules, many growing wild, with no local market, usually two blankets were traded for one horse, more blankets were usually required for a mule.
California had almost no wool processing industry and few weavers, so woven products were a welcome commodity, the trading party usually left New Mexico in early November to take advantage of winter rains to cross the deserts on the trail and would arrive in California in early February. The return party would usually leave California for New Mexico in early April to get over the trail before the water dried up. The return party often included several hundred to a few horses and mules. Low-scale emigration from New Mexico to California used parts of the trail in the late 1830s when the trade began to die
The jacal is an adobe-style housing structure historically found throughout parts of the southwestern United States and Mexico. This type of structure was employed by some Native people of the Americas prior to European colonization and was employed by both Hispanic and Anglo settlers in Texas and elsewhere. Typically, a jacal consisted of slim close-set poles tied together and filled out with mud, more sophisticated structures, such as those constructed by the Anasazi, incorporated adobe bricks—sun-baked mud and sandstone. Jacal construction is similar to wattle and daub and this is overlain with a layer of mud/adobe, sometimes applied over a middle layer of dry grasses or brush which functions as insulation. Luna Jacal in Big Bend National Park Sketch of a Jacal from A pictorial history of Texas, from the earliest visits of European adventurers, to A. D.1879, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
1930 United States Census
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949, after which the original sheets were destroyed. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, and digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 85,000 places listed on the countrys National Register of Historic Places, a National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, and it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed, prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. The first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17,1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the data gathered under this legislation. Because listings often triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9,1960,92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A.
Seaton, more than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States, there are NHLs in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nations NHLs, three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states, California, Massachusetts, there are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia. Some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, and foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U. S. commonwealths and territories,5 in U. S. -associated states such as Micronesia, over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are privately owned, the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks. A friends group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve, protect, if not already listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation.
About three percent of Register listings are NHLs, american Water Landmark List of U. S
Alamosa County, Colorado
Alamosa County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,445, the county name is the Spanish language word for a grove of cottonwood trees. Alamosa County was created by the Colorado legislature on March 8,1913, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 723 square miles, of which 723 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles is water. The only commercial service is to Denver, as of the census of 2000, there were 14,966 people,5,467 households, and 3,651 families residing in the county. The population density was 21 people per square mile, there were 6,088 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile. 41. 41% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,27. 30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the family size was 3.14. In the county, the population was out with 27. 20% under the age of 18,15. 90% from 18 to 24,26. 70% from 25 to 44,20. 60% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 31 years, for every 100 females there were 99.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.30 males, the median income for a household in the county was $29,447, and the median income for a family was $38,389. Males had an income of $27,733 versus $22,806 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,037, about 15. 60% of families and 21. 30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27. 40% of those under age 18 and 13. 90% of those age 65 or over. In 2000, the largest denominational groups were Catholics and Evangelical Protestants, the largest religious bodies were The Catholic Church and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Alamosa Hooper Alamosa East Mosca Alamosa County has used the following county codes on Colorado license plates issued to vehicles in the county, XE-XG
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureaus primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, in addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, and the Current Population Survey, furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government typically contain data produced by the Census Bureau. The Bureaus various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and help states, local communities, the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States. The Census Bureau now conducts a population count every 10 years in years ending with a 0. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population estimates and projections, the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations, the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy.
The Census Bureaus legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code, the Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, and housing. Within the bureau, these are known as surveys and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts. The Census Bureau conducts surveys of manufacturing, service. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts, the Census Act of 1840 established a central office which became known as the Census Office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, typically at the 10-year intervals, in 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, and in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor. The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their role in the department.
An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every 2 years, in 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code, by law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year, the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are widely used. for data collection, the Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information, all Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment. The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government, only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general public