Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick
The Modern Records Centre is the specialist archive service of the University of Warwick in Coventry, located adjacent to the Central Campus Library. It was established in October 1973 and holds the world's largest archive collection on British industrial relations, as well as archives relating to many other aspects of British social and economic history; the BP corporate archive has separate staff and facilities. The Modern Records Centre holds by far the largest collection of archives of British trade unions in the country; the largest collection held in the centre is the archive of the Trades Union Congress. Other significant collections of archives relating to British trade unions include: Significant collections relating to trade union federations include the Confederation of Employee Organisations, the Confederation of Shipbuilding and Engineering Unions, the Council of Civil Service Unions, the Federation of Post Office Supervising Officers, the General Federation of Trade Unions, the National Federation of Construction Unions, the National Federation of Professional Workers, the National Joint Committee of Postal and Telegraph Associations, the Post Office Engineering Federation, the Printing and Kindred Trades Federation.
International trade union federations are represented by major collections of the International Transport Workers' Federation and the World Federation of Scientific Workers. Collections relating to joint trade union committees include those of the Alcan Foils Wembley Factory trade union committees, the British Leyland Trade Union Committee, Coventry Chain Shop Stewards' Committee, Coventry Trades Council, the GCHQ Trade Union Campaign Committee, the London Transport Aldenham Bus Overhaul Works trade union committees; the Centre holds significant collections relating to leaders of trade unions, including: Large collections of papers of more junior trade unionists include: The Modern Records Centre holds some collections of archives relating to joint employer/employee industrial relations negotiating committees. Significant among these are the Inland Revenue Departmental Whitley Council, the Joint Industry Board for the Electrical Contracting Industry, the Local Authorities' Conditions of Service Advisory Board, the National Joint Council for the Engineering Construction Industry, the National Maritime Board, the National Whitley Council for the Civil Service.
Papers of various academics and/or conciliators concerned with industrial relations include those of Sir George Bain, William Brown, Colleen Chesterman, Hugh Clegg, Bob Fryer, Geoffrey Goodman, Richard Hyman, Grigor McClelland, Arthur Marsh, Sir Jack Scamp, Bert Turner. Archives of the British Universities Industrial Relations Association, Incomes Data Services and Industrial Relations Research Unit are held; the Modern Records Centre collects archives of employers' associations and trade associations. The largest of these are the archives of the Confederation of British Industry and its predecessor, the Federation of British Industries. Other major association employers' and trade association collections include: Archives of related organisations include those of the Dollar Exports Council, India and Burma Association and Steel Board and Trade Board Consultative Council, as well as those of Richard Wood, an official of the Construction Industry Training Board and the National Federation of Building Trades Employers.
A second part of the Modern Records Centre's collecting base is the archives of pressure and campaigning groups. Significant among these are the archives of the: Papers of individuals associated with campaigning and pressure groups include those of Marjory Allen, Lady Allen of Hurtwood, landscape architect, campaigner for pre-school education and child welfare, Sir Ernest Benn, publisher and individualist, Mary Brennan, peace activist and prominent member of CND, William Driscoll, chief training officer of the Economic League, Sir Victor Gollancz and activist, Sir Leslie Scott, Conservative MP, judge and prominent member of the Council for the Preservation of Rural England, Dame Eileen Younghusband, social worker; the Modern Records Centre holds some archives relating to business the motor industry. Archives relating to the motor industry include Jensen Motors, the Rover Company, Rubery Owen, the Standard Motor Company, the Triumph Engineering Company. Archives relating to other firms include Birmingham Small Arms, the British Steel Corporation, Victor Gollancz Ltd, Wallpaper Manufacturers Ltd, J. Parnell & Son Ltd, builders, of Rugby.
The Centre holds the archives of the Transport Development Group and of Arthur Primrose Young, manager of the Rugby works of the British Thomson-Houston Company. The Modern Records Centre holds a growing collection of the archives of professional associations those associated with social work. Major collections in the latter area include the Association of Child Care Officers, the Association of Social Workers, the British Association of Social Workers, the Institute of Medical Social Workers, the National Association of Social Workers in Education, the National Institute for Social Work. Other professional associations with significant representation are the Association of Teachers of Domestic Science, the British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education, the British Institute of Management, the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference, the Institute of Administrative Management, the Institute of Management Services, the Institute of Personnel Management. One of the collecting specialities of the Modern Records Centre is Trotskyist politics.
Significant collections of pa
Cannon Street is a road in the City of London, the historic nucleus of London and its modern financial centre. It runs parallel with the River Thames, about 250 metres north of it, in the south of the City, it is the site of the ancient London Stone and gave its name to Cannon Street station, a mainline railway terminus and connected London Underground station. The area around Cannon Street was the place of residence of the candle-makers; the name first appears as Candelwrichstrete in 1190. The name was shortened over 60 times as a result of the local cockney dialect and settled on Cannon Street in the 17th century, is therefore not related to the firearms. A Cannon Street in Birmingham, according to the archives of Birmingham Central Library, is named after the London street. In the west, Cannon Street starts at St. Paul's Churchyard outside St Paul's Cathedral. In the late 19th century Cannon Street was occupied by large wholesale warehouses of cotton goods and other fabrics; the London Stone, from which it has been suggested distances were measured in Roman times, was situated in the middle of Cannon Street.
It was set into the wall of St. Swithin's Church, now rests in a case to the side of the street; the Roman governor's palace Praetorium may have been located in this area, between the principal street of Roman Londinium and the River Thames. The remains of a large high status building were found with a garden, water pools and several large halls, some of them decorated with mosaic floors; the plan of the building is only preserved, but was erected in the second part of the 1st century and was in use until around 300, rebuilt and renovated several times. It is the street upon which singer Marc Almond suffered a near fatal crash in 2004 whilst riding pillion on a motorcycle. Where Queen Street crosses Cannon Street there is a pedestrian-priority "Central Plaza" area; this was part of an award-winning public realm improvement scheme undertaken in 2006. Cannon Street formed part of the marathon course of Paralympic Games. Cannon Street has eight pubs in and around the area, one of the largest concentrations in the City of London.
Cannon Street appeared in scene VI of William Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 2. Cannon Street station is served by the District and Circle lines on the London Underground and by Southeastern mainline rail services; the street is the location of Mansion House Underground station on the District and Circle lines. London Buses routes 17, 521 and night route N15 serve Cannon Street. Herbert Fry, "Cannon Street", London in 1880, London: David Bogue
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Digby Jones, Baron Jones of Birmingham
Digby Marritt Jones, Baron Jones of Birmingham, known as Sir Digby Jones between 2005 and 2007, is a British businessman and politician, who has served as Director General of the CBI and Minister of State for Trade and Investment. He sits in the House of Lords as a non-aligned active crossbencher, he serves as Non Executive Chairman of Triumph Motorcycles Ltd, Thatcher’s Cider Ltd, Elonex Ltd, Metalfloor UK Ltd, ProBuild 360 Ltd, Argentex LLP and On Logistics Ltd and is a Non-Executive Director of Leicester Tigers plc. He is Corporate Ambassador to Aon Risk Solutions. Digby is Chairman of the Advisory Board of X-Force and he is a Member of the South Warwickshire Multi Academy Trust. Born in Birmingham, Jones was educated at Bromsgrove School where he was Head Boy, read Law at University College London as a Sub-Lieutenant in the Royal Navy on a University Cadetship, graduating with upper second class honours. After graduation, Jones worked for 20 years at Edge & Ellison, a firm of lawyers based in Birmingham, culminating in serving as Senior Partner from 1995-1998.
Jones was Chairman of the CBI's West Midlands Regional Council and became the first serving regional chairman to be appointed Director-General. He was Director-General of the Confederation of British Industry between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2006, he was appointed a Knight Bachelor in the 2005 New Year Honours for services to Business. He acted as an adviser to Barclays Capital, Deloitte and JCB, he served as the unpaid UK Skills Envoy from 2006–07. Jones was a non-executive director for the IT contractor iSOFT from 2000 until his resignation in July 2005, when he stayed on for one year as an adviser. Following the collapse in the value of iSOFT and investigations into its accountancy practices, Jones said "there is a limit to what a non-executive can know... They have to rely what the executive team tells them, it is important that people understand this." On 29 June 2007, Jones became Minister of State for Trade and Investment in both the newly created Department for Business and Regulatory Reform and the Foreign Office.
He was appointed as a Government Minister in a move to create a government "of all the talents". As he was not a parliamentarian at the time, Jones was made a life peer, became a member of the House of Lords, it was suggested that he was taking the Labour whip in the House of Lords, but he chose not to join the Labour Party. He was gazetted as a peer on 10 July 2007 as Baron Jones of Birmingham, of Alvechurch and of Bromsgrove in the County of Worcestershire, took his seat in the House of Lords that same day. Formally styled Digby, Lord Jones of Birmingham, he sits as a Crossbencher in the House of Lords. Jones had considered running for Mayor of London after being encouraged by a group of prominent businessmen, he was approached by the Conservative Party about becoming its candidate, but rejected this idea. In April 2008 Jones announced his intention to resign as Minister of Trade and Investment in the year, he resigned in October 2008 and was appointed to be a UK Business Ambassador for UK Trade & Investment.
In testimony to the Public Administration Committee he said that his time as a junior minister was "one of the most dehumanising and depersonalising experiences" anyone could have and that he had been amazed by how many civil servants he thought deserved the sack. On 16 January 2009, in a subsequent blog entry on the Daily Telegraph's blogsite, Jones was described as "the walking personification of the spirit of big business at its corporatist worst". On 20 September 2013, he spoke at the UK Independence Party conference in London as a guest speaker, addressing the conference on business and economic matters. On 29 September 2014, Jones introduced the Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, before his keynote speech at the Conservative Party conference in Birmingham, he said that Osborne "deserves a personal pat on the back" for having "stuck to your guns and did what was right for our country." In response to any rumour regarding a possible defection, he confirmed "I don't do party politics" and "business is my constituency."
Jones is a Corporate Ambassador for the Cancer Research UK Corporate Ambassadors. He is President of the Diversity Works initiative – a programme led by the disability organisation Scope, a Diamond Ambassador for Mencap's WorkRight initiative, designed to spread the message of equality for disabled people, a Vice-President of Birmingham Hospice, a Patron of Lifecycle UK, Ladies Fighting Breast Cancer and Get A-Head, the cancer charity fighting head and neck diseases, he is an active supporter of Ovarian Cancer Action, the Royal Navy's Royal Marine Charity, the Royal Shakespeare Company, the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra. He is the Patron of the Thomas Edington Scholarship of the University of Western Australia in Perth, he is a Vice-President of the Friends of the British Library, a charity which provides funding support to the British Library. Jones is a Vice-Patron of the National Museum of the Royal Navy; the National Museum through its six museums tell the stories and preserves the rich heritage of all aspects of the Royal Navy.
He is a non-executive director of Leicester Tigers. He is a Vice-President of The Birmingham Civic Society and was President of the Speakers Trust and their Speaker of the Year in 2008. In November 2006, Jones was appointed "Business Adviser" to HRH The Duke of York, receiving £1,000 a month from the royal payroll for working one day a month; this position ended upon his appointment as a Minister in July 2007. Jones is “Chairman of the Advisory Board of X-Force, the Social Enterprise helping Veterans into self-employment”. Jones is "Ad
Freight Transport Association
The Freight Transport Association based in Tunbridge Wells is one of the largest trade associations in the UK, with members moving goods by road, rail and air. Its mission is to represent the views and interests of over 13,000 companies from the transport industry: from large multinationals and household names to small and medium businesses. FTA policy is decided by its members from all modes, through its quarterly regional and national councils. National Councils comprise the British Shippers Council, the Rail Freight Council, the Road Freight Council, the Freight Council; the FTA provides members with services that help them to operate safely, in an environmentally sustainable way. Following the 1888 Railway and Canal Traffic Act traders were given a right of complaint to the Board of Trade if they felt that railway rates or services were unreasonable; that resulted in an influential group of traders coming together in July 1889 and creating an organisation called the Mansion House Association on Railway Rates.
Amongst its first members were Mr J J Colman of Reckitt & Colman, a Mr Thomas Blackwell of Crosse and Blackwell. The arrival of the internal combustion engine led to the formation in 1904 of the Motor Van and Wagon Users' Association, which changed its name to the Commercial Motor Users' Union in 1907. In 1921 the third and final segment of the FTA was formed - the Traders' Co-ordinating Committee on Transport. Over the years the work of the Mansion House Association expanded into more road orientated matters and in 1931 changing its name to the Mansion House Association on Transport. In 1944 the Commercial Motor Users' Association decided that each of its constituent sectors needed its own identity and was reformed into three organisations; the own-account sector became the Traders' Road Transport Association. In 1964 the Mansion House Association changed its name to the National Traders' Traffic Association and in 1969, the three groups - the Traders' Road Transport Association, the Traders' Traffic Association and the Traders' Co-ordinating Committee - joined together to become the Freight Transport Association.
In 1979 the group was further strengthened when the British Shippers' Council representing exporters and importers, became a part of FTA. FTA conducts research and reports which are of use to its members and policy makers. Of particular note is the Quarterly Transport Activity Survey used by government and the public policy arena as an economic performance indicator. Leigh Pomlett - CEVA Group Rebecca Jenkins - Greater Than Jon Moxon - Palmer and Harvey Kevin Appleton - Horizon Platforms Ltd Ray Ashworth - DAF Trucks Vincent Brickley - Tandem Transport Service Andrew Haines - Tate & Lyle Graham Roberts - Hellenic Carriers Ian Stansfield - Asda Logistics Services and Supply Chain Ian Veitch - Yusen Logistics BV Laura Thomas - Birketts LLP Perry Watts - DHL Supply Chain David Wells - Freight Transport Association John Williams - Maritime Transport Carole Woodhead - Hermes David Wells – Chief Executive James Hookham – Managing Director of Communications & Policy Trevor Cooke - General Manager Safety, Environment & Quality Sally Thornley – Director of Compliance Chris Welsh – Director and Global Policy Karen Dee - Director and Regional Policy Nigel Smart - Director of IT & Development Philippa Attwood - Director of Marketing and Communications In July 2008 the FTA became a partner in the Campaign for Safe Road Design, calling on the UK government to make safe road design a national transport priority.
Freight Transport Association
A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative as letters patent. They have been used to promulgate public laws, the most famous example being the British Magna Carta of 1215, but since the 14th century have only been used in place of private acts to grant a right or power to an individual or a body corporate, they were, are still, used to establish significant organisations such as boroughs and learned societies. Charters should be distinguished from royal warrants of appointment, grants of arms and other forms of letters patent, such as those granting an organisation the right to use the word "royal" in their name or granting city status, which do not have legislative effect; the British monarchy has issued over 1,000 royal charters. Of these about 750 remain in existence; the earliest charter recorded by the UK government was granted to the University of Cambridge in England in 1231, although older charters are known to have existed including to the Worshipful Company of Weavers in England in 1150 and to the town of Tain in Scotland in 1066.
Charters continue to be issued by the British Crown, a recent example being that awarded to The Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors, in 2014. Charters have been used in Europe since medieval times to grant rights and privileges to towns and cities. During the 14th and 15th century the concept of incorporation of a municipality by royal charter evolved. Among the past and present groups formed by royal charter are the Company of Merchants of the Staple of England, the British East India Company, the Hudson's Bay Company, the Chartered Bank of India and China, the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, the British South Africa Company, some of the former British colonies on the North American mainland, City livery companies, the Bank of England and the British Broadcasting Corporation. Between the 14th and 19th centuries, royal charters were used to create chartered companies – for-profit ventures with shareholders, used for exploration and colonisation. Early charters to such companies granted trade monopolies, but this power was restricted to parliament from the end of the 17th century.
Until the 19th century, royal charters were the only means other than an act of parliament by which a company could be incorporated. The use of royal charters to incorporate organisations gave rise to the concept of the "corporation by prescription"; this enabled corporations that had existed from time immemorial to be recognised as incorporated via the legal fiction of a "lost charter". Examples of corporations by prescription include Cambridge universities. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, of the 81 universities established in pre-Reformation Europe, 13 were established ex consuetudine without any form of charter, 33 by Papal bull alone, 20 by both Papal bull and imperial or royal charter, 15 by imperial or royal charter alone. Universities established by royal charter did not have the same international recognition – their degrees were only valid within that kingdom; the first university to be founded by charter was the University of Naples in 1224, founded by an imperial charter of Frederick II.
The first university founded by royal charter was the University of Coimbra in 1290, by King Denis of Portugal, which received Papal confirmation the same year. Other early universities founded by royal charter include the University of Perpignan and the University of Huesca, both by Peter IV of Aragon, the Jagiellonian University by Casimir III of Poland, the University of Vienna by Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, the University of Caen by Henry VI of England, the University of Girona and the University of Barcelona, both by Alfonso V of Aragon, the University of Valence by the Dauphin Louis, the University of Palma by Ferdinand II of Aragon; the University of Cambridge was confirmed by a Papal bull in 1317 or 1318, but despite repeated attempts, the University of Oxford never received such confirmation. The three pre-Reformation Scottish universities were all established by Papal bulls. Following the reformation, establishment of universities and colleges by royal charter became the norm; the University of Edinburgh was founded under the authority of a royal charter granted to the Edinburgh town council in 1582 by James VI as the "town's college".
Trinity College Dublin was established by a royal charter of Elizabeth I in 1593. Both of these charters were given in Latin; the Edinburgh charter gave permission for the town council "to build and to repair sufficient houses and places for the reception and teaching of professors of the schools of grammar, the humanities and languages, theology and law, or whichever liberal arts which we declare detract in no way from the aforesaid mortification" and granted them the right to appoint and remove professors. But, as concluded by Edinburgh's principal, Sir Alexander Grant, in his tercentenary history of the university, "Obviously this is no charter founding a university". Instead