Ronald Steven "Ron" Suskind is an American journalist and author. He was the senior national affairs writer for The Wall Street Journal from 1993 to 2000, where he won the 1995 Pulitzer Prize for Feature Writing for articles that became the starting point for his first book, A Hope in the Unseen, his other books include The Price of Loyalty, The One Percent Doctrine, The Way of the World, Confidence Men, his memoir Life, Animated: A Story of Sidekicks and Autism. Suskind has written about the George W. Bush Administration, the Barack Obama Administration, related issues of the United States' use of power. Suskind was born in New York, to a Jewish family, he is the son of Shirley Berney and Walter B. Suskind, a second cousin of producer David Susskind, he grew up in Wilmington and attended the University of Virginia. In 1983 he received a master's degree from Columbia University's Graduate School of Journalism. In 1990, Suskind went to The Wall Street Journal, became senior national affairs reporter in 1993.
In 1995, he won the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Writing for two articles on Cedric Jennings, a student at inner-city Ballou High School in Washington, D. C. who wanted to attend MIT. Suskind left the Journal in 2000. Suskind has written six books, published in periodicals including Esquire and The New York Times Magazine. In 2004, he discussed The Price of Loyalty, on CBS's 60 Minutes. In 2006 he discussed The One Percent Doctrine on The Colbert Report, in 2008 he discussed The Way of the World on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, again appeared on the show when his 2011 book, Confidence Men, was published, he has appeared on NBC's Today Show, ABC's Nightline and PBS's Charlie Rose. In 2001 and 2002, he was a contributor to "Life 360," a joint production of ABC and PBS. Between 2004 and 2008, he made appearances on the PBS series. On May 13, 2014, he appeared on The Daily Show to discuss his book Life, the real-life story of his autistic son, Owen Suskind, "his irrepressible wife," Cornelia. In the spring of 2012, Suskind was the A.
M. Rosenthal Writer-in-Residence at the Harvard Kennedy School's Shorenstein Center on Media and Public Policy. At the Shorenstein Center he conducted four workshops for students about the process of reporting and writing titled, "Truth and Consequences: Crafting Powerful Narratives in the Age of Message."Suskind has two sons with his wife, Cornelia Anne Kennedy Suskind. The couple married in 1988. Cornelia is the granddaughter of Democratic Representative Martin J. Kennedy. In 2002, Suskind wrote two articles in Esquire on the workings of the George W. Bush White House; the first article, in June 2002, focused on presidential adviser Karen Hughes. White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card said that the pragmatic Hughes was "the beauty to Karl's beast", referring to Bush's advisor Karl Rove. According to Card, her resignation signified a political shift in the administration further to the right. Suskind's second Esquire story about Rove, in December 2002, carried the comments and a long memo from Bush's former head of the White House Office of Faith-based and Community initiatives John DiIulio, an official who left the White House and spoke about his experiences.
DiIulio criticized the Bush administration for having "no policy apparatus" and fixating on political calculation, was quoted as saying "it's the reign of the Mayberry Machiavellis," a comment he explained in a 3,000-word, on-the-record memo to Suskind about his time in the administration. DiIulio attempted to recant some of his characterizations. An October 2004 cover story by Suskind in the New York Times Magazine stated that the president was planning to privatize Social Security as his first initiative if re-elected—a disclosure that prompted controversy in the final two weeks of the campaign. In the article, Suskind quoted an unnamed advisor to Bush as saying that guys like me were'in what we call the reality-based community,' which he defined as people who'believe that solutions emerge from your judicious study of discernible reality.' I murmured something about enlightenment principles and empiricism. He cut me off.'That's not the way the world works anymore,' he continued.'We're an empire now, when we act, we create our own reality.
And while you're studying that reality— judiciously, as you will—we'll act again, creating other new realities, which you can study too, that's how things will sort out. We're history's actors... and you, all of you, will be left to just study what we do.' In 1995 Suskind wrote a series of articles on the struggles of inner-city honors students in Washington, D. C, for which he won the Pulitzer Prize. Parts of these articles were used in A Hope in the Unseen; the story chronicles the two-year journey of Cedric L. Jennings, an honor student who aspires to escape his blighted D. C. upbringing by going to an Ivy League university. The book was chosen by The New York Times, Chicago Tribune, Washington Monthly and Booklist as one of the best books of the year; the New York Times Book Review called it an "extraordinary, formula-shattering book". David Halberstam called it a "beautiful book of a heroic American struggle." The book has been a selection in college courses on American culture, education and creative writing, has been a required reading for incoming freshmen at some universities.
In 2008, the book was selected as part of the "One One Book" program. In a review of the book, CNN declared: "As more voters and talk-show hosts write off affirmative action as a well-intentioned anachronism, A Hope in the Unseen should be required reading for would-be opinion-mongers." In his revie
Rahm Israel Emanuel is an American politician serving as the 55th mayor of Chicago since 2011. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as the 23rd White House Chief of Staff from 2009 to 2010, as a member of the United States House of Representatives from Chicago between 2003 and 2009. Born in Chicago, Emanuel is a graduate of Sarah Lawrence Northwestern University. Working early in his career in Democratic politics, Emanuel was appointed as director of the finance committee for Bill Clinton's 1992 presidential campaign. In 1993, he joined the Clinton Administration, where he served as the assistant to the president for political affairs and as the Senior Advisor to the President for policy and strategy before resigning, in 1998. Beginning a career in finance, Emanuel worked at the investment bank Wasserstein Perella & Co. from 1998 for 2½ years, served on the board of directors of Freddie Mac. In 2002, Emanuel ran for the seat in the U. S. House of Representatives vacated by Rod Blagojevich.
Emanuel won the first of three terms representing Illinois's 5th congressional district, a seat he held from 2003 to 2009. During his tenure in the House, Emanuel held two Democratic leadership positions, serving as the chair of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee from 2005 to 2007, as the chair of the House Democratic Caucus, from 2007 to 2009. After the 2008 presidential election, President Barack Obama appointed Emanuel to serve as White House chief of staff. In October 2010, Emanuel resigned as chief of staff to run as a candidate in Chicago's 2011 mayoral election; because of questions about his eligibility to run for mayor, Emanuel's candidacy was rejected by the Illinois First District Appellate Court, though he was found eligible to run in a unanimous decision by the Supreme Court of Illinois. Emanuel won with 55% of the vote over five other candidates in the non-partisan mayoral election, succeeding 22-year incumbent Richard M. Daley. Although Emanuel failed to obtain an absolute majority in the February 2015 mayoral election, he defeated Cook County board commissioner Jesús "Chuy" García in the subsequent run-off election in April.
In late 2015, Emanuel's approval rating plunged to "the low 20s" in response to a series of scandals, most directly the police shooting of 17-year-old Laquan McDonald, the city's subsequent attempts to withhold a video of the shooting, the lack of an investigation into the matter. In early December 2015, the federal Justice Department announced an investigation into the operations of the Chicago Police Department, a move which Emanuel opposed. At one point, half of Chicagoans favored Emanuel's resignation, with critical evaluations of the mayor appearing in such sources as The New York Times and The New Yorker, coming from such figures as the Reverend Al Sharpton. By July 2017, Emanuel was said to have raised $1.6 million towards a potential run for a third term in the 2019 election, although his approval ratings had not recovered to 50%, he had made steady progress in recovering his political support. He announced in October 2017 he planned to run for a third term, but on September 4, 2018, Emanuel reversed this decision and stated he would not seek a third term due to personal obligations.
Emanuel's grandfather was a Moldovan Jew. The surname Emanuel, which means "God with us", was adopted by their family in honor of his father's brother Emanuel Auerbach, killed in 1933 in an altercation with Arabs in Jerusalem. Emanuel's father, Benjamin M. Emanuel, is a Jerusalem-born pediatrician at Michael Reese Hospital, once a member of the Irgun, a Jewish paramilitary organization that operated in British Mandate Palestine, his mother, Marsha, is the daughter of a West Side Chicago union organizer who worked in the civil rights movement, owned a local rock and roll club, became an adherent of Benjamin Spock's writings. Emanuel's parents met during the 1950s in Chicago. Emanuel was born on November 1959, in Chicago, Illinois, his first name, Rahm means lofty in Hebrew. He has been described by his older brother Ezekiel, an oncologist and bioethicist at the University of Pennsylvania, as "quiet and observant" as a child. Ari, the youngest, is the co-CEO of William Morris Endeavor, a talent agency with headquarters in Beverly Hills, California.
While he lived in Chicago, Emanuel attended the Bernard Zell Anshe Emet Day School. After his family moved to Wilmette, north of the city, Emanuel attended public schools: Romona School, Locust Junior High School, New Trier High School, he and his brothers attended summer camp in Israel, including the summer following the June 1967 Six-Day War. Ezekiel has written that their father "did not believe in falsely building his sons' self-esteem by purposefully letting us win, or tolerating sloppy play". About Rahm, he wrote: Though fiercely intelligent... he was not inclined to sit at a desk and put in extra effort to turn a B into an A. As my father said, without noting that the phrase applied to himself at that same age, "Rahm always tries to get the maximum for the minimum." Rahm was encouraged by his mother to take ballet lessons, is a graduate of the Evanston School of Ballet, as well as a student of The Joel Hall Dance Center, where his children took lessons. He won a scholarship to the Joffrey Ballet, but turned it down to attend Sarah Lawrence College, a liberal arts school with a strong dance program.
This background, as well as the mayor's short stature, has led critics of the Mayor to nickname him "tiny dancer". While an undergraduate, Emanuel was elected to
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Robert Upshur Woodward is an American investigative journalist. He is now an associate editor there. While a young reporter for The Washington Post in 1972, Woodward teamed up with Carl Bernstein; these scandals led to numerous government investigations and the eventual resignation of President Richard Nixon. The work of Woodward and Bernstein was called "maybe the single greatest reporting effort of all time" by longtime journalism figure Gene Roberts. Woodward continued to work for The Washington Post after his reporting on Watergate, he has since written 19 books on American politics. Woodward was born in Geneva, the son of Jane and Alfred Eno Woodward II, chief judge of the 18th Judicial Circuit Court, he was a resident of Illinois. He enrolled in Yale College with a Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps scholarship and studied history and English literature. While at Yale, Woodward joined the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity and was a member of the prestigious secret society Book and Snake, he received his B.
A. began a five-year tour of duty in the United States Navy. During his service in the Navy, Woodward served aboard the USS Wright, was one of two officers assigned to move or handle nuclear launch codes the Wright carried in its capacity as a NECPA. At one time, he was close to Admiral Robert O. Welander, being communications officer on the USS Fox under Welander's command. After being discharged as a lieutenant in August 1970, Woodward was admitted to Harvard Law School but elected not to attend. Instead, he applied for a job as a reporter for The Washington Post while taking graduate courses in Shakespeare and international relations at George Washington University. Harry M. Rosenfeld, the Post's metropolitan editor, gave him a two-week trial but did not hire him because of his lack of journalistic experience. After a year at the Montgomery Sentinel, a weekly newspaper in the Washington, D. C. suburbs, Woodward was hired as a Post reporter in 1971. Woodward and Carl Bernstein were both assigned to report on the June 17, 1972, burglary of the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee in a Washington, D.
C. office building called Watergate. Their work, under editor Ben Bradlee, became known for being the first to report on a number of political "dirty tricks" used by the Nixon re-election committee during his campaign for re-election, their book about the scandal, All the President's Men, became a No. 1 bestseller and was turned into a movie. The 1976 film, starring Robert Redford as Woodward and Dustin Hoffman as Bernstein, transformed the reporters into celebrities and inspired a wave of interest in investigative journalism; the book and movie led to the enduring mystery of the identity of Woodward's secret Watergate informant known as Deep Throat, a reference to the title of a popular pornographic movie at the time. Woodward said he would protect Deep Throat's identity until the man died or allowed his name to be revealed. For more than 30 years, only Woodward, a handful of others knew the informant's identity until it was claimed by his family to Vanity Fair magazine to be former Federal Bureau of Investigation Associate Director W. Mark Felt in May 2005.
Woodward confirmed the veracity of this claim and subsequently published a book, titled The Secret Man, that detailed his relationship with Felt. Woodward and Bernstein followed up with a second book on Watergate, entitled The Final Days, covering in extensive depth the period from November 1973 until President Nixon resigned in August 1974; the Woodward and Bernstein Watergate Papers are housed at the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin. In September 1980, a Sunday feature story appeared on the front page of the Post titled "Jimmy's World" in which reporter Janet Cooke wrote a profile of the life of an eight-year-old heroin addict. Although some within the Post doubted the story's veracity, it was defended by the paper's editors including Woodward, assistant managing editor, it was Woodward who submitted the story for Pulitzer Prize consideration, Cooke was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Writing on April 13, 1981. The story was found to be a complete fabrication, the Pulitzer was returned.
In retrospect, Woodward made the following statement: I think that the decision to nominate the story for a Pulitzer is of minimal consequence. I think that it won is of little consequence, it is a brilliant story -- fraud that it is. It would be absurd for me or any other editor to review the authenticity or accuracy of stories that are nominated for prizes. China's alleged role in the 1996 United States campaign finance controversy first gained public attention when Woodward and Brian Duffy published a story stating that a United States Department of Justice investigation into the fund-raising activities had uncovered evidence that Chinese agents sought to direct contributions from foreign sources to the Democratic National Committee before the 1996 presidential campaign; the journalists wrote that intelligence information had shown the Chinese embassy in Washington, D. C. was used for coordinating contributions to the DNC. Woodward spent more time than any other journalist with former President George W. Bush, interviewing him six times for close to 11 hours total.
Woodward's four books, Bush at War, Plan of Attack, State of Denial, The War Within: A Secret White House History are detailed accounts of the Bush presidency, including the response to the September 11 attacks and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq
Peter R. Orszag
Peter Richard Orszag is an American banker and economist. He is the CEO of Financial Advisory at Lazard, effective June 2019, he was the firm’s Head of North American M&A and Global Co-Head of Healthcare. Orszag served as a Vice Chairman of Corporate and Investment Banking and Chairman of the Financial Strategy and Solutions Group at Citigroup. Before joining Citigroup, he was a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations and a contributing columnist for the New York Times Op-Ed page. Prior to that, he was the 37th Director of the Office of Management and Budget under President Barack Obama and had served as the Director of the Congressional Budget Office. Orszag is a member of the National Academy of Medicine of the National Academies of Sciences, he serves on the Boards of Directors of the Peterson Institute for International Economics, the Mt. Sinai Hospital, the Russell Sage Foundation, New Visions for Public Schools in New York, Ideas42. Orszag grew up in Lexington, the son of Reba and Steven Orszag.
His paternal great-grandparents were Jewish immigrants from Hungary who immigrated to New York City in 1903. His father was a math professor at Yale University and his mother was the president and owner of a research and development company. After graduating from Phillips Exeter Academy with high honors, Orszag earned an A. B. summa cum laude in economics from Princeton University in 1991, a M. Sc. and a Ph. D. in economics from the London School of Economics. He was a Marshall Scholar 1991–1992, is a member of Phi Beta Kappa. Orszag became a lecturer at the University of California and taught macroeconomics in 1999 and 2000; as a senior fellow and Deputy Director of Economic Studies at the Brookings Institution, he directed The Hamilton Project and the Pew Charitable Trust's Retirement Security Project. He served as Special Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, as Senior Economist and Senior Adviser on the Council of Economic Advisers during the Clinton administration, he formed a consulting group called Sebago Associates, which merged into Competition Policy Associates and was bought by FTI Consulting Inc. for a reported $70 million.
After leaving the Obama administration, Orszag took a job with Citigroup. In May 2016, Orszag joined Lazard as managing vice chairman of investment banking, he is an invitee of the Bilderberg Group and attended the conferences in 2010, 2011 and 2012. Orszag was director of the Congressional Budget Office from January 2007 to November 2008. During his tenure, he drew attention to the role rising health care expenditures are to play in the government's long-term fiscal problems—and, by extension, the nation's long-term economic problems. "I have not viewed CBO's job as just to passively evaluate what Congress proposes, but rather to be an analytical resource. And part of, to highlight things that are true and that people may not want to hear, including that we need to address health-care costs." During his time at the CBO, he added 20 full-time health analysts, thereby strengthening the CBO's analytical capabilities and preparing Congress for health-care reform. He was praised for his time at CBO for preparing the agency for the debates to come.
When he stepped down, National Journal noted that "Orszag, who will turn 40 on Dec. 16, has been praised by lawmakers from both parties as an objective analyst with deep knowledge of the most pressing fiscal issues of the day, including health care policy, Social Security and global climate change. He is the unusual economist who blends an understanding of politics and communications in ways that wrap zesty quotes around complex ideas." On November 25, 2008, President-elect Barack Obama announced that Orszag would be his nominee for director of the Office of Management and Budget, the arm of the White House responsible for crafting the federal budget and overseeing the effectiveness of federal programs. Orszag, in a November 2009 speech in New York, said that deficits, which were expected to add $9 trillion to the existing national debt of $12 trillion over the next decade, are "serious and unsustainable." He said that deficit spending was necessary to help boost the economy when unemployment is hovering around 10 percent.
But he said. During a recovery, private investment will again pick up and compete with the federal government for capital. In July 2010 Orszag said that "The problem now is weak growth and high unemployment rather than outright economic collapse". Still, the deficit would be equivalent to 10 percent of the gross domestic product, the highest level since World War II; the Office of Management and Budget's mid-session review, forecast a smaller deficit and stronger economic growth than the administration's initial budget release. The deficit forecast in 2011 increased to $1.42 trillion, up from the $1.27 estimate in February. For 2012, the deficit estimate rose to $922 billion, up from $828 billion in the previous report; the annual budget shortfall would bottom out in 2017 at $721 billion, or 3.4 percent of GDP, begin rising again in following years. A review of Orszag's daily schedules shows his sustained focus on healthcare reform as soon as he joined Obama's Cabinet; the daily schedules for Orszag, who left his position as Office of Management and Budget director in July 2010, reveal that he and key White House aides met to discuss healthcare starting in January 2009, within days of Obama entering office.
Orszag had meetings with insurance executives and health expert
Joseph "Joe" Nocera is an American business journalist and author. He writes about sports at The New York Times where he wrote about business and was a columnist for the newspaper's Op-Ed page. Nocera is a business commentator for NPR’s Weekend Edition and, as of January 2017, for Bloomberg View. Nocera earned a B. S. in journalism from Boston University in 1974. In the late 1970s he was an editor at The Washington Monthly. In the 1980s, he was an editor at Newsweek. Nocera was the "Profit Motive" columnist at Esquire from 1988 to 1990 and wrote the same column for GQ from 1990 to 1995, he worked at Fortune from 1995 to 2005, in a variety of positions as editorial director. He became a business columnist for The New York Times in April 2005. In March 2011, Nocera became a regular opinion columnist for The Times's Op-Ed page, writing on Tuesdays and Saturdays, he is a business commentator for NPR’s Weekend Edition with Scott Simon. In November 2015, Nocera's began writing in the sports page of The Times.
Executives at The Times cited Nocera's interest in sports injuries to student athletes and business issues in college athletics, as the reason for reassignment to the sports page from the Op-Ed page. In his last column on the Op-Ed page of The Times, Nocera offered his views on several issues unrelated to sports including gun control and Michael Bloomberg's involvement with the issue, Supreme Court terms, education in the United States, e-cigarettes, election day in the United States. In January 2017, Nocera began writing a column for Bloomberg View on business and other subjects, he lives in New York City. Nocera's columns in the New York Times offer perspectives on a wide array of current events, he writes series of columns on specific issues, focuses on specific areas of interest to him. Since 2011, Nocera has written over 10 columns on the role played by the NCAA in the United States with a view that the NCAA "unfairly exploits college football and men's basketball players" through a "double standard".
To support this view, he cites the negative effects NCAA policies may have on student athletes, which include unfair suspensions and financial inducements given to universities that lead to potential conflicts of interest. Nocera has criticized specific actions and policies, pertaining to intercollegiate athletics, of many universities, including Rutgers University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of Alabama, Baylor University, University of Notre Dame, he has extensively criticized the NCAA and Penn State University for their handling of the Penn State child sex abuse scandal. Nocera advocates fracking, viewed as an economical method for natural gas extraction. Fracking, faces widespread debate for its environmental impact, its critics argue that, by augmenting fossil fuel supply, fracking contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. Nocera believes that these concerns are overstated because fossil fuel consumption is driven by demand. Other environmental concerns cited include flowback of contaminated water into potable water sources, induced seismic activity, potential water scarcity due to the high level of water consumption required for fracking.
Nocera argues that, because fracking has been adopted, "the responsible approach is not to wish it away, but to exploit its benefits while straightforwardly addressing its problems". Nocera supports the construction of Keystone XL, which would encourage the extraction of fossil fuels from oil sands and shale gas deposits in Canada. For reasons similar to those for fracking, the proposed pipeline has been subject of political debate since the pipeline extension was proposed in 2008, he has been a "longtime supporter of the pipeline" as it would, in his view, help the United States achieve "energy independence" by augmenting energy produced in North America. In an August 2011 column on the US debt ceiling crisis, Nocera compared "Tea Party Republicans" with terrorists, wrote that they "have waged jihad on the American people" and suggested that they "can put aside their suicide vests"; these choice of words were criticized by a number of media outlets, including Jonah Goldberg of the National Review, Jennifer Rubin of The Washington Post, Jason Suderman of Reason magazine, along with White House press secretary Jay Carney.
In a follow-up column, Nocera writes " most surprised me is how darned liberal I sound sometimes." He apologized: The words I chose were intemperate and offensive to many, I've been roundly criticized. I was a hypocrite, the critics said, for using such language when on other occasions I've called for a more civil politics. In the cool light of day, I agree with them. I apologize. After comparing Congressional negotiations with "hand-to-hand combat", Nocera concluded the column with "I won't be calling anybody names; that I can promise." Nocera's book A Piece of the Action: How the Middle Class Joined the Money Class won the New York Public Library's Helen Bernstein Award for best non-fiction book of 1995. His contributions to business journalism have been recognized with three Gerald Loeb Awards: 1983 in the Magazines category for "It's Time to Make a Deal", 1996 in the Magazines category for "Fatal Litigation", 2008 in the Commentary category for "Talking Business", he earned three John Hancock Awards for Excellence in Business Writing in 1983, 1984, 1991, respectively.
In 2007, he was named a Pulitzer Prize for Commentary finalist. Indentured: The Inside Story of the Rebellion Against the NCAA, which he co-wrote with Ben Strauss, won the 2017 PEN America ESPN Award for Literary Sportswriting. Noc
Lawrence Henry Summers is an American economist, former Vice President of Development Economics and Chief Economist of the World Bank, senior U. S. Treasury Department official throughout President Clinton's administration, former director of the National Economic Council for President Obama, he is a former president of Harvard University, where he is a professor and director of the Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. Born in New Haven, Summers became a professor of economics at Harvard University in 1983, he left Harvard in 1991, working as the Chief Economist at the World Bank from 1991 to 1993. In 1993, Summers was appointed Undersecretary for International Affairs of the United States Department of the Treasury under the Clinton Administration. In 1995, he was promoted to Deputy Secretary of the Treasury under his long-time political mentor Robert Rubin. In 1999, he succeeded Rubin as Secretary of the Treasury. While working for the Clinton administration Summers played a leading role in the American response to the 1994 economic crisis in Mexico, the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the Russian financial crisis.
He was influential in the Harvard Institute for International Development and American-advised privatization of the economies of the post-Soviet states, in the deregulation of the U. S financial system, including the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act. Following the end of Clinton's term, Summers served as the 27th President of Harvard University from 2001 to 2006. Summers resigned as Harvard's president in the wake of a no-confidence vote by Harvard faculty, which resulted in large part from Summers's conflict with Cornel West, financial conflict of interest questions regarding his relationship with Andrei Shleifer, a 2005 speech in which he suggested that the under-representation of women in science and engineering could be due to a "different availability of aptitude at the high end", less to patterns of discrimination and socialization. Remarking upon political correctness in institutions of higher education, Summers said in 2016, "There is a great deal of absurd political correctness. Now, I'm somebody who believes strongly in diversity, who resists racism in all of its many incarnations, who thinks that there is a great deal that's unjust in American society that needs to be combated, but it seems to be that there is a kind of creeping totalitarianism in terms of what kind of ideas are acceptable and are debatable on college campuses."After his departure from Harvard, Summers worked as a managing partner at the hedge fund D. E. Shaw & Co. and as a freelance speaker at other financial institutions, including Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan Chase, Merrill Lynch and Lehman Brothers.
Summers rejoined public service during the Obama administration, serving as the Director of the White House United States National Economic Council for President Barack Obama from January 2009 until November 2010, where he emerged as a key economic decision-maker in the Obama administration's response to the Great Recession. After his departure from the NEC in December 2010, Summers has worked in the private sector and as a columnist in major newspapers. In mid-2013, his name was floated as the potential successor to Ben Bernanke as the Chairman of the Federal Reserve, though Obama nominated Federal Reserve Vice-Chairwoman Janet Yellen for the position; as of 2017, Summers retains his Harvard University status as former president emeritus and Charles W. Eliot University Professor. Summers was born in New Haven, Connecticut, on November 30, 1954, into a Jewish family, the son of two economists, Robert Summers and Anita Summers, who are both professors at the University of Pennsylvania, he is the nephew of two Nobel laureates in economics: Paul Samuelson and Kenneth Arrow.
He spent most of his childhood in Penn Valley, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia, where he attended Harriton High School. At age 16, he entered Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he intended to study physics but soon switched to economics, he was an active member of the MIT debating team and qualified for participation in the annual National Debate Tournament three times. He attended Harvard University as a graduate student. In 1983, at age 28, Summers became one of the youngest tenured professors in Harvard's history, it was during this time that Summers was diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma. He has since remained cancer free, he was a visiting academic at the London School of Economics in 1987. Summers has three children with Victoria Joanne. In December 2005, Summers married English professor Elisa New, who has three daughters from a previous marriage, he lives in Massachusetts. As a researcher, Summers has made important contributions in many areas of economics public finance, labor economics, financial economics, macroeconomics.
Summers has worked in international economics, economic demography, economic history and development economics. His work emphasizes the analysis of empirical economic data in order to answer well-defined questions, for example: Does saving respond to after-tax interest rates? Are the returns from stocks and stock portfolios predictable? Are most of those who receive unemployment benefits only transitorily unemployed? etc. For his work, he received the John Bates Clark Medal in 1993 fro