Florida International University
Florida International University is a metropolitan public research university in Greater Miami, Florida. FIU has two major campuses in Miami-Dade County, with its main campus in University Park. Florida International University is classified as a research university with highest research activity by the Carnegie Foundation and a research university by the Florida Legislature. FIU belongs to the 12-campus State University System of Florida and is one of Florida's primary graduate research universities, awarding over 3,400 graduate and professional degrees annually; the university offers 191 programs of study with more than 280 majors in schools. FIU offers many graduate programs, including architecture, business administration, engineering and medicine, offering 81 master's degrees, 34 doctoral degrees, 3 professional degrees. FIU is the largest university in South Florida, the second-largest in Florida, the fourth-largest in the United States by enrollment. Total enrollment in Fall 2016 was 55,112 students, including 8,770 graduate students.
According to U. S. News college rankings and reviews, 92% of FIU students live off-campus while only 8% of students live in "college-owned, college-operated or college-affiliated" housing; the story of Florida International University's founding began in 1943, when state Senator Ernest'Cap' Graham presented the state legislature with the initial proposal for the establishment of a public university in South Florida. While his bill did not pass, Graham persisted in presenting his proposal to colleagues, advising them of Miami's need for a state university, he felt the establishment of a public university was necessary to serve the city's growing population. In 1964, Senate Bill 711 was introduced by Florida Senator Robert M. Haverfield, it instructed the state Board of Education and the Board of Regents, to begin planning for the development of a state university in Miami. The bill was signed into law by then-governor W. Haydon Burns in June 1965, marking FIU's official founding. FIU's founding president Charles "Chuck" Perry was appointed by the Board of Regents in July 1969 after a nationwide search.
At 32 years old, the new president was the youngest in the history of the State University System and, at the time, the youngest university president in the country. Perry recruited Butler Waugh, Donald McDowell and Nick Sileo. Alvah Chapman, Jr. former Miami Herald publisher and Knight Ridder chairman, used his civic standing and media power to assist the effort. In the 1980s, Chapman became chair of the FIU Foundation Board of Trustees; the founders located the campus on the site of the original Tamiami Airport on the Tamiami Trail between Southwest 107th and 117th Avenues, just east of where the West Dade Expressway was being planned. The abandoned airport's air traffic control tower became FIU's first building, it had no telephones, no drinking water, no furniture. Perry decided that the tower should never be destroyed, it remains on campus, where it is now known variously as the "Veterans Office," "Ivory Tower," the "Tower Building," or the "Public Safety Tower," and is the former location of the FIU Police Department.
In September 1972, 5,667 students entered the new state university, the largest opening day enrollment at the time. Miami had been the largest city in the country lacking a public baccalaureate-granting institution. Eighty percent of the student body had just graduated from Dade County Junior College. A typical student entering FIU was 25 years old and attending school full-time while holding down a full-time job. Forty-three percent were married. Negotiations with the University of Miami and Dade County Junior College led FIU to open as an upper-division only school, it would be nine years. The first commencement, held in June 1973, took place in the reading room of the ground floor of Primera Casa – the only place large enough on campus for the ceremony. More than 1,500 family members and friends watched FIU's first class of 191 graduates receive their diplomas. By late 1975, after seven years at the helm, Charles Perry felt he had accomplished his goal and left the university to become president and publisher of the Sunday newspaper magazine Family Weekly, one of the country's largest magazines.
When he left, there were more than 10,000 students attending classes and a campus with five major buildings and a sixth being planned. Harold Crosby, the university's second president and the founding president of the University of West Florida in Pensacola, agreed in 1976 to serve a three-year "interim" term. Under his leadership, FIU's North Miami Campus – located on the former Interama site on Biscayne Bay – was opened in 1977. State Senator Jack Gordon was instrumental in securing funding for the development of the campus. President Crosby emphasized the university's international character, prompting the launching of new programs with an international focus and the recruitment of faculty from the Caribbean and Latin America. President Crosby's resignation in January 1979 triggered the search for a "permanent" president. Gregory Baker Wolfe, a former United States diplomat and then-president of Portland State University became FIU's third president, from 1979 to 1986. After stepping down as president, Wolfe taught in the university's international relations department.
The student union on the Biscayne Bay Campus is named in his honor
East Carolina Pirates football
The East Carolina Pirates are a college football team that represents East Carolina University. The team is a member of the American Athletic Conference, in Division I Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Mike Houston is the head coach; the Pirates have won nine bowl games. The Pirates have 20 All-Americans over its history. Four players have their jerseys retired. Numerous Pirates have played including ten current players; the team played its inaugural season in 1932. The team played home games at College Stadium on the main campus from the 1949 to the 1962 season. With the exception of the 1999 Miami football game, they have played their home games at Dowdy–Ficklen Stadium every year since 1963; the stadium is located south of East Carolina's main campus near the intersection of South Charles Boulevard and 14th Street. Dowdy-Ficklen underwent an expansion in 2010, raising the capacity of the stadium to 50,000; the Pirates announced a $55 million renovation project to Dowdy-Ficklen in 2016, which will add a new tower above the south side stands, among other things.
The coaches and administrative support is located in the Ward Sports Medicine Building, located adjacent to the stadium. Strength and conditioning for the players occurs in the Murphy Center, a $13 million indoor training facility, completed in June 2002 and, located in the west end zone of Dowdy–Ficklen Stadium; the Pirates practice and train at the Cliff Moore Practice Facility, renovated in 2005 and which has two full-length NFL-caliber fields. East Carolina began organized football in the fall of 1932; the first football coach in school history was Kenneth Beatty. They played under the nickname Teachers; the team played five games, with two in Greenville. They however did not score a point the whole season; the 1933 season started. The team lost the first four games not scoring a point; the first victory in school history came against Campbell on November 11, 1933. The final score was 6-0; the 1933 team lost their final game against Appalachian St. 14–0. Coach Beatty left after the season. G. L. "Doc" Mathis was appointed the head coach.
Before the season, the school decided to change their nickname. The Men's Athletic Association wanted a nickname to inspire "more spirit and enthusiasm." The name was changed from the Teachers to the present Pirates. His first year, the team lost four games. But, they tied Old Dominion; the 1935 season included three wins, the largest total so far in history. Coach Mathis left after the season. Bo Farley was introduced as the third head coach; the 1936 season was the first winning season in school history. Coach Farley's team won against Duke Junior Varsity and Louisburg, he only stayed for one season. J. D. Alexander began coaching in the 1937 season, he had been the head coach at Lincoln Memorial in Tennessee. The season started off badly, losing the first five games, but the team finished on a high note, beating both High Point and Louisburg to finish out the season; the one win in the 1938 season came against Western Carolina. The 1938 team tied against Guilford. O. A. Hankner coached for only one season at East Carolina.
His team lost every game. The team had numerous injuries. After the disastrous 1939 season, John Christenbury was tapped as the new head coach, his 1940 team had the first winning season since the 1936 season. The team won the first four games, lost to North Carolina St. Freshmen and High Point; the only undefeated season happened in the 1941 season. The team scored 159 points compared to allowing 20. East Carolina did not field any athletics from 1942–1945 because of World War II. Coach Christenbury was killed in an explosion at Port Chicago, California on July 1, 1944. Replacing him at coach was Jim Johnson. Coach Johnson was a 16 letterman while at East Carolina, he was brought in to revitalize the athletic program, on hiatus because of World War II. His football team went 5–3–1 in 1946; the 1947 season brought East Carolina into the North State Conference, their first conference affiliation. In the first year of conference play, the team had three wins compared to six losses; the next year was more disastrous.
Coach Johnson left after the 1948 season. Bill Dole became the Pirates eighth coach, his teams went 4–5–1 in 1949. That made the third consecutive losing year for East Carolina; the 1950 season turned out better. The team tied the number of wins from the past three years with seven. Coach Dole's last year with the Pirates was in 1951, it was another losing season 4–6. Coach Dole became the head coach at Davidson. Jack Boone stepped in as the new head coach. During his first year, he guided the Pirates to a 1952 regular season record of 6–2–2, the team was invited to the Lions Bowl, their first bowl game ever; the Pirates came up short against Clarion College, losing 13–6. Coach Boone led the school to another first the next season, as the football team won the North State Conference championship. During the 1953 regular season, the team won eight while losing one en route to this championship. For the second time East Carolina went to a bowl game; the team competed in the Elks Bowl, against Morris Harvey College, losing 12–0.
The 1954 season would be the last winning season for four years. Over the four-year span t
Old Dominion University
Old Dominion University is a public research university in Norfolk, Virginia. It was established in 1930 as the Norfolk Division of the College of William & Mary and is now one of the largest universities in Virginia with an enrollment of 24,670 students for the 2014-2015 academic year, its main campus covers over 251 acres straddling the city neighborhoods of Larchmont, Highland Park, Lambert's Point five miles from Downtown Norfolk. Old Dominion University is classified among "Doctoral Universities: Higher Research Activity" and provides nearly $2 billion annually to the regional economy; the university offers 168 undergraduate and graduate degree programs to over 24,000 students and is one of the nation's largest providers of online distance learning courses. Old Dominion University has 124,000 alumni in all 50 states and 67 countries. Old Dominion University derives its name from one of Virginia's state nicknames, "The Old Dominion", given to the state by King Charles II of England for remaining loyal to the crown during the English Civil War.
The foundations of Old Dominion University began in the minds of administrators and officials at the College of William and Mary in the first decades of the twentieth century. Notable among these men were Robert M. Hughes, a member of the Board of Visitors of William and Mary from 1893 to 1917, J. A. C. Chandler, the eighteenth president of that school. In 1924 after becoming the director of the William and Mary extension in Norfolk, Joseph Healy began organizing classes and finding locations for faculty and staff, he along with the collective efforts of Robert M. Hughes, Dr. J. A. C. Chandler, A. H. Foreman, a two-year branch division was established on March 13, 1930. On September 12, 1930, the Norfolk Division of the College of William and Mary held its first class with 206 students in the old Larchmont School building, an abandoned elementary school on Hampton Boulevard. On September 3, 1930, H. Edgar Timmerman became the Division's first director. "The Division", as it was called, started out in the old Larchmont School building and allowed people with less financial assets to attend a school of higher education for two years.
Tuition for the first year was 50 USD. The following September, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, more known as Virginia Tech, began offering classes at "The Division", expanding the number of courses taught. Old Dominion began educating engineers. Created in the first year of the Great Depression, the college benefited from federal funding as part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal; the Public Works Administration provided funds for the Administration Building, now Rollins Hall, Foreman Field, named after A. H. Foreman, an early proponent of the college. In 1932, Lewis Warrington Webb joined the faculty as an instructor of engineering. After serving ten years as an instructor at the Norfolk Division of the College of William and Mary, Webb was appointed assistant director in 1942. Webb served as director of the Defense and War Training Program at the college from 1940 to 1944. Through its defense and training classes, the Norfolk Division contributed to the war effort; the program allowed the school to remain open during a period when most young men were serving their country.
The program attracted many women, who learn aircraft repair and other war-related subjects. In 1946, Webb was appointed Director of the Norfolk Division. Webb's dream was to see the Norfolk Division become an independent institution; the two-year Norfolk Division evolved into a four-year institution, Webb saw his dream fulfilled in 1962 when the Norfolk Division gained its independence from William and Mary. On February 16, 1962, the William and Mary system was dissolved under General Assembly legislation, signed by Governor Albertis S. Harrison; that year the Norfolk Division was renamed Old Dominion College. Dr. Webb served as the first president of Old Dominion College from 1962 to 1969. Frank Batten, the publisher of The Virginian-Pilot and The Ledger-Star and member of the Norfolk Division's advisory board, was chosen as the first rector of Old Dominion College on May 27, 1962, he held the position of rector until 1970 and the College of Engineering was named in his honor in 2004. In 1964, the first students lived on campus in the first dormitories and Gresham hall which were names after members of the advisory board.
In 1969, Old Dominion College transitioned to Old Dominion University under the leadership of President James L. Bugg, Jr. During Bugg's tenure the first doctoral programs were established along with a university-wide governance structure in which faculty and students were represented. Bugg reestablished the Army ROTC program, created in 1948 but had been abandoned because of the outbreak of the Korean War. In the 1970s, during the tenure of President Alfred B. Rollins, Jr. Old Dominion began mutual partnerships between regional organizations such as NASA, the U. S. Navy, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk State University; this was a result of Dr. Rollins goal of becoming the leading educational institution in the Hampton Roads area. Under Rollins, the university expanded its state and private funding, improved student services and introduced an honors program along with many other improvements to the university. In 1971 the university established its own campus police force and hired several police officers to patrol the campus.
In 1977, the Virginia Campus Police Act was made into a law, the university helped train local and campus police officers and the campus police officers were given full police authority on and
Dynacraft BSC, Inc. is a United States-based distributor of bicycles, battery-operated ride-ons, electric ride-ons. Dynacraft is based in American Canyon and has its distribution center located there as well. Dynacraft bikes are sold through major chains such as Walmart, Toys"R"Us, Kohl's, Fred Meyer, Canadian Tire, Academy Sports + Outdoor, Exchange Army & Air Force Exchange and through online outlets such as Amazon. Directors are David Castrucci and Bill Talios. Dynacraft BSC, Inc. imports and distributes various brands of bicycles, electric ride ons, battery operated ride ons to major retailers in the United States. Its customers include large toy, sporting goods, mass merchandise chains; the company sells products through retailers and online. Dynacraft BSC, Inc. was known as Dynacraft Industries, Inc. and changed its name to Dynacraft BSC, Inc. in June 2004. The company was incorporated in 1984, moved to San Rafael, California in 1998, is now based in American Canyon, California. Dynacraft unveiled some of the first chainless bicycles with its Dekra line in 2006 and in 2009 launched its Sonoma Chainless Bicycle Collection.
The design of the Sonoma's Chainless D-Drive uses a drive shaft to transmit power from the bike pedals to the rear wheel, eliminating the need for a chain entirely. This advanced system requires minimal maintenance, is claimed to be cleaner and longer-lasting than the traditional bicycle chain system; the upright ergonomic design provides increased comfort for adult riders while reducing strain on the lower back. On February 2015 Dynacraft Introduced a new logo to the company. On April 21 that year Dynacraft launched their social media page on YouTube, Instagram and Twitter. In late 2016, Dynacraft redesigned their website with Magento. During Black Friday 2017 Dynacraft introduced The Home Depot dump truck ride-on; the ride-on is only available in store. It is similar to the Tonka Dump truck ride-on. Dynacraft owns or licenses different brands of bicycles, battery operated ride ons, electric ride ons which include: In the 2015 Sweet suite Dynacraft began to set up a booth at the convention; this introduced the Care Bears and Spider-Man dune buggy.
In the 2016 Sweet suite Dynacraft introduced. This has Working Doors, Working Lanterns, Luxurious Curtains, Heart Shaped Steering Wheel, Enchanting Fairy Tale Sounds, Light-Up Fairy Tale Wand, a Wear and Share Princess Tiara. In the 2017 Sweet Suite Dynacraft introduced the Disney Princess Preschool Carriage; this one is not electric. It is foot to floor; this has a Heart Shaped Steering Wheel from the 24V Disney Princess Carriage. in 2017 for Christmas and New Year's Eve, Dynacraft made Holiday hours through email and phone The hours are from Dec 23-24 7AM-3PM Eastern time Dec 30-31 7AM-3PM Eastern time On Christmas Day and New Years Day customer service was closed. In 2018 Dynacraft began a series of Family Fun Friday; the first one was the Shopkins + slime. This will be published in their blog every Friday. In 1999 Dynacraft voluntarily recalled about 3,000 Magna "Great Divide," 21- speed mountain bikes, sold in the 24-inch size for girls and boys, the 26-inch size for women and men; the bikes could have defective handle bar stems which would not tighten sufficiently to lock onto the bicycles.
This can cause the front wheel not to turn properly, resulting in serious injuries to the rider from falls. Dynacraft stated, not aware of any injuries or incidents involving these bicycles; the bikes have a model number on the left side of the seat post. The girls' bikes are purple; the boys' bikes are blue. The women's bikes have model number 8547-84 and are purple; the men's bikes are black. The words "Great Divide" are located on the cross-tubes of these bicycles and the word "KALLOY" is located on the handlebar stems. Fred Meyer Stores in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon and Washington sold these bikes from December 1998 through August 18, 1999. In 2002 132,000 Next Ultra Shock mountain bicycles with "Ballistic 105" front suspension forks were recalled in cooperation with the U. S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. There were 20 reports of the suspension forks breaking on the Next Ultra Shock bicycles, resulting in 19 riders suffering injuries that include abrasions and chipped teeth. US International Co. Ltd. manufactured the forks on these bicycles.
These forks can break apart, causing riders to lose control and suffer serious injury. The recall is being conducted in cooperation with the U. S. Consumer Product Safety Commission which announced the recall of about 103,000 of these forks sold on bicycles manufactured by Brunswick Corp. There have been 20 reports of the suspension forks breaking on the Next Ultra Shock bicycles, resulting in 19 riders suffering injuries that include abrasions and chipped teeth; the recall includes only on blue Next Ultra Shock bicycles, with model numbers 8524-14 and 8526-20 manufactured between April 1999 and November 9, 1999. Wal-Mart stores nationwide sold these mountain bikes from May 1999 through December 2000. During 2003, Dynacraft voluntarily recalled about 52,900 BMX bicycles whose stems could loosen during use, causing riders to lose control and fall. Dynacraft received 35 reports of stems loosening on these bicycles, resulting in one report of an injury; the recall includes two models of 20-inch BMX bicycles.
The Next Voltage-model bicycles are metallic green, have model number 8535-99 and were manufactured between March 2002 and June 2002. The Vertical Street Blade-model bicycles ar
UCF Knights football
The UCF Knights football team represents The University of Central Florida in the sport of American football. The Knights compete in the Division I Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the East Division of the American Athletic Conference, their current head coach is Josh Heupel a player and coach at Oklahoma and offensive coordinator at Missouri. The Knights play their home games at the 44,206-seat Spectrum Stadium, located on UCF's main campus in Orlando, United States. UCF first fielded a varsity football team in the fall of 1979 as a NCAA Division III program and subsequently completed their ascension to Division I–A, now known as the Division I Football Bowl Subdivision, in 1996, becoming the only program in NCAA history to have played in all four divisions of football; as a Division I–AA program, the Knights made the 1990 and 1993 playoffs, were picked as the preseason No. 1 team to start the 1994 season. As of the 2017 regular season, UCF has 243 victories, has won six division championships and six conference championships, an undefeated season in 2017.
The Knights have a national championship for the 2017 season despite being excluded from that season's College Football Playoff. The Knights have made nine postseason appearances since joining the FBS, including winning two major bowls: the 2014 Fiesta Bowl and the 2018 Peach Bowl; the program has produced one Consensus All-American, Kevin Smith in 2007, three Heisman Trophy candidates, Daunte Culpepper in 1998, Kevin Smith in 2007, McKenzie Milton in 2017. UCF has produced a long line of accomplished NFL players, including Blake Bortles, A. J. Bouye, Kemal Ishmael, Brandon Marshall, Matt Prater, Asante Samuel, Mike Sims-Walker. UCF has had four first-round picks in the NFL Draft, players in fourteen Super Bowls, seven pro-bowlers; the Knights' main rivals are the South Florida Bulls. The UCF football program can be traced back to a speech given by the university's second president, Dr. Trevor Colbourn, in January 1979. Colbourn believed that a successful athletics program would bring the university greater renown, tasked Dr. Jack O'Leary with the job of creating a new football program at the school.
In addition, Colbourn changed the name of the school to the University of Central Florida, to express the university's expanded academic scope. Beginning at the Division III level, O'Leary the university's athletic director, held a meeting of prospective players, who paid $14 per night to stay in the dorms and brought their own uniforms to the tryouts, in March 1979; this would be the first football tryouts for prospective players, would serve as the first that many students would hear about the new athletic program. O'Leary had served as an assistant coach at Alabama under Paul "Bear" Bryant, he would spearhead the effort to raise more than $40,000 to start the program, would complete a deal for the team to play in the Tangerine Bowl. Without a budget to hire a staff, O'Leary reached out to six UCF graduate students as volunteer assistants. From there, O'Leary was able to lure Don Jonas, a former NFL quarterback and Orlando dignitary, to become UCF's first head football coach on a voluntary basis.
One day during a practice, O'Leary pulled the team aside and unveiled the template for uniforms of "The Fighting Knights". He would reveal a template that would follow the team into the 21st century: black jerseys, gold pants and gold helmets. Less than one year after Colbourn had envisioned a football program for the university, UCF played its first game on September 22, 1979 against St. Leo University; the Knights would prove victorious with a 21–0 shutout, less than a week the Knights would win their first home game by defeating Ft. Benning, 7–6. Jonas led the Knights to a 6–2 inaugural season, behind an average attendance of 11,240, including a Division III record crowd of 14,138. Following the season, in March 1980, Jonas was offered the Knights head coaching job as a full-time position. After leading the team to a 4–4–1 and 4–6 record in 1980 and 1981 Jonas would leave the Knights following the 1981 season. During the 1980 season, the Knights earned the only tie in program history, an 11–all game against Miles, Tim Kiggins became the first Knight to sign a professional contract.
After his departure, Jonas remained involved in the program, including doing radio broadcasts of UCF football games and a radio sports talk show. Jonas led the Knights to a 14–12–1 record in three seasons. Following the departure of Don Jonas, Sam Weir, the head coach at Lake Howell High School, became UCF's new head coach and led the Knights in their move up to Division II in 1982. Another change to the university's athletic programs in 1982 was the departure of O'Leary as athletic director, the hiring of Bill Peterson, the Florida State head coach from 1960–70. In their first season playing Division II ball, the Knights went 0–10, Weir decided not to return for the 1983 season. One bright spot of the season was that Mike Carter became the first Knight to sign with an NFL team, the Denver Broncos. Lou Saban replaced Weir as the Knights head coach in 1983. Saban had coached at Miami, Northwestern, in the AFL and NFL with the Buffalo Bills and Boston Patriots, to name just a few. In UCF's first Black and Gold Spring game held in 1983, the defense won 14–6.
The Knights finished the 1983 season 5–6, including the team's first win over a Division I–AA opponent. Starting the 1984 season filled with optimism, the Knights were shaken by a 1–6 start. Following the disappointing beginning to the season, Saban stepped away from the program, was r
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Unlike most other sports in North America, no minor league farm organizations exist in American or Canadian football. Therefore, college football is considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States and Canadian football in Canada. However, in some areas of the country, college football is more popular than professional football, for much of the early 20th century, college football was seen as more prestigious than professional football, it is in college football where a player's performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after three to four years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring in which 256 players are selected annually.
Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent. After the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained popular throughout the U. S. Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs — the highest level — playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000 people. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests; this allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans.. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as "football", played at public schools in Great Britain in the mid-19th century. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football; the game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges. The first documented gridiron football match was played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Modern Canadian football is regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians.
The game gained a following, the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada. Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional "mob football" played in Great Britain; the games remained unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton University students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed; the Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called "Old division football", the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s.
All of these games, others, shared certain commonalities. They remained "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area by any means necessary. Rules were simple and injury were common; the violence of these mob-style games led to a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860. American football historian Parke H. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the'Pioneer Period'. On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football, it was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Leggett, based