Battle of Cheat Mountain
It was the first battle of the Civil War in which Robert E. Lee led troops into combat. Starting in May 1861, Union forces commanded by Maj. Gen. George B, following his victory at Rich Mountain, McClellan was transferred to command the Army of the Potomac, leaving Brig. Gen. William Rosecrans in command of western Virginia. Rosecrans concentrated his forces to protect the transportation lines in the region. Brig. Gen. Joseph J. Reynolds was left in command of the Cheat Mountain district, defending the Staunton and Parkersburg Turnpike with four regiments totaling 1,800 men. Gen. Robert E. Lee was sent to western Virginia by Confederate President Jefferson Davis to coordinate the various Confederate forces in the region and regain lost Confederate territory. He arrived at the camps of the Army of the Northwest, commanded by Brig. Gen. William W. Loring, near the end of July, although he did not replace Loring, Lee did issue orders through him. The plan used Lorings Army of the Northwest, which was divided into six brigades for the battle, Loring was given command of Burkes and Gilhams brigades during the battle.
The approaches by each of the three Confederate brigades were uncoordinated, fog, mountainous terrain, and a dense forest limited visibility to minimal distances. As a result, each of the three Confederate brigades assigned to attack Cheat Summit Fort acted independently and never made contact with either of the other two Confederate brigades, the Union defenders on Cheat Summit were very familiar with the terrain and mountain trails. Rust and Anderson withdrew their 3,000 men although they faced only about 300 determined Federals outside the Union fortifications. At Elk Water, Reynoldss brigade faced three more Confederate brigades but refused to budge from well-prepared entrenchments, the Confederates did not press an attack after Col. John A. Washington, of Lees staff, was killed during a reconnaissance of the Union right. Lee called off the attack and, after maneuvering in the vicinity, meanwhile, planned an offensive against the Confederate forces stationed at the Greenbrier River. Reynoldss forces lost a total of 88 casualties, Confederate casualties were unreported, the battle had little effect on either the campaign or the war, both forces after the battle were in positions similar to their positions before the battle.
In October, Lee left Cheat Mountain for Sewell Mountain in the Kanawha River valley with the troops of John B, floyd and Henry Wise, but he was forced to cancel the offensive operations he had planned because of low supplies and bad weather. Lee was recalled to Richmond on October 30 after achieving little in western Virginia, white Top, site of Cheat Summit Fort Cheat Mountain, site of the battle National Park Service battle description Lesser, W. Hunter. Rebels at the Gate, Lee and McClellan on the Front Line of a Nation Divided, Clayton R. Lee Vs. McClellan, The First Campaign. R. E. Lee, A Biography, Vol.1, new York and London, Charles Scribners Sons,1934. War of the Rebellion, The Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Vol.5, R. E. Lees Cheat Mountain Campaign
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States, officially the Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a breakaway country of 11 secessionist slave states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was never recognized as an Independent country, although it achieved belligerent status by Britain. A new Confederate government was established in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, after the Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession, the Civil War began with the April 12,1861, Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In spring 1865, after four years of fighting which led to an estimated 620,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered. Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had disappeared in 1865, Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union.
Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the Five Civilized Tribes located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty. A Unionist government in parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal, as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers, the most notable advance was Shermans March to the Sea in late 1864. Much of the Confederacys infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, plantations in the path of Shermans forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Daviss administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, after four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Shortly afterward, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, President Davis was captured on May 10,1865, and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held. The U. S. government began a process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy. The prewar South had many areas, the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure
Henry R. Jackson
Henry Rootes Jackson was a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Jackson was born in Athens, Georgia and he graduated with honors from Yale University, where he was a member of Skull and Bones, in 1839. Jackson was a poet and a frequent public speaker, for instance, he delivered an oration on Courage to the University of Georgia literary societies in 1848 and a dedication address for the Laurel Grove Cemetery in Savannah in 1852. Jackson was a prominent lawyer and prosecutor in Savannah, in 1859, he unsuccessfully prosecuted the owners and crew of the slave ship, The Wanderer, probably the last ship to attempt to bring African into the United States for sale as slaves. Enlisting in the Confederate army in 1861, he served as a judge in Confederate courts, promoted in June to brigadier general, he led troops during the Western Virginia campaign, seeing action at the Battle of Cheat Mountain. In December, he was promoted to general of state militia for Georgia.
Returning to Confederate service in September 1863, he led a brigade during the Atlanta Campaign and he commanded a brigade in William B. Bates division in John Bell Hoods Franklin-Nashville Campaign. Jackson was captured at the Battle of Nashville and was paroled from Fort Warren, after the war, he resumed his law practice and political career, being named as minister to Mexico from 1885 to 1886. He was an executive and president of the Georgia Historical Society. Jackson died in Savannah and was buried in Bonaventure Cemetery, owned by City of Savannah, located in Thunderbolt, list of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Who Was Who in the Civil War, new York, Facts On File,1988. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray, Lives of the Confederate Commanders, baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press,1959. Former Home of Henry R. Jackson historical marker
Army of Missouri
Prices Raid was unsuccessful, and his army retreated to Arkansas, where it was broken up and absorbed into the Confederate Army of the Trans-Mississippi. As the Missouri State Guard, they would win victories over the Union at the First Battle of Lexington and Wilsons Creek, where Lyon himself was killed. Following the Battle of Corinth, Price was sent back to Missouri by Confederate President Jefferson Davis but without any of the troops he previously commanded and he raised a new force, and conducted operations in Arkansas in support of Southern efforts there. By the late summer of 1864, a portion of the Union Army in Missouri had been reassigned eastward to aid in efforts to seize Atlanta. The Confederacy ordered Gen. E. Kirby Smith, commander of the Trans-Mississippi Department and he desired to liberate Missouri from Federal control, seizing the key cities of St. Louis and the state capital at Jefferson City, reinstating the Confederate governor and his supporters. Price eagerly accepted his new assignment, having lobbied for just such an opportunity.
Considering that St. Louis was originally defended by only 8,000 Union troops, Smiths hopes were not entirely unfounded–at least in the beginning. The Army of Missouri was organized into three divisions, led by Maj. Gen. James F. Fagan, Maj. Gen. John S. Marmaduke and Brig. Gen. Joseph O. Shelby, all veterans of previous combat during the war. A breakdown of the Army of Missouri by divisions, Prices men formed a rather motley crew, with a quarter of his force being made up of deserters. Hundreds of Prices men were barefoot, and most had no personal equipment such as canteens or cartridge boxes, many carried jugs for water, nearly 4000 were unarmed, as Price was unable to procure sufficient small arms for his command. Prices orders were to strike first at St. Louis, make for Jefferson City if that was too stoutly defended. From there Price was to continue onward to the west, cross into Kansas and head south through the Indian Territory, sweeping that country of its mules, cattle, Prices army left northeastern Arkansas on Friday, September 16,1864.
Unable to continue on toward St. Louis due to heavy Union reinforcement, sharp skirmishes there convinced him that the capital could not be taken either, so Price continued further west toward Kansas City and nearby Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Minor clashes ensued between Prices force and Union elements at Boonville and Glasgow, and between one of Prices brigades and Unionist militia at Sedalia. As he made his way west, Price acquired an ever-expanding wagon train loaded down with looted and captured property and materiel, as well a large herd of horses and cattle. Union forces in Missouri, under the command of Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, were organizing to oppose Prices incursion. Curtis organized militia units in Missouri and Kansas, together with infantry and cavalry units, into the Army of the Border. Meanwhile, Prices force was being eroded by desertions and disease, by the time of the pivotal Battle of Westport
Battle of Camp Allegheny
In December, Confederate forces under Col. Edward Johnson occupied the summit of Allegheny Mountain to defend the Staunton and Parkersburg Turnpike. A Union force under Brig. Gen. Robert H. Milroy attacked Johnson at sunrise on December 13, in a piercing winter wind, fighting continued for much of the sunny morning as each side maneuvered on the hillside fields and woods to gain the advantage. On the right flank, Milroy had posted a strong force in a clearing, among the fallen timber and brush. A Confederate artillery battery unlimbered and unleashed a storm of shot and canister among them, knocking their timber defences about their heads. Finally, Milroys troops were repulsed, and he retreated to his camps at Green Spring Run near Cheat Mountain, johnsons losses were high,25 men were killed and 97 were wounded in the engagement, plus 23 went missing. Johnson would receive the nickname Allegheny Johnson for his efforts, at years end, he remained at Camp Allegheny with five regiments, and Henry Heth was at Lewisburg with two regiments.
The Camp Allegheny Historic District is a historic district encompassing one contributing structure. They are the earthworks, site of hut and campground, church site, and it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990. An Affair of Outposts, The Battle of Alleghany Mountain, West Virginia History 59, crashing the Party, Alcohol & Alcohol Abuse within the Confederate Army of the Northwest, Civil War Times Illustrated 40, 48-54
Confederate States Army
The Confederate States Army was the military ground force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. S. Military Academy and colonel of a regiment during the Mexican War. In March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a more permanent Confederate States Army, the better estimates of the number of individual Confederate soldiers are between 750,000 and 1,000,000 men. This does not include a number of slaves who were pressed into performing various tasks for the army, such as construction of fortifications. Since these figures include estimates of the number of individual soldiers who served at any time during the war. These numbers do not include men who served in Confederate naval forces, although most of the soldiers who fought in the American Civil War were volunteers, both sides by 1862 resorted to conscription, primarily as a means to force men to register and to volunteer. In the absence of records, estimates of the percentage of Confederate soldiers who were draftees are about double the 6 percent of Union soldiers who were conscripts.
Confederate casualty figures are incomplete and unreliable, one estimate of Confederate wounded, which is considered incomplete, is 194,026. These numbers do not include men who died from causes such as accidents. Other Confederate forces surrendered between April 16,1865 and June 28,1865, by the end of the war, more than 100,000 Confederate soldiers had deserted. The Confederacys government effectively dissolved when it fled Richmond in April, by the time Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States on March 4,1861, the seven seceding slave states had formed the Confederate States. The Confederacy seized federal property, including nearly all U. S. Army forts, Lincoln was determined to hold the forts remaining under U. S. control when he took office, especially Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. Under orders from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, C. S. troops under the command of General P. G. T, Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13,1861, forcing its capitulation on April 14.
The Northern states were outraged by the Confederacys attack and demanded war and it rallied behind Lincolns call on April 15, for all the states to send troops to recapture the forts from the secessionists, to put down the rebellion and to preserve the Union intact. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy. The Confederate Congress provided for a Confederate army patterned after the United States Army and it was to consist of a large provisional force to exist only in time of war and a small permanent regular army. Although the two forces were to exist concurrently, very little was done to organize the Confederate regular army, the Provisional Army of the Confederate States began organizing on April 27. Virtually all regular and conscripted men preferred to enter this organization since officers could achieve a rank in the Provisional Army than they could in the Regular Army
George B. McClellan
George Brinton McClellan was an American soldier, civil engineer, railroad executive, and politician. A graduate of West Point, McClellan served with distinction during the Mexican-American War, although McClellan was meticulous in his planning and preparations, these very characteristics hampered his ability to challenge aggressive opponents in a fast-moving battlefield environment. He chronically overestimated the strength of units and was reluctant to apply principles of mass. McClellan organised and led the Union army in the Peninsula Campaign in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862 and it was the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. General McClellan failed to maintain the trust of President Abraham Lincoln and he did not trust his commander-in-chief and was privately derisive of him. McClellan went on to become the unsuccessful Democratic Party nominee in the 1864 presidential election against Lincoln, the effectiveness of his campaign was damaged when he repudiated his partys platform, which promised an end to the war and negotiations with the Confederacy.
He served as the 24th Governor of New Jersey from 1878 to 1881 and he eventually became a writer, and vigorously defended his Civil War conduct. Most modern authorities have assessed McClellan as a battlefield general. Some historians view him as a capable commander whose reputation suffered unfairly at the hands of pro-Lincoln partisans who made him a scapegoat for the Unions military setbacks. After the war, Ulysses S. Grant was asked for his opinion of McClellan as a general and he replied, McClellan is to me one of the mysteries of the war. Also, when Robert E. Lee was asked who was the best Union general, George Brinton McClellan was born in Philadelphia, the son of a prominent surgeon, Dr. George McClellan, the founder of Jefferson Medical College. His fathers family was of Ulster Scots heritage and his mother was Elizabeth Sophia Steinmetz Brinton McClellan, daughter of a leading Pennsylvania family, a woman noted for her considerable grace and refinement. The couple had five children, a daughter, three sons, John and Arthur, and finally a daughter, Mary.
McClellan was the great-grandson of Revolutionary War general Samuel McClellan, of Woodstock and he attended the University of Pennsylvania in 1840 at age 13, resigning himself to the study of law. After two years, he changed his goal to military service, with the assistance of his fathers letter to President John Tyler, young George was accepted at the United States Military Academy in 1842, the academy having waived its normal minimum age of 16. At West Point, he was an energetic and ambitious cadet, deeply interested in the teachings of Dennis Hart Mahan and his closest friends were aristocratic Southerners such as James Stuart, Dabney Maury, Cadmus Wilcox, and A. P. Hill. He graduated in 1846, second in his class of 59 cadets and he was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. McClellans first assignment was with a company of engineers formed at West Point and he arrived near the mouth of the Rio Grande in October 1846, well prepared for action with a double-barreled shotgun, two pistols, a saber, a dress sword, and a Bowie knife
Confederate Army of West Tennessee
The Army of West Tennessee was a short-lived Confederate army led by Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn, which fought principally in the Second Battle of Corinth. The army was organized from elements of the Army of the West on September 28,1862, with Earl Van Dorn its first, Price interpreted Braggs orders as to mean that he was to attack the Union forces. Van Dorn, choose to move against the Union forces threatening Vicksburg and launched an attack on Baton Rouge, Price by this time had decided not to wait for Van Dorn but moved against Iuka, capturing the town on September 14. When he discovered that Grant was approaching from the northwest, Price decided to retreat before he was surrounded, Price united with Van Dorn at Ripley, Mississippi, on September 28 and placed himself under his command. Although several officers, including Price and Lovell, were opposed to the plan, the march began on September 29 and the Confederates arrived outside Corinth on October 3. The two-day Battle of Corinth began on October 3, with Confederate attacks overrunning the first line of Union entrenchments north of Corinth, Price had to halt his attacks close to dusk due to increasing disorganization in his divisions and to Lovells inactivity.
The next day, Van Dorn planned another series of attacks, starting at daylight with Louis Heberts division of Prices corps on the left flank, with the remaining units continuing the attack. However, the attack was delayed when Hebert reported himself sick and his successor had to be informed of the attack plan, Lovell failed to attack at all. Van Dorn reached Ripley on October 7, but due to the condition of his army. During the Corinth campaign, Price lost over 3,700 casualties out of 13,800 men, nearly 35 percent of his force, both Lovell and Van Dorn were blamed for the Confederate defeat, with Lovell especially criticized by Prices troops. In December, Van Dorns command was abolished and merged with Prices command into a new Department of Mississippi, Van Dorn himself was reassigned to a cavalry corps. Second Corinth Confederate order of battle Cozzens, The Darkest Days of the War, The Battles of Iuka and Corinth, University of North Carolina Press,1997, ISBN 0-8078-2320-1, p.327. Eicher, John H.
and Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press,2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3, p.892
Army of Central Kentucky
The Army of Central Kentucky was a military organization within Department No.2. Originally called the Army Corps of Central Kentucky, it was created in the fall of 1861 as a subsection of Department No. 2, and continued in existence until the end of March 1862 when it was absorbed and merged into the Army of Mississippi, which was re-organized as the Army of Tennessee on November 20,1862. Brig. Gen. Buckner assumed command of all forces in central Kentucky during September 1861 after having first served as a major general, the forces were organized into two divisions with a reserve force. Later a third division under Brig. Gen. John B, after Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston took command, Buckner continued to command a division of the Army of Central Kentucky at Bowling Green and Fort Donelson, where he surrendered. After being exchanged in August 1862, Buckner was promoted to major general, Gen. Johnston was in command of the Army of Central Kentucky from October 28,1861, until March 29,1862, with the exception of a two-week temporary command by Hardee in December.
The area of operation for this army was designated as the part of Tennessee north of the Cumberland River, on December 26,1861, part of the Army of the Kanawha was added. On March 29,1862, the army at about 23,000 men strong was merged into the Army of the Mississippi in preparation for the Battle of Shiloh, maj. Gen. Hardee took temporary command of the army from December 4 to December 18,1861. New York, McKay,1959, revised 1988, John H. and Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press,2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3
Army of Northern Virginia
It was most often arrayed against the Union Army of the Potomac. The name Army of Northern Virginia referred to its area of operation. The Army originated as the Army of the Potomac, which was organized on June 20,1861, on July 20 and July 21, the Army of the Shenandoah and forces from the District of Harpers Ferry were added. Units from the Army of the Northwest were merged into the Army of the Potomac between March 14 and May 17,1862, the Army of the Potomac was renamed Army of Northern Virginia on March 14. The Army of the Peninsula was merged into it on April 12,1862, Robert E. Lees biographer, Douglas S. Freeman, asserts that the army received its final name from Lee when he issued orders assuming command on June 1,1862. However, Freeman does admit that Lee corresponded with Joseph E. Johnston, his predecessor in command, prior to that date. In addition to Virginians, it included regiments from all over the Confederacy, some from as far away as Georgia, the first commander of the Army of Northern Virginia was General P. G. T.
Beauregard from June 20 to July 20,1861 and his forces consisted of six brigades, with various militia and artillery from the former Department of Alexandria. During his command, Gen. Beauregard is noted for creating the flag of the army. The flag was designed due to confusion during battle between the Confederate Stars and Bars flag and the flag of the United States, the following day this army fought its first major engagement in the First Battle of Manassas. With the merging of the Army of the Shenandoah, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston took command from July 20,1861, First Corps – commanded by General P. G. T. Magruder Reserve – commanded by Maj. Gen. G. W. Smith Under the command of Johnston, on October 22,1861, the Department of Northern Virginia was officially created, officially ending the Army of the Potomac. The Department comprised three districts, Aquia District, Potomac District, and the Valley District, in April 1862 the Department was expanded to include the Departments of Norfolk and the Peninsula.
Gen. Maj. Gen. Gustavus Woodson Smith commanded the ANV on May 31,1862, with Smith seemingly having a nervous breakdown, President Jefferson Davis drafted orders to place Gen. Robert E. Lee in command the following day. In the first year of his command, Lee had two principal subordinate commanders, the right wing of the army was under the command of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet and the left wing under Lt. Gen. Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson. These wings were redesignated as the First Corps and Second Corps on November 6,1862. Following Jacksons death after the Battle of Chancellorsville, Lee reorganized the army into three corps on May 30,1863, under Longstreet, Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell, and Lt. Gen. A. P. Hill. A Fourth Corps, under Lt. Gen. Richard H. Anderson, was organized on October 19,1864, on April 8,1865, the commanders of the first three corps changed frequently in 1864 and 1865
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker