Army of Central Kentucky
The Army of Central Kentucky was a military organization within Department No.2. Originally called the Army Corps of Central Kentucky, it was created in the fall of 1861 as a subsection of Department No. 2, and continued in existence until the end of March 1862 when it was absorbed and merged into the Army of Mississippi, which was re-organized as the Army of Tennessee on November 20,1862. Brig. Gen. Buckner assumed command of all forces in central Kentucky during September 1861 after having first served as a major general, the forces were organized into two divisions with a reserve force. Later a third division under Brig. Gen. John B, after Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston took command, Buckner continued to command a division of the Army of Central Kentucky at Bowling Green and Fort Donelson, where he surrendered. After being exchanged in August 1862, Buckner was promoted to major general, Gen. Johnston was in command of the Army of Central Kentucky from October 28,1861, until March 29,1862, with the exception of a two-week temporary command by Hardee in December.
The area of operation for this army was designated as the part of Tennessee north of the Cumberland River, on December 26,1861, part of the Army of the Kanawha was added. On March 29,1862, the army at about 23,000 men strong was merged into the Army of the Mississippi in preparation for the Battle of Shiloh, maj. Gen. Hardee took temporary command of the army from December 4 to December 18,1861. New York, McKay,1959, revised 1988, John H. and Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press,2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
First Battle of Bull Run
It was the first major battle of the American Civil War. The Unions forces were slow in positioning themselves, allowing Confederate reinforcements time to arrive by rail, each side had about 18,000 poorly trained and poorly led troops in their first battle. It was a Confederate victory, followed by a retreat of the Union forces. Yielding to political pressure, Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell led his unseasoned Union Army across Bull Run against the equally inexperienced Confederate Army of Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Confederate reinforcements under Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston arrived from the Shenandoah Valley by railroad, the Confederates launched a strong counterattack, and as the Union troops began withdrawing under fire, many panicked and the retreat turned into a rout. McDowells men frantically ran without order in the direction of Washington, both armies were sobered by the fierce fighting and many casualties, and realized that the war was going to be much longer and bloodier than either had anticipated.
The Battle of First Bull Run highlighted many of the problems, McDowell, with 35,000 men, was only able to commit about 18,000, and the combined Confederate forces, with about 32,000 men, committed only 18,000. Earlier, South Carolina and seven other Southern states had declared their secession from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. To suppress the rebellion and restore Federal law in the Southern states and he accepted an additional 40,000 volunteers with three-year enlistments and increased the strength of the U. S. Army to almost 20,000. In Washington, D. C. as thousands of volunteers rushed to defend the capital, General in Chief Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott laid out his strategy to subdue the rebellious states. He proposed that an army of 80,000 men be organized and sail down the Mississippi River, while the Army strangled the Confederacy in the west, the U. S. Navy would blockade Southern ports along the eastern and Gulf coasts. The press ridiculed what they dubbed as Scotts Anaconda Plan, many believed the capture of the Confederate capital at Richmond, only one hundred miles south of Washington, would quickly end the war.
By July 1861 thousands of volunteers were camped in and around Washington, since General Scott was seventy-five years old and physically unable to lead this force, the administration searched for a more suitable field commander. Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase championed fellow Ohioan, although McDowell was a West Point graduate, his command experience was limited. In fact, he had spent most of his career engaged in staff duties in the Adjutant Generals Office. While stationed in Washington he had become acquainted with Chase, a former Ohio governor and senator, McDowell immediately began organizing what became known as the Army of Northeastern Virginia,35,000 men arranged in five divisions. Under public and political pressure to begin operations, McDowell was given very little time to train the newly inducted troops. Units were instructed in the maneuvering of regiments, but they received little or no training at the brigade or division level and he was reassured by President Lincoln, You are green, it is true, but they are green also, you are all green alike
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States, officially the Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a breakaway country of 11 secessionist slave states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was never recognized as an Independent country, although it achieved belligerent status by Britain. A new Confederate government was established in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, after the Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession, the Civil War began with the April 12,1861, Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In spring 1865, after four years of fighting which led to an estimated 620,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered. Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had disappeared in 1865, Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union.
Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the Five Civilized Tribes located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty. A Unionist government in parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal, as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers, the most notable advance was Shermans March to the Sea in late 1864. Much of the Confederacys infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, plantations in the path of Shermans forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Daviss administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, after four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Shortly afterward, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, President Davis was captured on May 10,1865, and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held. The U. S. government began a process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy. The prewar South had many areas, the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure
Eastern Theater of the American Civil War
President Abraham Lincoln sought a general to match Lees boldness, appointing in turn Maj. Gens. McClellan, John Pope, Ambrose Burnside, Joseph Hooker, while Meade gained a decisive victory over Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, it was not until newly appointed general-in-chief Ulysses S. The surrender of Lees army at Appomattox Court House in April 1865 brought major operations in the area to a close. While many of the campaigns and battles were fought in the region of Virginia between Washington, D. C. and Richmond, there were major campaigns fought nearby. The Western Virginia Campaign of 1861 secured Union control over the counties of Virginia. Confederate coastal areas and ports were seized in southeastern Virginia and North Carolina, the Shenandoah Valley was marked by frequent clashes in 1862,1863, and 1864. Lee launched two invasions of Union territory in hopes of influencing Northern opinion to end the war. In the fall of 1862, Lee followed his successful Northern Virginia Campaign with his first invasion, the Maryland Campaign, in the summer of 1863, Lees second invasion, the Gettysburg Campaign, reached into Pennsylvania, farther north than any other major Confederate army.
The bloodiest battle of the war and the bloodiest single day of the war were fought in this theater. The capitals of Washington, D. C. and Richmond were both attacked or besieged, the theater was bounded by the Appalachian Mountains to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. By far, the majority of battles occurred in the 100 miles between the cities of Washington and Richmond, the Union advantage was control of the sea and major rivers, which would allow an army that stayed close to the ocean to be reinforced and supplied. The campaign classification established by the United States National Park Service is more fine-grained than the one used in this article, some minor NPS campaigns have been omitted and some have been combined into larger categories. Only a few of the 160 battles the NPS classifies for this theater are described, boxed text in the right margin show the NPS campaigns associated with each section. After the fall of Fort Sumter in April 1861, both sides scrambled to create armies, President Abraham Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion, which immediately caused the secession of four additional states, including Virginia.
The United States Army had only around 16,000 men, the army was commanded by the elderly Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott, veteran of the War of 1812 and the Mexican-American War. Some of the first hostilities occurred in western Virginia, McClellan, commanding the Department of the Ohio, ordered troops to march from Grafton and attack the Confederates under Col. George A. Porterfield. The skirmish on June 3,1861, known as the Battle of Philippi and his victory at the Battle of Rich Mountain in July was instrumental in his promotion that fall to command the Army of the Potomac. He was soon transferred to the Carolinas to construct fortifications, the Union victory in this campaign enabled the creation of the state of West Virginia in 1863
Joseph E. Johnston
Joseph Eggleston Johnston was a career U. S. He was unrelated to Albert Sidney Johnston, another high-ranking Confederate general during the Civil war, Johnston was trained as a civil engineer at the U. S. Military Academy, graduating in the class as Robert E. Lee. He served in Florida and Kansas, and fought with distinction in the Mexican-American War and by 1860 achieved the rank of brigadier general as Quartermaster General of the U. S. Army. When his native state of Virginia declared secession from the Union, Johnston resigned his U. S. commission, to his dismay, however, he was appointed only the fourth ranking full general in the Confederate army. G. T. He defended the Confederate capital of Richmond, during the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, withdrawing under the pressure of a superior force under Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan. In his only action during the campaign, he suffered a severe wound at the Battle of Seven Pines, after which he was replaced in command by his classmate at West Point.
In 1863, in command of the Department of the West, he was criticized for his inaction, in 1864, he fought against Union Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman in the Atlanta Campaign. Although he won a victory against Sherman at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain. Fed up with Johnstons constant withdrawal from Confederate territory, Davis relieved him of command after he withdrew from northwest Georgia to the outskirts of the city, in the final days of the war, he was returned to command of the small remaining forces in the Carolinas Campaign. Following a failed attempt to stall Shermans advance at the Battle of Bentonville, he surrendered his armies to Sherman at Bennett Place near Durham Station, North Carolina on April 26,1865. Two of his opponents, General Ulysses S. Grant and Sherman, made comments highly respectful of his actions in the war. After the war, Johnston was an executive in the railroad and he served a single term as a Democrat in the United States House of Representatives and was commissioner of railroads under Grover Cleveland.
He died of pneumonia after serving in inclement weather as a pallbearer at the funeral of his former adversary, Johnston was born at Longwood House in Cherry Grove, near Farmville, Virginia on February 3,1807. His grandfather, Peter Johnston, emigrated to Virginia from Scotland in 1726, Joseph was the seventh son of Judge Peter Johnston and Mary Valentine Wood, a niece of Patrick Henry. He was named for Major Joseph Eggleston, under whom his father served in the American Revolutionary War and his brother Charles Clement Johnston served as a congressman, and his nephew John Warfield Johnston was a senator, both represented Virginia. In 1811, the Johnston family moved to Abingdon, Virginia, a town near the Tennessee border, Johnston attended the United States Military Academy, nominated by John C. Calhoun while he was Secretary of War, days before he was inaugurated as vice president in 1825. He was moderately successful at academics and received only a number of disciplinary demerits
Irvin McDowell was a career American army officer. He is best known for his defeat in the First Battle of Bull Run, in 1862, he was given command of the I Corps of the Army of the Potomac. McDowell was born in Columbus, son of Abram Irvin McDowell and he was a cousin-in-law of John Buford, and his brother, John Adair McDowell, served as the first colonel of the 6th Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment during the Civil War. Irvin initially attended the College de Troyes in France before graduating from the United States Military Academy in 1838, his future adversary at First Bull Run. He was commissioned a lieutenant and posted to the 1st U. S. Artillery. McDowell served as an instructor at West Point, before becoming aide-de-camp to General John E. Wool during the Mexican-American War. He was brevetted captain at Buena Vista and served in the Adjutant Generals department after the war, while in that department he was promoted to major on May 31,1856. Between 1848 and 1861, McDowell generally served as an officer to higher-ranking military leaders.
He developed a friendship with General Winfield Scott while serving on his staff. He served under future Confederate general Joseph E. Johnston, McDowell was promoted to brigadier general in the regular army on May 14,1861, and given command of the Army of Northeastern Virginia, despite never having commanded troops in combat. The promotion was partly because of the influence of his mentor and his strategy during the First Battle of Bull Run was imaginative but ambitiously complex, and his troops were not experienced enough to carry it out effectively, resulting in an embarrassing rout. After the defeat at Bull Run, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan was placed in command of the new Union Army defending Washington, McDowell commanded a division in the new army, but McClellan soon reorganized his command and McDowell was given I Corps the following spring. Stonewall Jacksons Valley Campaign would eventually include an attack on Washington kept McDowells 40,000 soldiers behind, the three independent commands of Generals McDowell, John C.
Banks were combined into Maj. Gen. John Popes Army of Virginia, because of his actions at Cedar Mountain, McDowell was eventually brevetted major general in the regular army, however, he was blamed for the subsequent disaster at Second Bull Run. He escaped culpability by testifying against Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, despite his formal escape, McDowell spent the following two years in effective exile from the leadership of the Army. In July 1864, McDowell was given command of the Department of the Pacific, on November 25,1872, he was promoted to major-general. On December 16,1872, McDowell succeeded General George G. Meade as commander of the Military Division of the South, from July 1,1876 to his retirement on October 15,1882, he was commander of the Division of the Pacific. In this capacity he constructed a park in the reservation of the Presidio
J. E. B. Stuart
James Ewell Brown Jeb Stuart was a United States Army officer from the U. S. state of Virginia, who became a Confederate States Army general during the American Civil War. He was known to his friends as Jeb, from the initials of his given names, Stuart was a cavalry commander known for his mastery of reconnaissance and the use of cavalry in support of offensive operations. While he cultivated an image, his serious work made him the trusted eyes and ears of Robert E. Lees army. Stuart graduated from West Point in 1854, and served in Texas and Kansas with the U. S. Army. He was a veteran of the conflicts with Native Americans and the violence of Bleeding Kansas. He established a reputation as a cavalry commander and on two occasions circumnavigated the Union Army of the Potomac, bringing fame to himself and embarrassment to the North. At the Battle of Chancellorsville, he distinguished himself as a commander of the wounded Stonewall Jacksons infantry corps. During the 1864 Overland Campaign, Union Maj.
Gen. Philip Sheridans cavalry launched an offensive to defeat Stuart, Stuarts widow wore black for the rest of her life in remembrance of her deceased husband. Stuart was born at Laurel Hill Farm, a plantation in Patrick County, Virginia and he was of Scottish American and Scots-Irish background. He was the eighth of eleven children and the youngest of the five sons to survive past early age and his great-grandfather, Major Alexander Stuart, commanded a regiment at the Battle of Guilford Court House during the American Revolutionary War. Archibald was a cousin of Alexander Hugh Holmes Stuart, elizabeth Letcher Pannill Stuart, Jebs mother, who was known as a strict religious woman with a good sense for business, ran the family farm. He entered Emory and Henry College when he was fifteen, during the summer of 1848, Stuart attempted to enlist in the U. S. Army, but was rejected as underaged. He obtained an appointment in 1850 to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, from Representative Thomas Hamlet Averett, Stuart was a popular student and was happy at the Academy.
Although not handsome in his teen years, his classmates called him by the nickname Beauty and he possessed a chin so short and retiring as positively to disfigure his otherwise fine countenance. He quickly grew a beard after graduation and a fellow officer remarked that he was the man he ever saw that beard improved. Robert E. Lee was appointed superintendent of the Academy in 1852, Lees nephew, Fitzhugh Lee, arrived at the academy in 1852. In Stuarts final year, in addition to achieving the rank of second captain of the corps. Stuart graduated 13th in his class of 46 in 1854 and he ranked tenth in his class in cavalry tactics
Department of Pennsylvania
The Department of Pennsylvania was a large military unit in the Union Army at the outset of the American Civil War. Established on April 27,1861, its territory consisted of Pennsylvania and all of Maryland not embraced in the Department of Annapolis and it absorbed the Department of Maryland, on July 25,1861. On August 24,1861 it was merged into the Department of the Potomac, on December 1,1864, the Department of Pennsylvania was recreated, with the merging of the Department of the Susquehanna with the Department of the Monongahela. It operated until June 27,1865 under the Middle Military Division and it was under the command of Major General Robert Patterson, its manpower mainly consisted of three-month troops from the states of Pennsylvania and New York. When President Abraham Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers in the spring of 1861, for political reasons the U. S. Secretary of War, Simon Cameron, rejected fifteen regiments for immediate service, and they became known as the 1st through 15th Pennsylvania Reserves.
Pennsylvania elected to retain, organize and equip them at its own expense and these fifteen regiments were unavailable either to Patterson in the Shenandoah Valley or to McDowell at First Bull Run. Within four days after the disaster at Bulls Run, eleven regiments of this body of men were in Washington. Near Hokes Run, Union forces clashed with Confederate forces and slowly drove them back toward Winchester, withdrawing before Pattersons larger force, Colonel Thomas J. Jackson accomplished his orders to delay the Federal advance. The encounter was brief, and three regiments reported casualties, First Wisconsin Infantry, Eleventh Pennsylvania Infantry, and Fifteenth Pennsylvania Infantry. The Order of Battle shows all units in the organization at its peak size and his entire course of action had been reviewed and approved by his subordinate officers, as ordered, and He had fully complied with every direct order issued to him. Patterson was honorably discharged on July 27,1861, and never received another commission and he sought to redress the record through every possible avenue, including a personal audience with President Abraham Lincoln, and published his own version of events
Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson was a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and the best-known Confederate commander after General Robert E. Lee. His military career includes the Valley Campaign of 1862 and his service as a commander in the Army of Northern Virginia. Confederate pickets accidentally shot him at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2,1863, the general survived but lost an arm to amputation, he died of complications from pneumonia eight days later. His death was a setback for the Confederacy, affecting not only its military prospects. Jackson in death became an icon of Southern heroism and commitment, Military historians consider Jackson to be one of the most gifted tactical commanders in U. S. history. His Valley Campaign and his envelopment of the Union Armys right wing at Chancellorsville are studied worldwide, even today, as examples of innovative and bold leadership. He excelled as well in battles, the First Battle of Bull Run, where he received his famous nickname Stonewall, the Second Battle of Bull Run.
Jackson was not, universally successful as a commander as displayed by his arrival and confused efforts during the Seven Days Battles around Richmond. Thomas Jonathan Jackson was the great-grandson of John Jackson and Elizabeth Cummins, John Jackson was an Ulster Scots Protestant from Coleraine, County Londonderry, Ireland. While living in London, England, he was convicted of the crime of larceny for stealing £170. They both were transported on the merchant ship Litchfield, which departed London in May 1749 with 150 convicts and Elizabeth met on board and were in love by the time the ship arrived at Annapolis, Maryland. Although they were sent to different locations in Maryland for their bond service, the family migrated west across the Blue Ridge Mountains to settle near Moorefield, Virginia in 1758. In 1770, they moved farther west to the Tygart Valley and they began to acquire large parcels of virgin farming land near the present-day town of Buckhannon, including 3,000 acres in Elizabeths name.
While the men were in the Army, Elizabeth converted their home to a haven, Jacksons Fort and Elizabeth had eight children. Their second son was Edward Jackson, and Edwards third son was Jonathan Jackson, jonathans mother died in 1798 and his father remarried three years later. His father and stepmother had nine more children, Thomas Jackson was the third child of Julia Beckwith Jackson and Jonathan Jackson, an attorney. Both of Jacksons parents were natives of Virginia, the family already had two young children and were living in Clarksburg, in what is now West Virginia, when Thomas was born. He was named for his maternal grandfather, There is some dispute about the actual location of Jacksons birth
Confederate States Army
The Confederate States Army was the military ground force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. S. Military Academy and colonel of a regiment during the Mexican War. In March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a more permanent Confederate States Army, the better estimates of the number of individual Confederate soldiers are between 750,000 and 1,000,000 men. This does not include a number of slaves who were pressed into performing various tasks for the army, such as construction of fortifications. Since these figures include estimates of the number of individual soldiers who served at any time during the war. These numbers do not include men who served in Confederate naval forces, although most of the soldiers who fought in the American Civil War were volunteers, both sides by 1862 resorted to conscription, primarily as a means to force men to register and to volunteer. In the absence of records, estimates of the percentage of Confederate soldiers who were draftees are about double the 6 percent of Union soldiers who were conscripts.
Confederate casualty figures are incomplete and unreliable, one estimate of Confederate wounded, which is considered incomplete, is 194,026. These numbers do not include men who died from causes such as accidents. Other Confederate forces surrendered between April 16,1865 and June 28,1865, by the end of the war, more than 100,000 Confederate soldiers had deserted. The Confederacys government effectively dissolved when it fled Richmond in April, by the time Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States on March 4,1861, the seven seceding slave states had formed the Confederate States. The Confederacy seized federal property, including nearly all U. S. Army forts, Lincoln was determined to hold the forts remaining under U. S. control when he took office, especially Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. Under orders from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, C. S. troops under the command of General P. G. T, Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13,1861, forcing its capitulation on April 14.
The Northern states were outraged by the Confederacys attack and demanded war and it rallied behind Lincolns call on April 15, for all the states to send troops to recapture the forts from the secessionists, to put down the rebellion and to preserve the Union intact. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy. The Confederate Congress provided for a Confederate army patterned after the United States Army and it was to consist of a large provisional force to exist only in time of war and a small permanent regular army. Although the two forces were to exist concurrently, very little was done to organize the Confederate regular army, the Provisional Army of the Confederate States began organizing on April 27. Virtually all regular and conscripted men preferred to enter this organization since officers could achieve a rank in the Provisional Army than they could in the Regular Army
West Virginia /ˌwɛst vərˈdʒɪnjə/ is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States. It is bordered by Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest, Pennsylvania to the north, West Virginia is the 9th smallest by area, is ranked 38th in population, and has the second lowest household income of the 50 United States. The capital and largest city is Charleston, West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20,1863, and was a key Civil War border state. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States, the unique position of West Virginia means that it is often included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, and the Southeastern United States. It is the state that is entirely within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its historically significant logging and coal mining industries and it is one of the most densely karstic areas in the world, making it a choice area for recreational caving and scientific research.
The karst lands contribute to much of the states cool trout waters and it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, and hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various mound builder cultures survive, especially in the areas of Moundsville, South Charleston. The artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies and they had a tribal trade system culture that crafted cold-worked copper pieces. The Iroquois drove out other American Indian tribes from the region to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a ground in the 1670s. Siouan language tribes such as the Moneton had recorded in the area previously. West Virginia was originally part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776, residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the restored government. Most voted to separate from Virginia and the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863, in 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, which was ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote.
West Virginia abolished slavery and temporarily disfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy, West Virginias history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, and rich natural resources. These were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, a 2010 analysis of a local stalagmite revealed that Native Americans were burning forests to clear land as early as 100 BC. Some regional late-prehistoric Eastern Woodland tribes were involved in hunting and fishing, practicing the slash. Another group progressed to the more time-consuming, advanced companion crop fields method of gardening, continuing from ancient indigenous people of the state, field space and time was given to tobacco growing through to early historic. Maize did not make a contribution to the diet until after 1150 BP