Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
European Business Summit
European Business Summit is an events and conference organiser, the creator of one of the largest networking and debating events in Brussels – the annual European Business Summit. EBS was founded in 2000 by the FEB, joined in support by BUSINESS EUROPE. From the beginning its purpose was to bring together policy-makers and business leaders to discuss contemporary issues affecting the future of Europe, thus helping to improve the decision-making process on the EU-level. EBS organises the “Back from Davos” event, whose purpose is to follow up on the conclusions and achievements of the annual meetings of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland; the 2018 edition took place on January 30 in Brussels. It took a form of a conversation with Jyrki Katainen - EU Commissioner Jobs, Growth and Competitiveness and Daniela Vincenti, Editor-in-Chief at EurActiv. Moreover, EBS supports events such as Think Digital, EU Energy Summit and the European Defence Industry Summit; when organising its events EBS works with companies, associations and regional representatives, NGOs, academia and think tanks from across multiple sectors.
The Honorary Board of the European Business Summit consists of a number of esteemed figures with significant achievements in the areas of politics and business. Members of the Board include a former Italian Prime Minister Mario Monti, the President of BusinessEurope Emma Marcegaglia and the CEO of the Solvay Group Jean-Pierre Clamadieu among others. EBS, under the provision of the Belgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is supported by the FEB and BusinessEurope. EBS operates under the high patronage of His Majesty the King of the Belgians; the European Business Summit is the EBS’ annual flagship event organised in Brussels. Each year the Summit attracts more than 2,000 participants and 200 high-level speakers from over 60 countries. Previous guests and speakers include heads of state and government, European ministers, EU Commissioners, high-ranking individuals, civil society, academia. Since 2014 the Summit has been organized in the Egmont Palace in Belgium; the Summit spans 2 days, beginning with an Opening Plenary, followed by numerous sessions dedicated to specific topics correlating with key negotiations taking place at the EU-level in a particular year.
The sessions take different forms, from big roundtable discussions for around 200 participants, featuring EU Commissioners and high-level officials as speakers, to Agora discussions for around 100 participants, to more intimate “Meet the Expert sessions” which give the opportunity for the audience to interact with the speakers. The Summit concludes with a Closing Plenary session featuring a distinguished guest speaker; the event is complemented by networking lunches and evening gatherings during which all guests have the chance to exchange views and search for new opportunities for collaboration. The 2017 edition of EBS took place on May 22–23, 2017 and welcomed a wide range of high-level speakers for key moments including Minister Wolfgang Schäuble who spoke about Europe in a new world, CEO Jean-Pierre Clamadieu on Sustainable Development Goals, former Prime Minister Mario Monti on the future of the European economy, MEP Guy Verhofstadt on the future of Europe, 10 EU Commissioners speaking on creating a new narrative for Europe.
The 2018 edition of the Summit took place on May 23–24 in the Egmont Palace in Brussels. The theme of this edition was “Leading in a changing world: Europe at the forefront of global economic and political change”; the discussions focused on topics such as clean industry, trade and defence, digitalisation and Brexit, Every year the Summit attracts significant media attention, with over 250 journalists from international and European media outlets attending the event. EBS offers media partners exclusive access to high-level speakers, private interview rooms and assistance in scheduling one-on-one meetings. College of Europe Hill+Knowlton Strategies EurActiv Copenhagen Economics Energy policy of the European Union Defence policy of the European Union European Economic Area Common Agricultural Policy Environmental policy of the European Union Official website
Confederation of Danish Industry
The Confederation of Danish Industry is one of Denmark's business organizations and employers' organizations. DI's members are 10,000 private enterprises in manufacturing and the service industry, from all sub-sectors. A number of sectoral employers' associations and branch federations are included in DI's framework, being integrated in part or in full in DI. Moreover, the members of DI in each county constitute a regional federation dealing with regional policy as well as educational issues; the organization represents its members in public discussions of new political ideas, it comments on current events in Denmark. The DI director general and CEO is Karsten Dybvad; the first employer association in Denmark was established in 1885 by companies within the iron industry in Copenhagena as Foreningen af Fabrikanter i Jernindustrien i København. A national organisation with the name Sammenslutningen af Arbejdsgivere inden for Jernindustrien i Danmark was established in 1902. In the 1980s, it changed its name to Jernets Arbejdsgiverforening.
Other companies within the manufacturing industry were organized in Arbejdsgiverforeningen Industrifagene. These two employer associations merged on 1 January 1990 under the name Industriens Arbejdsgivere. In 1992 Industriens Arbejdsgivere merged with Industrirådet under the name Dansk Industri. On 1 May 2008, Dansk Industri merged with HTS Handel, Transport og Service under the name DI; the confederation is financed and owned by its members and governed by a council and executive committee elected by the annual general assembly. DI's management oversees the daily activities of 600 employees. COWI A/S-CEO Lars-Peter Søbye siicceeded Lars Mikkelgaard-Jensen as president of the executive committee in September 2017; the confederation's activities can be categorised as follows: • Policy advocacy - at local and international level. • Membership services - information, advisory services, consulting. • Network relations - between members and with society at large. Industriens Hus Official homepage