A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers of stocks, which represent ownership claims on businesses. Examples of the latter include shares of private companies which are sold to investors through equity crowdfunding platforms. Stock exchanges list shares of common equity as well as other security types, e.g. corporate bonds and convertible bonds. Stocks are categorized in various ways. One way is by the country. For example, Nestlé and Novartis are domiciled in Switzerland, so they may be considered as part of the Swiss stock market, although their stock may be traded on exchanges in other countries, for example, as American depository receipts on U. S. stock markets. As of 2017, the size of the world stock market was about US$79.225 trillion. By country, the largest market was the United States, followed by the United Kingdom; these numbers increased in 2013. As of 2015, there are a total of 60 stock exchanges in the world with a total market capitalization of $69 trillion.
Of these, there are 16 exchanges with a market capitalization of $1 trillion or more, they account for 87% of global market capitalization. Apart from the Australian Securities Exchange, these 16 exchanges are based in one of three continents: North America and Asia. A stock exchange is an exchange where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell shares of stock and other securities. Many large companies have their stocks listed on a stock exchange; this makes the stock more liquid and thus more attractive to many investors. The exchange may act as a guarantor of settlement. Other stocks may be traded "over the counter", that is, through a dealer; some large companies will have their stock listed on more than one exchange in different countries, so as to attract international investors. Stock exchanges may cover other types of securities, such as fixed interest securities or derivatives which are more to be traded OTC. Trade in stock markets means the transfer of a security from a seller to a buyer.
This requires these two parties to agree on a price. Equities confer an ownership interest in a particular company. Participants in the stock market range from small individual stock investors to larger investors, who can be based anywhere in the world, may include banks, insurance companies, pension funds and hedge funds, their buy or sell orders may be executed on their behalf by a stock exchange trader. Some exchanges are physical locations where transactions are carried out on a trading floor, by a method known as open outcry; this method is used in some stock exchanges and commodity exchanges, involves traders shouting bid and offer prices. The other type of stock exchange has a network of computers. An example of such an exchange is the NASDAQ. A potential buyer bids a specific price for a stock, a potential seller asks a specific price for the same stock. Buying or selling at the market means you will accept any ask price or bid price for the stock; when the bid and ask prices match, a sale takes place, on a first-come, first-served basis if there are multiple bidders at a given price.
The purpose of a stock exchange is to facilitate the exchange of securities between buyers and sellers, thus providing a marketplace. The exchanges provide real-time trading information on the listed securities, facilitating price discovery; the New York Stock Exchange is a physical exchange, with a hybrid market for placing orders electronically from any location as well as on the trading floor. Orders executed on the trading floor enter by way of exchange members and flow down to a floor broker, who submits the order electronically to the floor trading post for the Designated Market Maker for that stock to trade the order; the DMM's job is to maintain a two-sided market, making orders to buy and sell the security when there are no other buyers or sellers. If a spread exists, no trade takes place – in this case the DMM may use their own resources to close the difference. Once a trade has been made, the details are reported on the "tape" and sent back to the brokerage firm, which notifies the investor who placed the order.
Computers play an important role for program trading. The NASDAQ is a virtual exchange; the process is similar to the New York Stock Exchange. One or more NASDAQ market makers will always provide a bid and ask price at which they will always purchase or sell'their' stock; the Paris Bourse, now part of Euronext, is an electronic stock exchange. It was automated in the late 1980s. Prior to the 1980s, it consisted of an open outcry exchange. Stockbrokers met on the trading floor of the Palais Brongniart. In 1986, the CATS trading system was introduced, the order matching process was automated. People trading stock will prefer to trade on the most popular exchange since this gives the largest number of potential counter parties and the best price. However, there have always been alternatives such as brokers trying to bring parties together to trade outside the exchange; some third markets that were popular are Instinet, Island and Archipelago. One advantage is that this avoids the commissions
Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, played a central role in the early part of the First World War. Kitchener was credited in 1898 for winning the Battle of Omdurman and securing control of the Sudan for which he was made Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, becoming a qualifying peer and of mid-rank as an Earl; as Chief of Staff in the Second Boer War he played a key role in Lord Roberts' conquest of the Boer Republics succeeded Roberts as commander-in-chief – by which time Boer forces had taken to guerrilla fighting and British forces imprisoned Boer civilians in concentration camps. His term as Commander-in-Chief of the Army in India saw him quarrel with another eminent proconsul, the Viceroy Lord Curzon, who resigned. Kitchener returned to Egypt as British Agent and Consul-General.
In 1914, at the start of the First World War, Kitchener became Secretary of State for War, a Cabinet Minister. One of the few to foresee a long war, lasting for at least three years, with the authority to act on that perception, he organised the largest volunteer army that Britain had seen, oversaw a significant expansion of materials production to fight on the Western Front. Despite having warned of the difficulty of provisioning for a long war, he was blamed for the shortage of shells in the spring of 1915 – one of the events leading to the formation of a coalition government – and stripped of his control over munitions and strategy. On 5 June 1916, Kitchener was making his way to Russia to attend negotiations, on HMS Hampshire, when it struck a German mine 1.5 miles west of the Orkney and sank. Kitchener was among 737. Kitchener was born in Ballylongford near Listowel, County Kerry, in Ireland, son of army officer Henry Horatio Kitchener and Frances Anne Chevallier, his father had only bought land in Ireland, under a scheme to encourage the purchase of land, after selling his commission.
They moved to Switzerland where the young Kitchener was educated at Montreux at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Pro-French and eager to see action, he joined a French field ambulance unit in the Franco-Prussian War, his father took him back to Britain after he caught pneumonia while ascending in a balloon to see the French Army of the Loire in action. Commissioned into the Royal Engineers on 4 January 1871, his service in France had violated British neutrality, he was reprimanded by the Duke of Cambridge, the commander-in-chief, he served in Palestine and Cyprus as a surveyor, learned Arabic, prepared detailed topographical maps of the areas. His brother, Lt. Gen. Sir Walter Kitchener, had entered the army, was Governor of Bermuda from 1908 to 1912. In 1874, aged 24, Kitchener was assigned by the Palestine Exploration Fund to a mapping-survey of the Holy Land, replacing Charles Tyrwhitt-Drake, who had died of malaria. By an officer in the Royal Engineers, Kitchener joined fellow officer Claude R. Conder.
Conder and Kitchener's expedition became known as the Survey of Western Palestine because it was confined to the area west of the Jordan River. The survey collected data on the topography and toponymy of the area, as well as local flora and fauna; the results of the survey were published in an eight-volume series, with Kitchener's contribution in the first three tomes. This survey has had a lasting effect on the Middle East for several reasons: It serves as the basis for the grid system used in the modern maps of Israel and Palestine. For example, the modern border between Israel and Lebanon is established at the point in upper Galilee where Conder and Kitchener's survey stopped. In 1878, having completed the survey of western Palestine, Kitchener was sent to Cyprus to undertake a survey of that newly acquired British protectorate, he became vice-consul in Anatolia in 1879. Kitchener was initiated into Freemasonry in 1883 in the Italian-speaking La Concordia Lodge No. 1226, which met in Cairo.
In November 1899 he was appointed the first District Grand Master of the District Grand Lodge of Egypt and the Sudan, under the United Grand Lodge of England. On 4 January 1883 Kitchener was promoted to captain, given the Turkish rank bimbashi, dispatched to Egypt where he took part in the reconstruction of the Egyptian Army. Egypt had become a British puppet state, its army led by British officers, although still nominally under the sovereignty of the Khedive and his nominal overlord the Sultan of Turkey. Kitchener became second-in-command of an Egyptian cavalry regiment in February 1883, took part in the failed expedition to relieve Charles George Gordon in the Sudan in late 1884. Fluent in Arabic, Kitchener preferred the company of the Egyptians over the British, the company of no-one over the Egyptians, writing in 1884 that: "I have become such a solitary bird that I think I were happier alone". Kitchener spoke Arabic so well that he was able to effortlessly adopt the dialects of the dif
Compassion motivates people to go out of their way to help the physical, mental, or emotional pains of another and themselves. Compassion is regarded as having sensitivity, an emotional aspect to suffering, though when based on cerebral notions such as fairness and interdependence, it may be considered rational in nature and its application understood as an activity based on sound judgment. Compassion is a feeling. There is an aspect of equal dimension, such that individual's compassion is given a property of "depth", "vigor", or "passion"; the etymology of "compassion" is Latin, meaning "co-suffering." Compassion involves "feeling for another" and is a precursor to empathy, the "feeling as another" capacity for better person-centered acts of active compassion. Compassion involves allowing ourselves to be moved by suffering and experiencing the motivation to help alleviate and prevent it. An act of compassion is defined by its helpfulness. Qualities of compassion are wisdom, it is though not the key component in what manifests in the social context as altruism.
Expression of compassion is prone to be hierarchical and controlling in responses. Difference between sympathy and compassion is that the former responds to suffering from sorrow and concern while the latter responds with warmth and care; the English noun compassion, meaning to love together with, comes from Latin. Its prefix com- comes directly from com, an archaic version of the Latin preposition and affix cum. Compassion is thus related in origin and meaning to the English noun patient, from patiens, present participle of the same patior, is akin to the Greek verb πάσχειν and to its cognate noun πάθος. Ranked a great virtue in numerous philosophies, compassion is considered in all the major religious traditions as among the greatest of virtues. Theoretical perspectives of compassion have been developed through the years, the following three proposed perspectives show contrasts in their evolution and approaches to compassion. Compassion is a variation of love or sadness, not a distinct emotion.
From the perspective of evolutionary psychology, compassion can be viewed as a distinct emotional state, which can be differentiated from distress and love. Compassion as a synonym of empathic distress, characterized by the feeling of distress in connection with another person's suffering; this perspective of compassion is based on the finding that people sometimes emulate and feel the emotions of people around them. The more one person knows about the human condition and the associated experiences, the more vivid the route to identification with suffering becomes. Identifying with another person is an essential process for human beings, it is seen throughout the world as people adapt and change with new styles of clothing, behavior, etc., illustrated by infants who begin to mirror the facial expressions and body movements of their mother as early as the first days of their lives. Personality psychology agrees that people are inherently different and distinct from one another, which leads to the conclusion that human suffering is always individual and unique.
Suffering can result from psychological and physical trauma and it happens in acute forms as as chronically. Due to the inherent differences in people's personalities some may define their early stages of suffering to their external circumstances and those life events being quiet or not discussed; the stages may involve the person expressing their victimization and searching for help. Suffering has been defined as the perception of a person's impending destruction or loss of integrity, which continues until the threat is vanished or the person's integrity can be restored; the importance of identifying with others for compassion is contrasted by the negative physical and psychological effects of abandonment. Compassion is a characteristic element of democratic societies. Compassion is recognized through identifying with other people, the knowledge of human behavior, the perception of suffering, transfer of feelings, knowledge of goal and purpose changes in sufferers, leads to the absence of the suffering from the group.
The compassion process is related to identifying with the other person because sympathizing with others is possible among people from other countries, locations, etc. A possible source of this process of identifying with others comes from a universal category called "Spirit." Toward the late 1970s different cultures and nations around the world took a turn to religious fundamentalism, attributed to "Spirit". The role of compassion as a factor contributing to individual or societal behavior has been the topic of continuous debate. In contrast to the process of identifying with other people, a complete absence of compassion may require ignoring or disapproving identification with other people or groups. Earlier studies established the links between interpersonal violence and cruelty which leads to indifference; this concept has been illustrated throughout history: The Holocaust, European colonization of the Americas, etc. The essential step in these atrocities could be the definition of the victims as "not human" or "not us."
The atrocities committed throughout human history have only been relieved through the presence of compassio
Greed, or avarice, is an inordinate or insatiable longing for material gain, be it food, status, or power As a secular psychological concept, greed is an inordinate desire to acquire or possess more than one needs. The degree of inordinance is related to the inability to control the reformulation of "wants" once desired "needs" are eliminated. Erich Fromm described greed as "a bottomless pit which exhausts the person in an endless effort to satisfy the need without reaching satisfaction." It is used to criticize those who seek excessive material wealth, although it may apply to the need to feel more excessively moral, social, or otherwise better than someone else. The purpose for greed, any actions associated with it, is to deprive others of potential means or future opportunities accordingly, or to obstruct them therefrom, thus insidious and tyrannical or otherwise having a negative connotation. Alternately, the purpose could be defense or counteraction from such dangerous, potential negotiation in matters of questionable agreeability.
A consequence of greedy activity may be an inability to sustain any of the costs or burdens associated with that, or is being accumulated, leading to a backfire or destruction, whether of self or more generally. So, the level of "inordinance" of greed pertains to the amount of vanity, malice or burden associated with it. Thomas Aquinas says that greed "is a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things." In Dante's Purgatory, the avaricious penitents were bound and laid face down on the ground for having concentrated too much on earthly thoughts. Meher Baba dictated that "Greed is a state of restlessness of the heart, it consists of craving for power and possessions. Possessions and power are sought for the fulfillment of desires. Man is only satisfied in his attempt to have the fulfillment of his desires, this partial satisfaction fans and increases the flame of craving instead of extinguishing it, thus greed leaves the man endlessly dissatisfied.
The chief expressions of greed are related to the emotional part of man."Ivan Boesky famously defended greed in an 18 May 1986 commencement address at the UC Berkeley's School of Business Administration, in which he said, "Greed is all right, by the way. I want you to know that. I think. You can be greedy and still feel good about yourself"; this speech inspired the 1987 film Wall Street, which features the famous line spoken by Gordon Gekko: "Greed, for lack of a better word, is good. Greed is right, greed works. Greed clarifies, cuts through, captures the essence of the evolutionary spirit. Greed, in all of its forms. Scavenging and hoarding of materials or objects and robbery by means of violence, trickery, or manipulation of authority are all actions that may be inspired by greed; such misdeeds can include simony, where one profits from soliciting goods within the actual confines of a church. A well-known example of greed is the pirate Hendrick Lucifer, who fought for hours to acquire Cuban gold, becoming mortally wounded in the process.
He died of his wounds hours after having transferred the booty to his ship. Some research suggests, it is possible people. Quotations related to Greed at Wikiquote The dictionary definition of greed at Wiktionary Media related to Greed at Wikimedia Commons
Gambling is the wagering of money or something of value on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the primary intent of winning money or material goods. Gambling thus requires three elements be present: consideration, a prize; the outcome of the wager is immediate, such as a single roll of dice, a spin of a roulette wheel, or a horse crossing the finish line, but longer time frames are common, allowing wagers on the outcome of a future sports contest or an entire sports season. The term "gaming" in this context refers to instances in which the activity has been permitted by law; the two words are not mutually exclusive. However, this distinction is not universally observed in the English-speaking world. For instance, in the United Kingdom, the regulator of gambling activities is called the Gambling Commission; the word gaming is used more since the rise of computer and video games to describe activities that do not involve wagering online gaming, with the new usage still not having displaced the old usage as the primary definition in common dictionaries.
Gambling is a major international commercial activity, with the legal gambling market totaling an estimated $335 billion in 2009. In other forms, gambling can be conducted with materials which are not real money. For example, players of marbles games might wager marbles, games of Pogs or Magic: The Gathering can be played with the collectible game pieces as stakes, resulting in a meta-game regarding the value of a player's collection of pieces. Gambling dates back before written history. In Mesopotamia the earliest six-sided dice date to about 3000 BC. However, they were based on astragali dating back thousands of years earlier. In China, gambling houses were widespread in the first millennium BC, betting on fighting animals was common. Lotto games and dominoes appeared in China as early as the 10th century. Playing cards appeared in the ninth century in China. Records trace gambling in Japan back at least as far as the 14th century. Poker, the most popular U. S. card game associated with gambling, derives from the Persian game As-Nas, dating back to the 17th century.
The first known casino, the Ridotto, started operating in 1638 in Italy. Many jurisdictions, local as well as national, either ban gambling or control it by licensing the vendors; such regulation leads to gambling tourism and illegal gambling in the areas where it is not allowed. The involvement of governments, through regulation and taxation, has led to a close connection between many governments and gaming organizations, where legal gambling provides significant government revenue, such as in Monaco or Macau, China. There is legislation requiring that the odds in gaming devices be statistically random, to prevent manufacturers from making some high-payoff results impossible. Since these high-payoffs have low probability, a house bias can quite be missed unless the odds are checked carefully. Most jurisdictions that allow gambling require participants to be above a certain age. In some jurisdictions, the gambling age differs depending on the type of gambling. For example, in many American states one must be over 21 to enter a casino, but may buy a lottery ticket after turning 18.
Because contracts of insurance have many features in common with wagers, insurance contracts are distinguished under law as agreements in which either party has an interest in the "bet-upon" outcome beyond the specific financial terms. E.g.: a "bet" with an insurer on whether one's house will burn down is not gambling, but rather insurance – as the homeowner has an obvious interest in the continued existence of his/her home independent of the purely financial aspects of the "bet". Nonetheless, both insurance and gambling contracts are considered aleatory contracts under most legal systems, though they are subject to different types of regulation. Under common law English Law, a gambling contract may not give a casino bona fide purchaser status, permitting the recovery of stolen funds in some situations. In Lipkin Gorman v Karpnale Ltd, where a solicitor used stolen funds to gamble at a casino, the House of Lords overruled the High Court's previous verdict, adjudicating that the casino return the stolen funds less those subject to any change of position defence.
U. S. Law precedents are somewhat similar. For case law on recovery of gambling losses where the loser had stolen the funds see "Rights of owner of stolen money as against one who won it in gambling transaction from thief". An interesting wrinkle to these fact pattern is to ask what happens when the person trying to make recovery is the gambler's spouse, the money or property lost was either the spouse's, or was community property; this was a minor plot point in a Perry Mason novel, The Case of the Singing Skirt, it cites an actual case Novo v. Hotel Del Rio. Ancient Hindu poems like the Gambler's Lament and the Mahabharata testify to the popularity of gambling among ancient Indians. However, the text Arthashastra recommends control of gambling. Ancient Jewish authorities frowned on gambling disqualifying professional gamblers from testifying in court; the Catholic Church holds the position that there is no moral impediment to gambling, so long as it is fair, all bettors have a reasonable chance of winni
An advance-fee scam is a form of fraud and one of the most common types of confidence tricks. The scam involves promising the victim a significant share of a large sum of money, in return for a small up-front payment, which the fraudster requires in order to obtain the large sum. If a victim makes the payment, the fraudster either invents a series of further fees for the victim or disappears. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, "An advance fee scheme occurs when the victim pays money to someone in anticipation of receiving something of greater value—such as a loan, investment, or gift—and receives little or nothing in return." There are many variations of this type of scam, including the 419 scam, the Spanish Prisoner scam, the black money scam, Fifo's Fraud and the Detroit-Buffalo scam. The scam has been used with fax and traditional mail, is now prevalent in online communications like emails. While Nigeria is most the nation referred to in these scams, they originate in other nations as well.
In 2006, 61% of internet criminals were traced to locations in the United States, while 16% were traced to the United Kingdom, 6% to Nigeria. Other nations known to have a high incidence of advance-fee fraud include: Ivory Coast, South Africa, the Netherlands and Jamaica; the number "419" refers to the section of the Nigerian Criminal Code dealing with fraud, the charges and penalties for offenders. The modern scam is similar to the Spanish Prisoner scam. In that con, businessmen were contacted by an individual trying to smuggle someone, connected to a wealthy family out of a prison in Spain. In exchange for assistance, the scammer promised to share money with the victim in exchange for a small amount of money to bribe prison guards. One variant of the scam may date back to the 18th or 19th centuries, as a similar letter, entitled "The Letter from Jerusalem", is seen in the memoirs of Eugène François Vidocq, a former French criminal and private investigator. Another variant of the scam, dating back to circa 1830, appears similar to what is passed via email today: "Sir, you will doubtlessly be astonished to be receiving a letter from a person unknown to you, about to ask a favour from you...", goes on to talk of a casket containing 16,000 francs in gold and the diamonds of a late marchioness.
The modern day transnational scam can be traced back to Germany in 1922, became popular during the 1980s. There are many variants of the letters sent. One of these, sent via postal mail, was addressed to a woman's husband, inquired about his health, it asked what to do with profits from a $24.6 million investment, ended with a telephone number. Other official-looking letters were sent from a writer who said he was a director of the state-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, he said he wanted to transfer $20 million to the recipient’s bank account – money, budgeted, but was never spent. In exchange for transferring the funds out of Nigeria, the recipient would keep 30% of the total. To get the process started, the scammer asked for a few sheets of the company’s letterhead, bank account numbers, other personal information, yet other variants have involved mention of a Nigerian prince or other member of a royal family seeking to transfer large sums of money out of the country—thus, these scams are sometimes called "Nigerian Prince emails".
The spread of e-mail and email harvesting software lowered the cost of sending scam letters by using the Internet. While Nigeria is most the nation referred to in these scams, they may originate in other nations as well. For example, in 2006, 61% of Internet criminals were traced to locations in the United States, while 16% were traced to the United Kingdom and 6% to locations in Nigeria. Other nations known to have a high incidence of advance-fee fraud include Ivory Coast, South Africa, the Netherlands, Spain. One reason Nigeria may have been singled out is the comical ludicrous nature of the promise of West African riches from a Nigerian prince. According to Cormac Herley, a Microsoft researcher, "By sending an email that repels all but the most gullible, the scammer gets the most promising marks to self-select." Nigeria has earned a reputation for being at the center of email scammers, the number 419 refers to the article of the Nigerian Criminal Code dealing with fraud. In Nigeria, scammers use computers in Internet cafés to send mass emails promising potential victims riches or romance, to trawl for replies.
They refer to their targets as Maga, slang developed from a Yoruba word meaning "fool" and referring to gullible white people. Some scammers have accomplices in the United States and abroad that move in to finish the deal once the initial contact has been made; this scam begins with the perpetrator contacting the victim via email, instant messaging or social media using a fake email address or a fake social media account and making an offer that would result in a large payoff for the victim. An email subject line may say something like "From the desk of barrister ", "Your assistance is needed", so on; the details vary, but the usual story is that a person a government or bank employee, knows of a large amount of unclaimed money or gold which he cannot access directly because he has no right to it. Such people, who may be real but impersonated people or fictitious characters played by the con artist, could include, for example, the wife or son of a deposed African leader who has amassed a stolen fortune, a bank employee who knows of a terminally ill we
Lust is a psychological force producing intense wanting or longing for an object, or circumstance fulfilling the emotion. Lust can take any form such as the lust for sexuality, money or power, it can take such mundane forms as the lust for food as distinct from the need for food. Religions Christianity, tend to draw a distinction between passion and lust by further categorizing lust as an inappropriate desire or a desire, inappropriately strong, whereas passion is maintained to be something God-given and moral. Lust holds a critical position in the philosophical underpinnings of Buddhist reality, it is named in the second of the Four Noble Truths, which are that Suffering is inherent in all life. Suffering is caused by desire. There is a natural way to eliminate all suffering from one's life; the ending of desire eliminates all suffering from someones life. Lust is the, attachment to, identification with, passionate desire for certain things in existence, all of which relate to the form, perception and consciousness that certain combinations of these things engender within us.
Lust is thus the ultimate cause of general imperfection and the most immediate root cause of a certain suffering. The passionate desire for either non-existence or for freedom from lust is a common misunderstanding. For example, the headlong pursuit of lust in order to fulfill a desire for death is followed by a reincarnation accompanied by a self-fulfilling karma, resulting in an endless wheel of life, until the right way to live, the right worldview, is somehow discovered and practiced. Beholding an endless knot puts one, symbolically, in the position of the one with the right worldview, representing that person who attains freedom from lust. In existence are four kinds of things that engender the clinging: rituals, worldviews and the self; the way to eliminate lust is to learn of its unintended effects and to pursue righteousness as concerns a worldview, speech, livelihood, effort and concentration, in the place where lust sat. In many translations of the New Testament, the word "lust" translates the Greek word ἐπιθυμέω in Matthew 5:27-28: Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery: But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her in his heart.
In English-speaking countries, the term "lust" is associated with sexual desire because of this verse. But just as the English word was a general term for desire, the Greek word ἐπιθυμέω was a general term for desire; the LSJ lexicon suggests "set one's heart upon a thing, long for, desire" as glosses for ἐπιθυμέω, used in verses that have nothing to do with sexual desire. In the Septuagint, ἐπιθυμέω is the word used in the commandment to not covet: You shall not covet your neighbor's wife. While coveting your neighbor's wife may involve sexual desire, it's unlikely that coveting a neighbor's house or field is sexual in nature, and in most New Testament uses, the same Greek word, ἐπιθυμέω, does not have a clear sexual connotation. For example, from the American Standard Version the same word is used outside of any sexual connotation: Matthew 13:17: For verily I say unto you, that many prophets and righteous men desired to see the things which ye see, saw them not. Luke 22:15-16: And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer: for I say unto you, I shall not eat it, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.
Acts 20:33: I coveted no man's silver, or gold, or apparel. Ye yourselves know that these hands ministered unto my necessities, to them that were with me. Luke 15:14-16: And when had spent all, there arose a mighty famine in that country, and he joined himself to one of the citizens of that country. And he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine did eat: and no man gave unto him. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, a Christian's heart is lustful when "venereal satisfaction is sought for either outside wedlock or, at any rate, in a manner, contrary to the laws that govern marital intercourse". Pope John Paul II said that lust devalues the eternal attraction of male and female, reducing personal riches of the opposite sex to an object for gratification of sexuality. Lust is considered by Catholicism to be a disordered desire for sexual pleasure, where sexual pleasure is "sought for itself, isolated from its procreative and unitive purposes". In Catholicism, sexual desire in itself is good, is considered part of God's plan for humanity.
However, when sexual desire is separated from God's love, it becomes self-seeking. This is seen as lust; the Latin for extravagance was used by St Jerome to translate a variety of biblical sins, including drunkenness and sexual excess. Gregory the Great placed luxuria as one of the seven capital sins, narrowing its scope to disordered desire, it was in this sense that the Middle Ages took luxuria. In Romanesque art, the personified Luxuria is feminine represented by a siren or a naked woman with breasts being bitten by s