Confederate Army of West Tennessee
The Army of West Tennessee was a short-lived Confederate army led by Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn, which fought principally in the Second Battle of Corinth. The army was organized from elements of the Army of the West on September 28,1862, with Earl Van Dorn its first, Price interpreted Braggs orders as to mean that he was to attack the Union forces. Van Dorn, choose to move against the Union forces threatening Vicksburg and launched an attack on Baton Rouge, Price by this time had decided not to wait for Van Dorn but moved against Iuka, capturing the town on September 14. When he discovered that Grant was approaching from the northwest, Price decided to retreat before he was surrounded, Price united with Van Dorn at Ripley, Mississippi, on September 28 and placed himself under his command. Although several officers, including Price and Lovell, were opposed to the plan, the march began on September 29 and the Confederates arrived outside Corinth on October 3. The two-day Battle of Corinth began on October 3, with Confederate attacks overrunning the first line of Union entrenchments north of Corinth, Price had to halt his attacks close to dusk due to increasing disorganization in his divisions and to Lovells inactivity.
The next day, Van Dorn planned another series of attacks, starting at daylight with Louis Heberts division of Prices corps on the left flank, with the remaining units continuing the attack. However, the attack was delayed when Hebert reported himself sick and his successor had to be informed of the attack plan, Lovell failed to attack at all. Van Dorn reached Ripley on October 7, but due to the condition of his army. During the Corinth campaign, Price lost over 3,700 casualties out of 13,800 men, nearly 35 percent of his force, both Lovell and Van Dorn were blamed for the Confederate defeat, with Lovell especially criticized by Prices troops. In December, Van Dorns command was abolished and merged with Prices command into a new Department of Mississippi, Van Dorn himself was reassigned to a cavalry corps. Second Corinth Confederate order of battle Cozzens, The Darkest Days of the War, The Battles of Iuka and Corinth, University of North Carolina Press,1997, ISBN 0-8078-2320-1, p.327. Eicher, John H.
and Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press,2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3, p.892
Irvin McDowell was a career American army officer. He is best known for his defeat in the First Battle of Bull Run, in 1862, he was given command of the I Corps of the Army of the Potomac. McDowell was born in Columbus, son of Abram Irvin McDowell and he was a cousin-in-law of John Buford, and his brother, John Adair McDowell, served as the first colonel of the 6th Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment during the Civil War. Irvin initially attended the College de Troyes in France before graduating from the United States Military Academy in 1838, his future adversary at First Bull Run. He was commissioned a lieutenant and posted to the 1st U. S. Artillery. McDowell served as an instructor at West Point, before becoming aide-de-camp to General John E. Wool during the Mexican-American War. He was brevetted captain at Buena Vista and served in the Adjutant Generals department after the war, while in that department he was promoted to major on May 31,1856. Between 1848 and 1861, McDowell generally served as an officer to higher-ranking military leaders.
He developed a friendship with General Winfield Scott while serving on his staff. He served under future Confederate general Joseph E. Johnston, McDowell was promoted to brigadier general in the regular army on May 14,1861, and given command of the Army of Northeastern Virginia, despite never having commanded troops in combat. The promotion was partly because of the influence of his mentor and his strategy during the First Battle of Bull Run was imaginative but ambitiously complex, and his troops were not experienced enough to carry it out effectively, resulting in an embarrassing rout. After the defeat at Bull Run, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan was placed in command of the new Union Army defending Washington, McDowell commanded a division in the new army, but McClellan soon reorganized his command and McDowell was given I Corps the following spring. Stonewall Jacksons Valley Campaign would eventually include an attack on Washington kept McDowells 40,000 soldiers behind, the three independent commands of Generals McDowell, John C.
Banks were combined into Maj. Gen. John Popes Army of Virginia, because of his actions at Cedar Mountain, McDowell was eventually brevetted major general in the regular army, however, he was blamed for the subsequent disaster at Second Bull Run. He escaped culpability by testifying against Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, despite his formal escape, McDowell spent the following two years in effective exile from the leadership of the Army. In July 1864, McDowell was given command of the Department of the Pacific, on November 25,1872, he was promoted to major-general. On December 16,1872, McDowell succeeded General George G. Meade as commander of the Military Division of the South, from July 1,1876 to his retirement on October 15,1882, he was commander of the Division of the Pacific. In this capacity he constructed a park in the reservation of the Presidio
Army of Missouri
Prices Raid was unsuccessful, and his army retreated to Arkansas, where it was broken up and absorbed into the Confederate Army of the Trans-Mississippi. As the Missouri State Guard, they would win victories over the Union at the First Battle of Lexington and Wilsons Creek, where Lyon himself was killed. Following the Battle of Corinth, Price was sent back to Missouri by Confederate President Jefferson Davis but without any of the troops he previously commanded and he raised a new force, and conducted operations in Arkansas in support of Southern efforts there. By the late summer of 1864, a portion of the Union Army in Missouri had been reassigned eastward to aid in efforts to seize Atlanta. The Confederacy ordered Gen. E. Kirby Smith, commander of the Trans-Mississippi Department and he desired to liberate Missouri from Federal control, seizing the key cities of St. Louis and the state capital at Jefferson City, reinstating the Confederate governor and his supporters. Price eagerly accepted his new assignment, having lobbied for just such an opportunity.
Considering that St. Louis was originally defended by only 8,000 Union troops, Smiths hopes were not entirely unfounded–at least in the beginning. The Army of Missouri was organized into three divisions, led by Maj. Gen. James F. Fagan, Maj. Gen. John S. Marmaduke and Brig. Gen. Joseph O. Shelby, all veterans of previous combat during the war. A breakdown of the Army of Missouri by divisions, Prices men formed a rather motley crew, with a quarter of his force being made up of deserters. Hundreds of Prices men were barefoot, and most had no personal equipment such as canteens or cartridge boxes, many carried jugs for water, nearly 4000 were unarmed, as Price was unable to procure sufficient small arms for his command. Prices orders were to strike first at St. Louis, make for Jefferson City if that was too stoutly defended. From there Price was to continue onward to the west, cross into Kansas and head south through the Indian Territory, sweeping that country of its mules, cattle, Prices army left northeastern Arkansas on Friday, September 16,1864.
Unable to continue on toward St. Louis due to heavy Union reinforcement, sharp skirmishes there convinced him that the capital could not be taken either, so Price continued further west toward Kansas City and nearby Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Minor clashes ensued between Prices force and Union elements at Boonville and Glasgow, and between one of Prices brigades and Unionist militia at Sedalia. As he made his way west, Price acquired an ever-expanding wagon train loaded down with looted and captured property and materiel, as well a large herd of horses and cattle. Union forces in Missouri, under the command of Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, were organizing to oppose Prices incursion. Curtis organized militia units in Missouri and Kansas, together with infantry and cavalry units, into the Army of the Border. Meanwhile, Prices force was being eroded by desertions and disease, by the time of the pivotal Battle of Westport
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States, officially the Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a breakaway country of 11 secessionist slave states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was never recognized as an Independent country, although it achieved belligerent status by Britain. A new Confederate government was established in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, after the Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession, the Civil War began with the April 12,1861, Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In spring 1865, after four years of fighting which led to an estimated 620,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered. Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had disappeared in 1865, Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union.
Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the Five Civilized Tribes located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty. A Unionist government in parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal, as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers, the most notable advance was Shermans March to the Sea in late 1864. Much of the Confederacys infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, plantations in the path of Shermans forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Daviss administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, after four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Shortly afterward, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, President Davis was captured on May 10,1865, and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held. The U. S. government began a process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy. The prewar South had many areas, the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure
Army of Tennessee
The Army of Tennessee was the principal Confederate army operating between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River during the American Civil War. It was formed in late 1862 and fought until the end of the war in 1865 and it should not be confused with the Union Army of the Tennessee, named after the Tennessee River. The army was formed on November 20,1862, when General Braxton Bragg renamed the former Army of Mississippi and was divided into two corps commanded by Leonidas Polk and William J. Hardee, the remaining division was assigned to Hardees corps while Kirby Smith returned to East Tennessee. The armys cavalry was consolidated into a command under Joseph Wheeler. The armys first major engagement under its new name took place against the Army of the Cumberland on December 31 along the Stones River. The attacks started at 6 a. m. against the Union right wing and forced the Union flank back towards the Union supply route to Nashville, Bragg expected Union commander William S. Rosecrans to retreat during the night but Rosecrans decided to remain.
No fighting took place on January 1, the next day Bragg assigned one division to seize a ridge on the east side of Stones River, Bragg retreated during the night and halted near the Duck River. When he learned of the dispute, Confederate President Jefferson Davis sent Joseph Johnston to inspect the army, Johnston however refused to take command of the army. In the summer of 1863, Rosecrans began an offensive, generally known as the Tullahoma Campaign, due to the low level of the river, Bragg felt compelled to retreat back to his supply center of Chattanooga, where he established his headquarters. When the Union forces halted following the campaign, Bragg took the opportunity to make several changes in the army. Hardee was transferred to Mississippi in July and replaced by D. H. Hill, the cavalry was reorganized into two corps commanded by Wheeler and Forrest, a two-division Reserve Corps was organized under the command of W. H. T. Rosecrans launched the Chickamauga Campaign in late August, staging demonstrations near Chattanooga and this convinced Bragg that Rosecrans was crossing the river to the north, Union forces were actually crossing to the south of the city.
This forced Bragg to fall back into northern Georgia, abandoning the important railroad hub of Chattanooga on September 8, over the course of the next several days, Bragg attempted to launch several attacks on isolated parts of the Union army but each attempt failed. During September 19 at Chickamauga, both sides fed in reinforcements as the day progressed, Polk was ordered to attack at daylight on September 20, with Longstreet attacking immediately afterwards, but Polk didnt launch his attack until midmorning. The left wing failed to dislodge the Union army but Longstreets wing attacked a gap in the Union army which routed the Union right flank. A portion of the Union army rallied on Horseshoe Ridge and held off multiple Confederate attacks until evening, when it followed the rest of Rosecrans army into Chattanooga. Bragg considered an attack on the city too costly. Instead he spread the Confederate army along the Tennessee River, cutting the Union railroad supply line into the city, during the next several weeks, Bragg became embroiled with a dispute with the armys corps commanders
Milledge Luke Bonham
Milledge Luke Bonham was an American politician and Congressman who served as the 70th Governor of South Carolina from 1862 until 1864. He was a Confederate General during the American Civil War, Milledge was a 1st cousin once removed to Andrew Pickens Butler. He attended private schools in the Edgefield District and at Abbeville and he graduated with honors from South Carolina College at Columbia in 1834. He served as Captain and adjutant general of the South Carolina Brigade in the Seminole War in Florida in 1836 and that same year, his older brother James Butler Bonham perished at the Battle of the Alamo. Bonham studied law and was admitted to the bar, in 1837, during the Mexican-American War, he was lieutenant colonel and colonel of the 12th US Infantry Regiment. After he returned home, Bonham was the general of the South Carolina Militia. Entering politics, he served in the house of representatives from 1840–1843. He married Ann Patience Griffin on November 13,1845, Bonham was solicitor of the southern circuit of South Carolina from 1848–1857.
He was elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-fifth United States Congress and the Thirty-sixth United States Congress, in early 1861, the Southern states that had seceded from the Union appointed special commissioners to travel to those other slaveholding Southern states that had yet to secede. Bonham served as the Commissioner from South Carolina to the Mississippi Secession Convention, Bonham was appointed major general and commander of the Army of South Carolina by Gov. Francis W. Pickens in February 1861. He was appointed general in the Confederate Army on April 19,1861. He fought in the First Battle of Manassas, commanding his brigade as well as two batteries and six companies of cavalry in the defense of Mitchells Ford on Bull Run. He resigned his commission January 27,1862, to enter the Confederate Congress, on December 17,1862, the South Carolina General Assembly elected Bonham as governor by secret ballot. Bonham rejoined the Confederate Army as brigadier general of cavalry in February 1865, and was actively engaged in recruiting when the war ended.
Major General, February 10,1861 Brigadier General, April 23,1861 Brigadier General, February 20,1865 Bonham owned a business in Edgefield and in Atlanta, Georgia. Returning to politics, Bonham was again a member of the South Carolina House of Representatives from 1865–1866 and he was a member of the South Carolina taxpayers’ convention in 1871 and 1874. Retiring from public service, he resumed the practice of law in Edgefield and he was appointed state railroad commissioner in 1878 and served until his death at White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia. He was buried in Elmwood Cemetery in Columbia, list of American Civil War Generals Bonham House Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements. It is roughly equivalent to an enlarged or reinforced regiment, two or more brigades may constitute a division. Brigades formed into divisions are usually infantry or armored, in addition to combat units, they may include combat support units or sub-units, such as artillery and engineers, and logistic units or sub-units. Historically, such brigades have sometimes been called brigade-groups, on operations, a brigade may comprise both organic elements and attached elements, including some temporarily attached for a specific task. Brigades may be specialized and comprise battalions of a branch, for example cavalry, armored, air defence, engineers. Some brigades are classified as independent or separate and operate independently from the division structure. The typical NATO standard brigade consists of approximately 3,200 to 5,500 troops, however, in Switzerland and Austria, the numbers could go as high as 11,000 troops.
The Soviet Union, its forerunners and successors, mostly use regiment instead of brigade, a brigades commander is commonly a major general, brigadier general, brigadier or colonel. In some armies, the commander is rated as a General Officer, the brigade commander has a self-contained headquarters and staff. Some brigades may have a deputy commander, the headquarters has a nucleus of staff officers and support that can vary in size depending on the type of brigade. On operations, additional specialist elements may be attached, the headquarters will usually have its own communications unit. In some gendarmerie forces, brigades are the organizational unit. The brigade as a military unit came about starting in the 15th century when the British army, as such a field army became larger, the number of subordinate commanders became unmanageable for the officer in general command of said army, usually a major general, to effectively command. In order to streamline command relationships, as well as effect some modicum of control, especially in regard to combined arms operations.
The terms origin is found in two French roots, which together, meant roughly those who fight, the so-called brigada was a well-mixed unit, comprising infantry and normally artillery, designated for a special task. The size of such brigada ranged from a company of up to two regiments. The brigada was the forerunner of the battalion task force, battle group. The brigade was improved as a unit by the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus
Eastern Theater of the American Civil War
President Abraham Lincoln sought a general to match Lees boldness, appointing in turn Maj. Gens. McClellan, John Pope, Ambrose Burnside, Joseph Hooker, while Meade gained a decisive victory over Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, it was not until newly appointed general-in-chief Ulysses S. The surrender of Lees army at Appomattox Court House in April 1865 brought major operations in the area to a close. While many of the campaigns and battles were fought in the region of Virginia between Washington, D. C. and Richmond, there were major campaigns fought nearby. The Western Virginia Campaign of 1861 secured Union control over the counties of Virginia. Confederate coastal areas and ports were seized in southeastern Virginia and North Carolina, the Shenandoah Valley was marked by frequent clashes in 1862,1863, and 1864. Lee launched two invasions of Union territory in hopes of influencing Northern opinion to end the war. In the fall of 1862, Lee followed his successful Northern Virginia Campaign with his first invasion, the Maryland Campaign, in the summer of 1863, Lees second invasion, the Gettysburg Campaign, reached into Pennsylvania, farther north than any other major Confederate army.
The bloodiest battle of the war and the bloodiest single day of the war were fought in this theater. The capitals of Washington, D. C. and Richmond were both attacked or besieged, the theater was bounded by the Appalachian Mountains to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. By far, the majority of battles occurred in the 100 miles between the cities of Washington and Richmond, the Union advantage was control of the sea and major rivers, which would allow an army that stayed close to the ocean to be reinforced and supplied. The campaign classification established by the United States National Park Service is more fine-grained than the one used in this article, some minor NPS campaigns have been omitted and some have been combined into larger categories. Only a few of the 160 battles the NPS classifies for this theater are described, boxed text in the right margin show the NPS campaigns associated with each section. After the fall of Fort Sumter in April 1861, both sides scrambled to create armies, President Abraham Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion, which immediately caused the secession of four additional states, including Virginia.
The United States Army had only around 16,000 men, the army was commanded by the elderly Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott, veteran of the War of 1812 and the Mexican-American War. Some of the first hostilities occurred in western Virginia, McClellan, commanding the Department of the Ohio, ordered troops to march from Grafton and attack the Confederates under Col. George A. Porterfield. The skirmish on June 3,1861, known as the Battle of Philippi and his victory at the Battle of Rich Mountain in July was instrumental in his promotion that fall to command the Army of the Potomac. He was soon transferred to the Carolinas to construct fortifications, the Union victory in this campaign enabled the creation of the state of West Virginia in 1863
Battle of Ball's Bluff
The Battle of Balls Bluff in Loudoun County, Virginia on October 21,1861, was one of the early battles of the American Civil War, in which Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac suffered a humiliating defeat, the operation was planned as a minor reconnaissance across the Potomac to establish whether the Confederates were occupying Leesburg. A false report of an unguarded Confederate camp encouraged Brig. Gen. Charles Pomeroy Stone to order a raid, which clashed with enemy forces. A prominent US Senator in uniform, Colonel Edward Baker, tried to reinforce the Union troops, but failed to ensure there were enough boats for the river crossings. Baker was killed, and a newly-arrived Confederate unit routed the rest of Stone’s expedition, the Union losses, although modest by standards, alarmed Congress, which set-up the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, a body which would provoke years of bitter political infighting. Three months after the First Battle of Bull Run, Maj-Gen, George B.
McClellan was building up the Army of the Potomac in preparation for an eventual advance into Virginia. Evans had, in fact, left the town on October 16–17 but had done so on his own authority, beauregard expressed his displeasure at this move, Evans returned. By the evening of October 19, he had taken up a position on the Alexandria-to-Winchester Turnpike east of town. McClellan came to Dranesville to consult with McCall that same evening and ordered McCall to return to his camp at Langley, Virginia. Having gotten no reaction from Colonel Evans with all of this activity, Stone recalled his troops to their camps, Stone ordered Col. Devens sent Capt. Chase Philbrick and approximately 20 men to carry out Stones order, Stone immediately ordered Devens to cross some 300 men and, as soon as it was light enough to see, attack the camp and, per his orders, return to your present position. This was the genesis of the Battle of Balls Bluff, contrary to the long-held traditional interpretation, it did not come from a plan by either McClellan or Stone to take Leesburg.
The initial crossing of troops was a small reconnaissance and that was followed by what was intended to be a raiding party. To make matters worse, Stone was not advised that McCall, on the morning of October 21, Colonel Devens raiding party discovered the mistake made the previous evening by the patrol, There was no camp to raid. Opting not to recross the river immediately, Devens deployed his men in a line and sent a messenger back to report to Stone. On hearing the report, Stone sent him back to tell Devens that the remainder of the 15th Massachusetts would cross the river. When they arrived, Devens was to turn his raiding party back into a reconnaissance, while the messenger was going back to Col. Devens with this new information, Colonel and U. S. Senator Edward Dickinson Baker showed up at Stones camp to find out about the mornings events and he had not been involved in any of the activities to that point
First Battle of Bull Run
It was the first major battle of the American Civil War. The Unions forces were slow in positioning themselves, allowing Confederate reinforcements time to arrive by rail, each side had about 18,000 poorly trained and poorly led troops in their first battle. It was a Confederate victory, followed by a retreat of the Union forces. Yielding to political pressure, Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell led his unseasoned Union Army across Bull Run against the equally inexperienced Confederate Army of Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Confederate reinforcements under Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston arrived from the Shenandoah Valley by railroad, the Confederates launched a strong counterattack, and as the Union troops began withdrawing under fire, many panicked and the retreat turned into a rout. McDowells men frantically ran without order in the direction of Washington, both armies were sobered by the fierce fighting and many casualties, and realized that the war was going to be much longer and bloodier than either had anticipated.
The Battle of First Bull Run highlighted many of the problems, McDowell, with 35,000 men, was only able to commit about 18,000, and the combined Confederate forces, with about 32,000 men, committed only 18,000. Earlier, South Carolina and seven other Southern states had declared their secession from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. To suppress the rebellion and restore Federal law in the Southern states and he accepted an additional 40,000 volunteers with three-year enlistments and increased the strength of the U. S. Army to almost 20,000. In Washington, D. C. as thousands of volunteers rushed to defend the capital, General in Chief Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott laid out his strategy to subdue the rebellious states. He proposed that an army of 80,000 men be organized and sail down the Mississippi River, while the Army strangled the Confederacy in the west, the U. S. Navy would blockade Southern ports along the eastern and Gulf coasts. The press ridiculed what they dubbed as Scotts Anaconda Plan, many believed the capture of the Confederate capital at Richmond, only one hundred miles south of Washington, would quickly end the war.
By July 1861 thousands of volunteers were camped in and around Washington, since General Scott was seventy-five years old and physically unable to lead this force, the administration searched for a more suitable field commander. Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase championed fellow Ohioan, although McDowell was a West Point graduate, his command experience was limited. In fact, he had spent most of his career engaged in staff duties in the Adjutant Generals Office. While stationed in Washington he had become acquainted with Chase, a former Ohio governor and senator, McDowell immediately began organizing what became known as the Army of Northeastern Virginia,35,000 men arranged in five divisions. Under public and political pressure to begin operations, McDowell was given very little time to train the newly inducted troops. Units were instructed in the maneuvering of regiments, but they received little or no training at the brigade or division level and he was reassured by President Lincoln, You are green, it is true, but they are green also, you are all green alike
First Bull Run Confederate order of battle
The following Confederate units and commanders fought in the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21,1861. The Union order of battle is shown separately, Order of battle compiled from the army organization during the battle and the reports. Sibley, Jr. F. Ray, The Confederate Order of Battle, Volume 1, The Army of Northern Virginia, Shippensburg, ISBN 0-942597-73-7 The Manassas Campaign, July 21,1861. Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell and Leaders of the Civil War, The Opening Battles, Volume 1, New York, The Century Co.1887. War Department, The War of the Rebellion, a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1880–1901