A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Twain Harte, California
Twain Harte is a census-designated place in Tuolumne County, United States. The population was 2,226 at the 2010 census, down from 2,586 at the 2000 census, its name is derived from the last names of two famous authors who lived in California, Mark Twain and Bret Harte. Twain Harte is located at 38°2′25″N 120°14′1″W. Twain Harte is situated in Tuolumne County along Highway 108 at an elevation of 3,640 feet; the USPS zip code for Twain Harte is 95383. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.7 square miles, of which, 99.49% is land and 0.51% is water. Its municipal water supply comes from the nearby Lyons Reservoir in the Stanislaus National Forest. Twain Harte is both a summer and winter vacation community situated at the transition zone between the oak forest of the California foothills and the mixed pine and fir forest of the Sierra Nevada. Summers are warm during the day and the nights are mild. Winters can be cool with snow occurring several times during the season.
Winter sports venues are located nearby at Leland High Sierra Snowplay near Strawberry, Long Barn Lodge & Ice Skating Rink, Dodge Ridge Ski Area near Pinecrest are all along Highway 108, plus the Badger Pass Ski Area in nearby Yosemite Park. Twain Harte is home to the Twain Harte Village, Twain Harte Golf Club, Twain Harte Lake; the 2010 United States Census reported that Twain Harte had a population of 2,226. The population density was 598.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Twain Harte was 2,026 White, 5 African American, 34 Native American, 31 Asian, 4 Pacific Islander, 46 from other races, 80 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 171 persons; the Census reported that 2,226 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 1,014 households, out of which 198 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 544 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 83 had a female householder with no husband present, 50 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 56 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 6 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 273 households were made up of individuals and 125 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20. There were 677 families; the population was spread out with 355 people under the age of 18, 137 people aged 18 to 24, 387 people aged 25 to 44, 772 people aged 45 to 64, 575 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 52.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.8 males. There were 2,148 housing units at an average density of 577.7 per square mile, of which 717 were owner-occupied, 297 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.5%. 1,501 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 725 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,586 people, 1,120 households, 779 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 711.1 people per square mile.
There were 2,056 housing units at an average density of 565.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 93.23% White, 0.12% African American, 1.01% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.54% Pacific Islander, 1.08% from other races, 3.29% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.53% of the population. There were 1,120 households out of which 24.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.4% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.4% were non-families. 24.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.69. In the CDP the population was spread out with 21.4% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 19.8% from 25 to 44, 31.7% from 45 to 64, 21.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.5 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $46,920, the median income for a family was $51,865. Males had a median income of $40,313 versus $26,964 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $23,079. About 5.0% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.5% of those under age 18 and 3.2% of those age 65 or over. In the California State Legislature, Twain Harte is in the 8th Senate District, represented by Republican Andreas Borgeas, the 5th Assembly District, represented by Republican Frank Bigelow. In the United States House of Representatives, Twain Harte is in California's 4th congressional district, represented by Republican Tom McClintock. Bret Harte, California, a CDP in Stanislaus County Twain Harte Area Chamber of Commerce official Web site
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is a bicameral legislature consisting of a lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members. Both houses of the Legislature convene at the California State Capitol in Sacramento; the California State Legislature is one of just ten full-time state legislatures in the United States. The Democratic Party holds supermajorities in both houses of the California State Legislature; the Assembly consists of 61 Democrats and 19 Republicans, while the Senate is composed of 28 Democrats and 10 Republicans, with two vacancies. Except for a brief period from 1995 to 1996, the Assembly has been in Democratic hands since the 1970 election; the Senate, has been under continuous Democratic control since 1970. New legislators convene each new two-year session, to organize, in the Assembly and Senate Chambers at noon on the first Monday in December following the election. After the organizational meeting, both houses are in recess until the first Monday in January, except when the first Monday is January 1 or January 1 is a Sunday, in which case they meet the following Wednesday.
Aside from the recess, the legislature is in session year-round. Since California was given official statehood by the U. S. in September 9, 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850, the state capital was variously San Jose and Benicia, until Sacramento was selected in 1854. The first Californian State House was a hotel in San Jose owned by businessman Pierre "Don Pedro" Sainsevain and his associates; the State Legislature meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento. Members of the Assembly serve two-year terms. All 80 Assembly seats are subject to election every two years. Members of the Senate serve four-year terms; every two years, one half of the Senate is subject to election, with odd-numbered districts up for election during presidential elections, even-numbered districts up for election during midterm elections. Term limits were established in 1990 following the passage of Proposition 140. In June 2012, voters approved Proposition 28, which limits legislators to a maximum of 12 years, without regard to whether they serve those years in the State Assembly or the State Senate.
Legislators first elected on or before June 5, 2012 are restricted by the previous term limits, approved in 1990, which limited legislators to three terms in the State Assembly and two terms in the State Senate. The proceedings of the California State Legislature are summarized in published journals, which show votes and who proposed or withdrew what. Reports produced by California executive agencies, as well as the Legislature, were published in the Appendices to the Journals from 1849 to 1970. Since the 1990s, the legislature has provided a live video feed for its sessions, has been broadcast statewide on the California Channel and local Public-access television cable TV. Due to the expense and the obvious political downside, California did not keep verbatim records of actual speeches made by members of the Assembly and Senate until the video feed began; as a result, reconstructing legislative intent outside of an act's preamble is difficult in California for legislation passed before the 1990s.
Since 1993, the Legislature has hosted a web/ftp site in another. The current Website contains the text of all statutes, all bills, the text of all versions of the bills, all the committee analyses of bills, all the votes on bills in committee or on the floor, veto messages from the Governor. Before committees published reports for significant bills, but most bills were not important enough to justify the expense of printing and distributing a report to archives and law libraries across the state. For bills lacking such a formal committee report, the only way to discover legislative intent is to access the state archives in Sacramento and manually review the files of relevant legislators, legislative committees, the Governor's Office from the relevant time period, in the hope of finding a statement of intent and evidence that the statement reflected the views of several of the legislators who voted for the bill; the most sought-after legislative committee appointments are to banking and insurance.
These are sometimes called "juice" committees, because membership in these committees aids the campaign fundraising efforts of the committee members, because powerful lobbying groups want to donate to members of these committees. A bill is a proposal to repeal, or add to existing state law. An Assembly Bill is one introduced in the Assembly. Bills are designated in the order of introduction in each house. For example, AB 16 refers to the 16th bill introduced in the Assembly; the numbering starts afresh each session. There may be one or more "extraordinary" sessions; the bill numbering starts again for each of these. For example, the third bill introduced in the Assembly for the second extraordinary session is ABX2 3; the name of the author, the legislator who introduced the bill, becomes part of the title of the bill. The legislative procedure, is divided into distinct stages: Drafting; the procedure begins when a Assembly Member decides to author a bill. A legislator sends the idea for the bill to the California Office of the Legislative Counsel, which drafts it into bill form and returns the draft to the legislator for introduction.
Introduction or First Reading. A legislator introduces a bill for the first time by reading or having read: the bill number, name of
Tuolumne County, California
Tuolumne County the County of Tuolumne, is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 54,179; the county seat and only incorporated city is Sonora. Tuolumne County comprises CA Micropolitan Statistical Area; the county is in the Sierra Nevada region. The northern half of Yosemite National Park is located in the eastern part of the county; the name Tuolumne is of Native American origin and has been given different meanings, such as Many Stone Houses, The Land of Mountain Lions and, Straight Up Steep, the latter an interpretation of William Fuller, a native Chief. Mariano Vallejo, in his report to the first California State Legislature, said that the word is "a corruption of the Indian word talmalamne which signifies'cluster of stone wigwams.'" The name may mean "people," i.e. in caves. Tuolumne County is one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Prior to statehood, it had been referred to as Oro County. Parts of the county were given to Stanislaus County in 1854 and to Alpine County in 1864.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,274 square miles, of which 2,221 square miles is land and 54 square miles is water. A California Department of Forestry document reports Tuolumne County's 1,030,812 acres include federal lands such as Yosemite National Park, Stanislaus National Forest, Bureau of Land Management lands, Indian reservations. Notable landforms in the county include Table Mountain. Special districts in Tuolumne County include: Belleview Elementary School District Big Oak Flat-Groveland Unified School District Chinese Camp Elementary School District Columbia Fire District Columbia Union Elementary School District Curtis Creek Elementary School District Groveland Community Services District Jamestown Elementary School District Jamestown Fire District Mi-Wuk Sugar Pine Fire Protection District Sonora Elementary School District Sonora Union High School District Soulsbyville Elementary School District Strawberry Fire District Summerville Elementary School District Summerville Union High School District Tuolumne County Air Pollution Control District Tuolumne County Water District No. 1 Tuolumne Fire District Tuolumne Regional Water District Tuolumne Utilities District Twain Harte Fire District Twain Harte-Long Barn Union Elementary School District Yosemite Community College District Alpine County, California - north Calaveras County, California - northwest Stanislaus County, California - southwest Mariposa County, California - south Madera County, California - southeast Mono County, California - east Merced County, California - southwest Stanislaus National Forest Yosemite National Park Red Hills California State Route 49 California State Route 108 California State Route 120 Tuolumne County Transit bus routes radiate from Sonora to serve most of the county.
In Columbia, a connection can be made to Calaveras County Transit. Yosemite Area Regional Transportation System makes a single daily round trip from Sonora into Yosemite Valley during summer months only. YARTS is set to begin a second daily round trip in June 2013. For details visit www.yarts.com or tuolumnecountytransit.com Columbia Airport and Pine Mountain Lake Airport are both general aviation airports located in the Southwest and Northeast corners of the county respectively. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense; the 2010 United States Census reported that Tuolumne County had a population of 55,365. The racial makeup of Tuolumne County was 48,274 White, 1,143 African American, 1,039 Native American, 572 Asian, 76 Pacific Islander, 2,238 from other races, 2,023 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5,918 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 54,501 people, 21,004 households, 14,240 families residing in the county.
The population density was 9/km². There were 28,336 housing units at an average density of 5/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 89.5% White, 2.1% Black or African American, 1.8% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 2.9% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. 8.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 94.7 % spoke 3.5 % Spanish as their first language. There were 21,004 households out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.82. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.7% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 27.9% from 45 to 64, 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years.
For every 100 females there were 111.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,725, the median income for a family was $44,327. Males had a median income of $35,373 versus $25,805 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,015. About 8.1% of families and 11.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over. The Government of Tuolumne County is established and defined by the California Constitution and is a five member elected Board Of Supervisors who serve four year elected terms; the government provides services such as elections and voter registrat
Groveland is a census-designated place in Tuolumne County, California. Groveland sits at an elevation of 3,136 feet; the 2010 United States census reported Groveland's population was 601. Groveland was created as a CDP prior to the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 9.6 square miles, 99.94% of it land and 0.06% of it water. This region experiences warm to hot and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 105 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Groveland has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that Groveland had a population of 601. The population density was 62.8 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Groveland was 542 White, 2 African American, 9 Native American, 9 Asian, 2 Pacific Islander, 17 from other races, 20 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 49 persons; the Census reported that 601 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized.
There were 277 households, out of which 57 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 119 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 32 had a female householder with no husband present, 15 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 21 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 2 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 90 households were made up of individuals and 41 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17. There were 166 families; the population was spread out with 92 people under the age of 18, 42 people aged 18 to 24, 114 people aged 25 to 44, 239 people aged 45 to 64, 114 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.1 males. There were 353 housing units at an average density of 36.9 per square mile, of which 182 were owner-occupied, 95 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.2%.
373 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 228 people lived in rental housing units. Camp Mather of the City of San Francisco, San Jose Family Camp of the City of San Jose, Berkeley Tuolumne Family Camp of the City of Berkeley, Camp Tawonga, a Jewish summer camp, are all located east of Groveland off Hwy 120 within the Stanislaus National Forest
Thomas Miller McClintock II is an American politician, the U. S. Representative for California's 4th congressional district, serving since 2009. A member of the Republican Party, he served as an assemblyman and state senator. McClintock unsuccessfully ran for Governor of California in the California recall election and for Lieutenant Governor of California in the 2006 election. McClintock was born in White Plains, New York and graduated in 1978 from UCLA. Aged 23, he was elected Chairman of the Ventura County Republican Party, served until 1981, he was chief of staff to State Senator Ed Davis from 1980 to 1982. From 1992 to 1994, he served as the director of the Center for the California Taxpayer, he was director of the Claremont Institute's Golden State Center for Policy Studies from 1995–96. McClintock ran for California's 36th State Assembly district, based in Thousand Oaks, in 1982 at the age of 26 after redistricting, he defeated Democrat Harriet Kosmo Henson 56–44%. In 1984, he won re-election to a second term, defeating Tom Jolicoeur 72–28%.
In 1986, he won re-election to a third term, defeating Frank Nekimken 73–25%. In 1988, he won re-election to a fourth term, defeating George Webb II 70–29%. In 1990, he won re-election to a fifth term, defeating Ginny Connell 59–36%. After running for Congress in 1992 and for controller in 1994, he decided to run for the Assembly again in 1996, he ran for California's 38th State Assembly district and defeated Democrat Jon Lauritzen 56–40% to win his sixth assembly term. In 1998, McClintock won re-election to a seventh term unopposed, he authored California's lethal injection use for California's death penalty law. He opposed tax increases and supported spending cuts, he was a strong proponent of abolishing the car tax. In 2000, he decided to retire from the California Assembly to run for California's 19th State Senate district, he ranked first in the May 7th open primary with 52% of the vote. In November, he defeated Democrat Daniel Gonzalez 58–42%. In 2004, he won re-election to a second term, defeating Paul Joseph Graber 61–39%.
In 2008, McClintock voted against Proposition 2, which prohibits confining calves and hens in small cages in which they cannot extend their limbs. "Farm animals are food, not friends", he said in response to backlash to his no vote. He cited concern about increased grocery bills. McClintock has a long history of opposing various tax increases. In 2000 he was instrumental in proposing a two-thirds reduction in the vehicle license fee, or car tax. In 2003, he opposed then-Governor Gray Davis's attempt to rescind a rollback of a vehicle license fee. McClintock has opposed deficit reduction efforts that would have increased taxes, he supported performance-based budgeting. He ran for California State Controller, he won the Republican primary, defeating John Morris, 61–39%. In the general election, he faced Kathleen Connell, former Special Assistant to Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley and Director of L. A. Housing Authority. Despite the fact that Connell outspent McClintock by a 3-to-1 margin, McClintock only lost by two percentage points, 48–46%, with three other candidates receiving the other 6% of the vote.
McClintock ran for State Controller again in 2002, facing Democratic nominee Steve Westly, an eBay executive. Westly outspent him 5-to-1. McClintock's campaigns focused on increasing accountability for the state budget; the ads featured the character Angus McClintock, a fictional cousin and fellow Scottish American extolling Tom McClintock's virtues of thriftiness and accountability with low-budget fifteen-second ads. He lost by a margin of just 0.2%, or 16,811 votes behind Westley, who won with a plurality of 45.3% of the vote. McClintock obtained 45.1% of the vote, while three other candidates obtained a combined 9.5% of the vote. In 2003, he ran for the recall election against incumbent Democrat Gray Davis. Republican and film actor Arnold Schwarzenegger won the election with 49% of the vote. Democratic Lieutenant Governor Cruz Bustamante finished second with 31% of the vote, about 17 points behind Schwarzenegger. McClintock finished in third place with 14% of the vote, about 35 points behind Schwarzenegger.
Together, Republicans Schwarzenegger and McClintock were supported by 5,363,778 Californians, or 62.1% of the vote. 132 other candidates obtained the remaining 6.4% of the vote. McClintock performed the best in Stanislaus County, he cracked 20% or higher in several other counties: Mariposa, Tehama, Madera, Shasta, San Joaquin, Ventura. He ran for lieutenant governor in the 2006 elections, he defeated Tony Farmer in the Republican primary, 94–6%. In the general election, he lost to Democratic State Insurance Commissioner John Garamendi 49–45%. 1992After redistricting, State Assemblyman McClintock decided to retire in order to challenge Democratic U. S. Congressman Anthony C. Beilenson in California's 24th congressional district, he won the nine-candidate Republican primary with a plurality of 34% of the vote, beating second-place finisher Sang Korman by eleven percentage points. Beilenson defeated McClintock 56–39%. 2008 On March 4, 2008, McClintock announced his candidacy for the U. S. House of Representatives in California's 4th congressional district, hundreds of miles away from the district McClintock represented in the state Senate.
The district's nine-term incumbent, fellow Republican John Doolittle, decided to retire. McClintock was unable to vote for himself in either the general election. Although he lived in Elk Grove, near Sacramento, for most of the year, his legal residence was in
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai