Xcel Energy Cabin Creek Fire
The Xcel Energy Cabin Creek Fire occurred on October 2, 2007, at Xcel Energy’s pumped storage hydroelectric plant near Georgetown, Colorado, a small town forty-five miles west of Denver. The accident injured three; the incident is thought to be the result of shoddy work by a contractor and Xcel Energy's willingness to cut costs at the expense of safety. The plant, the Cabin Creek Generating station, is a pumped storage hydroelectric generator that opened in 1967, it is located about 6 miles from Georgetown, accessed by the high mountain road of Guanella Pass. It sits at an elevation of greater than 10,000 feet above sea level; the power plant runs two generators that when running at top performance can produce a total 324 megawatts of electrical power. The plant is powered by water pressure from the water released from a storage reservoir. In 2000, a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission-initiated inspection of the penstock found that the epoxy lining on the interior of the pipes was deteriorating.
This was leading to damage of the pipes themselves and Xcel was mandated to repair the epoxy to limit further damage. Work did not begin in earnest until seven years as the company had been granted extensions to the deadline for this work to be completed. Xcel energy selected RPI Coating Inc. after a competitive RFP process. This was despite RPI having had more than $100,000 of fines levied against it by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Xcel's own rating of the company's safety profile as "zero." A zero should have automatically disqualified RPI from the bid process. Safety concerns had been identified by Xcel's safety director and RPI arranged for a specialist to be brought to the Cabin Creek site to address specific training for operating safely during work at the plant. While 14 crew members were slated to be working on the site, only nine would attend the six-hour safety meeting. In September 2007, the tunnel was prepped for work by Xcel and RPI; this involved shutting down the plant, draining the penstock, creating an access point for equipment and workers.
A single ingress/egress point in such a tunnel would prove to be deadly. This was not the only hazard: an RPI worker dislocated a shoulder during this process, after slipping on the moss covered floor of the tunnel. Sand blasting and other prep work would last through the month of September. Internal Xcel documents show; this would have required a costly set of safety mechanisms to be put in place, including work environment monitoring, specialized rescue team on site, rigorous control of flammable substances. Neither Xcel nor RPI treated the work site as permit-required confined space. In early October, re-application of the epoxy coat started with about a dozen workers inside the penstock. An epoxy sprayer was operated by a small crew, workers did prep work ahead, others ran material from the tunnel opening to the sprayer. While the epoxy itself was not volatile at the temperatures being used, it was applied at temperatures that were below the optimum for ideal use. To cope with this, to help with regular cleaning, a solvent was used to keep the spray equipment free from contamination.
RPI workers used methyl ethyl ketone, a volatile chemical with a low flash point, as the solvent. It was used on the sprayer as it sat inside the tunnel, where multiple sources of ignition were present. On October 2 around 1:55 pm, when a safety inspector and general foreman were out to lunch, a flash fire engulfed the sprayer platform while MEK was being circulated through the equipment. A growing fire separated the work group; the separated workers were able to shout over the fire and ask for fire extinguishers, but none were located inside the tunnel. Other workers would have to get fire extinguishers from outside, they had to re-enter the now smoke-filled tunnel while the fire spread to other containers of MEK and other material around the spray platform. The trapped workers retreated up a steep section of the tunnel. Due to poor visibility, thick smoke, other fumes, workers with fire extinguishers were unable to reach the fire and it continued to burn; the workers trapped by the fire were uninjured in the explosion and maintained radio contact until 2:45 pm.
Clear Creek emergency communications center first received word of the incident at 2:03 pm after an RPI contractor notified Xcel about the incident and the Xcel employee called 9-1-1. First responders were dispatched, but were not told that the fire was in a confined space, nor that specialized equipment by trained rescuers would be needed. After the enormity of the rescue was recognized, local first responders requested the help of a large, suburban Denver fire department, they requested a mine rescue team from Climax Molybdenum Company's Henderson mine. Both agencies were over an hour away. Local responders, including a backcountry rescue team, made a single attempt to enter the tunnel, using breathing apparatus and an ATV. Conditions were still hazardous in the tunnel, including toxic fumes and black smoke reducing visibility to zero; the rescuers were forced to turn back. Attempts to lower breathing apparatus, a radio and other equipment to the trapped workers were made; the Henderson Mine Rescue Team would make entry into the tunnel and confirm both that the fire was out and that five workers were d
Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a reactive nonmetal, an oxidizing agent that forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere. As compounds including oxides, the element makes up half of the Earth's crust. Dioxygen is used in cellular respiration and many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen, such as proteins, nucleic acids and fats, as do the major constituent inorganic compounds of animal shells and bone. Most of the mass of living organisms is oxygen as a component of water, the major constituent of lifeforms. Oxygen is continuously replenished in Earth's atmosphere by photosynthesis, which uses the energy of sunlight to produce oxygen from water and carbon dioxide.
Oxygen is too chemically reactive to remain a free element in air without being continuously replenished by the photosynthetic action of living organisms. Another form of oxygen, ozone absorbs ultraviolet UVB radiation and the high-altitude ozone layer helps protect the biosphere from ultraviolet radiation. However, ozone present at the surface is a byproduct of thus a pollutant. Oxygen was isolated by Michael Sendivogius before 1604, but it is believed that the element was discovered independently by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Uppsala, in 1773 or earlier, Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire, in 1774. Priority is given for Priestley because his work was published first. Priestley, called oxygen "dephlogisticated air", did not recognize it as a chemical element; the name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, who first recognized oxygen as a chemical element and characterized the role it plays in combustion. Common uses of oxygen include production of steel and textiles, brazing and cutting of steels and other metals, rocket propellant, oxygen therapy, life support systems in aircraft, submarines and diving.
One of the first known experiments on the relationship between combustion and air was conducted by the 2nd century BCE Greek writer on mechanics, Philo of Byzantium. In his work Pneumatica, Philo observed that inverting a vessel over a burning candle and surrounding the vessel's neck with water resulted in some water rising into the neck. Philo incorrectly surmised that parts of the air in the vessel were converted into the classical element fire and thus were able to escape through pores in the glass. Many centuries Leonardo da Vinci built on Philo's work by observing that a portion of air is consumed during combustion and respiration. In the late 17th century, Robert Boyle proved. English chemist John Mayow refined this work by showing that fire requires only a part of air that he called spiritus nitroaereus. In one experiment, he found that placing either a mouse or a lit candle in a closed container over water caused the water to rise and replace one-fourteenth of the air's volume before extinguishing the subjects.
From this he surmised that nitroaereus is consumed in both combustion. Mayow observed that antimony increased in weight when heated, inferred that the nitroaereus must have combined with it, he thought that the lungs separate nitroaereus from air and pass it into the blood and that animal heat and muscle movement result from the reaction of nitroaereus with certain substances in the body. Accounts of these and other experiments and ideas were published in 1668 in his work Tractatus duo in the tract "De respiratione". Robert Hooke, Ole Borch, Mikhail Lomonosov, Pierre Bayen all produced oxygen in experiments in the 17th and the 18th century but none of them recognized it as a chemical element; this may have been in part due to the prevalence of the philosophy of combustion and corrosion called the phlogiston theory, the favored explanation of those processes. Established in 1667 by the German alchemist J. J. Becher, modified by the chemist Georg Ernst Stahl by 1731, phlogiston theory stated that all combustible materials were made of two parts.
One part, called phlogiston, was given off when the substance containing it was burned, while the dephlogisticated part was thought to be its true form, or calx. Combustible materials that leave little residue, such as wood or coal, were thought to be made of phlogiston. Air did not play a role in phlogiston theory, nor were any initial quantitative experiments conducted to test the idea. Polish alchemist and physician Michael Sendivogius in his work De Lapide Philosophorum Tractatus duodecim e naturae fonte et manuali experientia depromti described a substance contained in air, referring to it as'cibus vitae', this substance is identical with oxygen. Sendivogius, during his experiments performed between 1598 and 1604, properly recognized that the substance is equivalent to the gaseous byproduct released by the thermal decomposition of potassium nitrate. In Bugaj’s view, the isolation of oxygen and the proper association of the substance to that part of air, required for life, lends sufficient weight to the discovery of oxygen by Sendivogius.
Lockout-tagout or lock and tag is a safety procedure used in industry and research settings to ensure that dangerous machines are properly shut off and not able to be started up again prior to the completion of maintenance or repair work. It requires that hazardous energy sources be "isolated and rendered inoperative" before work is started on the equipment in question; the isolated power sources are locked and a tag is placed on the lock identifying the worker who placed it. The worker holds the key for the lock, ensuring that only he or she can remove the lock and start the machine; this prevents accidental startup of a machine while it is in a hazardous state or while a worker is in direct contact with it. Lockout-tagout is used across industries as a safe method of working on hazardous equipment and is mandated by law in some countries. Machinery can contain many hazards to workers, such as: Electricity Hydraulic pressure Pneumatic pressure Radiation - intense visible light or thermal radiation, as well as ionizing radiation or charged particle beams Extremely hot or cold surfaces, which may cause burns Liquids - gasoline or other fuels and water Gases - poisonous and explosive Steam Gravity - falls from height, falling parts, or mechanisms that work with or against it Spring tension Moving parts - fans, gears, saw blades, pressesFor example, a single industrial device may contain hot fluids, blades, electrical heaters, conveyor belts with pinch points, moving chains, ultraviolet light.
Disconnecting or making safe the equipment involves the removal of all energy sources and is known as isolation. The steps necessary to isolate equipment are documented in an isolation procedure or a lockout tagout procedure; the isolation procedure includes the following tasks: Announce shut off Identify the energy source Isolate the energy source Lock and tag the energy source Prove that the equipment isolation is effectiveThe locking and tagging of the isolation point lets others know not to de-isolate the device. To emphasize the last step above in addition to the others, the entire process can be referred to as lock and try; the National Electric Code states that a safety/service disconnect must be installed within sight of serviceable equipment. The safety disconnect ensures the equipment can be isolated and there is less chance of someone turning the power back on if they can see the work going on; these safety disconnects have multiple places for locks so more than one person can work on equipment safely.
In industrial processes it can be difficult to establish where the appropriate danger sources might be. For example, a food processing plant may have input and output tanks and high-temperature cleaning systems connected, but not in the same room or area of the factory, it would not be unusual to have to visit several areas of the factory in order to isolate a device for service. Safety equipment manufacturers provide a range of isolation devices designed to fit various switches and effectors. For example, most circuit breakers have a provision to have a small padlock attached to prevent their activation. For other devices such as ball or gate valves, plastic pieces which either fit against the pipe and prevent movement, or clamshell-style objects which surround the valve and prevent its manipulation are used. A common feature of these devices is their bright color red, to increase visibility and allow workers to see if a device is isolated; the devices are of such a design and construction to prevent it being removed with any moderate force - for example, an isolation device does not have to resist a chainsaw, but if an operator forcibly removes it, it will be visible that it has been tampered with.
To protect one or more circuit breakers in an electrical panel, a lockout-tagout device called the Panel Lockout can be used. It keeps the panel door prevents the panel cover from being removed; the circuit breakers remain in the off position. When two or more people are working on the same or different parts of a larger overall system, there must be multiple holes to lock the device. To expand the number of available holes, the lockout device is secured with a folding scissors clamp that has many pairs of padlock holes capable of keeping it closed; each worker applies their own padlock to the clamp. The locked-out machinery cannot be activated until all workers have removed their padlocks from the clamp. In the United States a lock selected by color, shape or size, such as a red padlock, is used to designate a standard safety device and securing hazardous energy. No two keys or locks should be the same. A person's lock and tag must only be removed by the individual who installed the lock and tag unless removal is accomplished under the direction of the employer.
Employer procedures and training for such removal must have been developed and incorporated into the employer energy control program. By US Federal regulation 29 CFR 1910.147 the tag must have an identification showing the name of the person doing the lock and tag. While this may be true for the United States, it is not mandatory in Europe; the lockout can be done by a "role" such as the shift leader. Using a "lockbox", the shift leader is always the last one to remove the lock and has to verify it is safe to start up equipment. According to the European standard EN 50110-1, the safety procedure before working on electric equipment comprises the follo
United States Department of Labor
The United States Department of Labor is a cabinet-level department of the U. S. federal government responsible for occupational safety and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, some economic statistics. S. states have such departments. The department is headed by the U. S. Secretary of Labor; the purpose of the Department of Labor is to foster and develop the wellbeing of the wage earners, job seekers, retirees of the United States. In carrying out this mission, the Department of Labor administers and enforces more than 180 federal laws and thousands of federal regulations; these mandates and the regulations that implement them cover many workplace activities for about 10 million employers and 125 million workers. The department's headquarters is housed in the Frances Perkins Building, named in honor of Frances Perkins, the Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945. In 1884 the U. S. Congress first established a Bureau of Labor Statistics with the Bureau of Labor Act, to collect information about labor and employment.
This bureau was under the Department of the Interior. The Bureau started collecting economic data in 1884, published their first report in 1886. In 1888, the Bureau of Labor became an independent Department of Labor, but lacked executive rank. In February 1903, it became a bureau again when the Department of Commerce and Labor was established. United States President William Howard Taft signed the March 4, 1913 bill, establishing the Department of Labor as a cabinet-level department. William B. Wilson was appointed as the first Secretary of Labor on March 5, 1913, by President Wilson. In October 1919, Secretary Wilson chaired the first meeting of the International Labour Organization though the U. S. was not yet a member. In September 1916, the Federal Employees' Compensation Act introduced benefits to workers who are injured or contract illnesses in the workplace; the act established an agency responsible for federal workers’ compensation, transferred to the Labor Department in the 1940s and has become known as the Office of Workers' Compensation Programs.
Frances Perkins, the first female cabinet member, was appointed to be Secretary of Labor by President Roosevelt on March 4, 1933. Perkins served for 12 years, became the longest-serving Secretary of Labor. During the John F. Kennedy Administration, planning was undertaken to consolidate most of the department's offices scattered around more than 20 locations. In the mid‑1960s construction on the "New Labor Building" began and finished in 1975. In 1980 it was named in honor of Frances Perkins. President Lyndon Johnson asked Congress to consider the idea of reuniting Labor, he argued that the two departments had similar goals and that they would have more efficient channels of communication in a single department. However, Congress never acted on it. In the 1970s, following the civil rights movement, the Labor Department under Secretary George P. Shultz made a concerted effort to promote racial diversity in unions. In 1978, the Department of Labor created the Philip Arnow Award, intended to recognize outstanding career employees such as the eponymous Philip Arnow.
During 2010 a local of the American Federation of Government Employees stated their unhappiness that a longstanding flextime program reduced under the George W. Bush administration had not been restored under the Obama administration. Department officials said the program was modern and fair and that it was part of ongoing contract negotiations with the local. In August 2010, the Partnership for Public Service ranked the Department of Labor 23rd out of 31 large agencies in its annual "Best Places to Work in the Federal Government" list. In December 2010, then-Department of Labor Secretary Hilda Solis was named the Chair of the U. S. Interagency Council on Homelessness, of which Labor has been a member since its beginnings in 1987. In July 2011, the department was rocked by the resignation of Ray Jefferson, Assistant Secretary for VETS, in a contracting scandal. In March 2013, the department began commemorating its centennial. In July 2013, Tom Perez was confirmed as Secretary of Labor. According to remarks by Perez at his swearing-in ceremony, "Boiled down to its essence, the Department of Labor is the department of opportunity."
In the latest Center for Effective Government analysis of 15 federal agencies which receive the most Freedom of Information Act requests, published in 2015, the Labor Department earned a D by scoring 63 out of a possible 100 points, i.e. did not earn a satisfactory overall grade. Title 20 of the Code of Federal Regulations Equal Employment Opportunity Commission National Labor Relations Board Occupational Information Network Ticket to Work USA.gov USAFacts Lombardi, John. Labor's Voice in the Cabinet: A History of the Department of Labor from Its Origins to 1921. New York: Columbia University Press. Official website U. S. Department of Labor in the Federal Register
A utility vault is an underground room providing access to subterranean public utility equipment, such as valves for water or natural gas pipes, or switchgear for electrical or telecommunications equipment. A vault is accessible directly from a street, sidewalk or other outdoor space, thereby distinct from a basement of a building. Utility vaults are constructed out of reinforced concrete boxes, poured concrete or brick. Small ones are entered through a manhole or grate on the topside and closed up by a manhole cover; such vaults can be hazardous to enter. Large utility vaults are similar to electrical rooms in design and content. Dartford Cable Tunnel Telecommunications pedestal Utility tunnel Underground Utility Vaults - National Precast Concrete Association
Occupational safety and health
Occupational safety and health commonly referred to as occupational health and safety, occupational health, or workplace health and safety, is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety and welfare of people at work. These terms refer to the goals of this field, so their use in the sense of this article was an abbreviation of occupational safety and health program/department etc; the goals of occupational safety and health programs include to foster a safe and healthy work environment. OSH may protect co-workers, family members, employers and many others who might be affected by the workplace environment. In the United States, the term occupational health and safety is referred to as occupational health and occupational and non-occupational safety and includes safety for activities outside of work. In common-law jurisdictions, employers have a common law duty to take reasonable care of the safety of their employees. Statute law may in addition impose other general duties, introduce specific duties, create government bodies with powers to regulate workplace safety issues: details of this vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
As defined by the World Health Organization "occupational health deals with all aspects of health and safety in the workplace and has a strong focus on primary prevention of hazards." Health has been defined as "a state of complete physical and social well-being and not the absence of disease or infirmity." Occupational health is a multidisciplinary field of healthcare concerned with enabling an individual to undertake their occupation, in the way that causes least harm to their health. Health has been defined as It contrasts, for example, with the promotion of health and safety at work, concerned with preventing harm from any incidental hazards, arising in the workplace. Since 1950, the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization have shared a common definition of occupational health, it was adopted by the Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health at its first session in 1950 and revised at its twelfth session in 1995. The definition reads: "The main focus in occupational health is on three different objectives: the maintenance and promotion of workers’ health and working capacity.
The concept of working culture is intended in this context to mean a reflection of the essential value systems adopted by the undertaking concerned. Such a culture is reflected in practice in the managerial systems, personnel policy, principles for participation, training policies and quality management of the undertaking." Those in the field of occupational health come from a wide range of disciplines and professions including medicine, epidemiology and rehabilitation, occupational therapy, occupational medicine, human factors and ergonomics, many others. Professionals advise on a broad range of occupational health matters; these include how to avoid particular pre-existing conditions causing a problem in the occupation, correct posture for the work, frequency of rest breaks, preventative action that can be undertaken, so forth. "Occupational health should aim at: the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical and social well-being of workers in all occupations. The research and regulation of occupational safety and health are a recent phenomenon.
As labor movements arose in response to worker concerns in the wake of the industrial revolution, worker's health entered consideration as a labor-related issue. In the United Kingdom, the Factory Acts of the early nineteenth century arose out of concerns about the poor health of children working in cotton mills: the Act of 1833 created a dedicated professional Factory Inspectorate; the initial remit of the Inspectorate was to police restrictions on the working hours in the textile industry of children and young persons. However, on the urging of the Factory Inspectorate, a further Act in 1844 giving similar restrictions on working hours for women in the textile industry introduced a requirement for machinery guarding. In 1840 a Royal Commission published its findings on the state of conditions for the workers of the mining industry that documented the appallingly dangerous environment that they had to work in and the high frequency of accidents; the commission sparked public outrage which resulted in the Mines Act of 1842.
The act set up an inspectorate for mines and collieries which resulted in many prosecutions and safety improvements, by 1850, inspectors were able to enter and inspect premises at their discretion. Otto von Bismarck inaugurated the first social insurance legislation in 1883 and the first worker's compensation law in 1884 – the first of their kind in the Western world. Similar acts followed in other countries
The Sullivan Mine is a now-closed conventional–mechanized underground mine located in Kimberley, British Columbia, Canada. The ore body is a complex, sediment-hosted, sedimentary exhalative deposit consisting of zinc and iron sulphides. Lead, zinc and tin were the economic metals produced; the deposit lies within the lower part of the Purcell Supergroup and mineralization occurred about 1470 million years ago during the late Precambrian. The deposit was discovered in 1892 and acquired in 1909 by the CPR-owned Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada; the mine's economic success resulted from Sullivan's 1916 development of the differential flotation process that allowed separate recovery of lead and zinc concentrates in the milling process. This technology, developed by Trail operations at Sullivan, has been used worldwide for various types of ore bodies. In its lifetime, the mine produced over 160 million tons of ore containing 8 million tons of lead, 7 million tons of zinc, 285 million troy ounces of silver, which were together worth more than $20 billion.
After 92 years of active production, the Sullivan Mine was closed in 2001. Since Teck Cominco has been undertaking an extensive decommissioning and reclamation process at the site; the Sullivan ore body is a complex sedimentary exhalative deposit that consists of zinc and iron sulphides. It is hosted in the sedimentary rocks of the Aldridge Formation in the lower part of the Purcell Supergroup; the rocks were deposited on the sea floor in an intracontinental rift basin above a thermal anomaly that drove the circulation of brines. Fractures and breccia zones provided conduits for metal-rich, sulfur-poor brines from depth, sulfide minerals formed when the metals combined with sulfur from marine brines. Mineralization occurred about 1470 million years ago during late Precambrian time; the sulfide and silicate mineral assemblages were modified by metamorphism. Conventional mining referred to the original part of operations of the Sullivan Mine, where miners drilled and moved ore by hand and with small equipment.
The ore was shipped via an extensive 3 ft narrow gauge underground rail system which led to the surface and on to the Marysville concentrator. At one time there were more than 5,600 feet of rail underground. Conventional tunnels were standard 8 by 8 ft square. There was a rail man-carrier that brought men in and out of the mine, descending on a sled full of chairs at a 60 degree bank; the railway system went everywhere underground, ore was sent by rail to crushing chambers. The Sullivan mine had three such chambers where ore was crushed in order to begin to process it into its separate components, debris was separated from the crushed ore; these impressive chambers were belt driven and had well-lit stations where men would monitor and maintain the process and machinery. There were two main crushers, the third was smaller. Much of the railroad track and equipment is now used at the nearby Kimberley's Underground Mining Railway attraction. Many accidents causing injury and death occurred on the conventional side.
"Hot Muck", a rare occurrence of ore with high concentrations of sulfur, would glow red and white and release amazing amounts of heat and gas when exposed to air. Miners at that time had to wear special protective suits. Mechanized mining refers to using heavy equipment to speed up the mining process; the first attempt at a mechanized 10 by 10 ft tunnel was around 1975. Referred to as'4250' was collared and connected to the conventional rail drift in 1976. Much of the area was widened, tracks taken out, a junction was created at 3900 level with three separate tunnels. One tunnel went to a massive repair facility'#7' and garage for servicing underground equipment. In 1979 #1 tunnel, which became the main tunnel, was collared and a new drift created at 4800 level to recover silver at the top of the mine. Heavy equipment including jumbos, various air or electric scoop trams in 2 to 8 yards configurations, rockbolt jumbos, shotcrete machines, mancarriers, dozers and jeeps were used. Rockbreakers, downhole drills, fan drills, long hole drills, TNT drills were some of the equipment used to drill for blasting tunnel faces.
As the mining for ore pillars continued, most shops were moved above ground for safety. There was a small open pit facility at the top of the mine, used for the extraction of iron, shipped to Vancouver. There was a Cominco steel plant on site, right next to the fertilizer plant, it was in operation until the boiler killed some workers there. It was decided to farm out that part of operations; the remnants of the Cominco steel plant were destroyed. With one exception, mechanized mining never mined in virgin territory. Conventional mining created huge pillars as miners extracted ore and left massive supports to hold up the ceilings of the drifts. Mechanized miners had the responsibility of removing such pillars full of ore, until none remained; the exception to never mining in virgin territory came with the South East Fringe. 2600 level was the last of the original ore body recovered. After this, decommissioned equipment could be purchased by companies or for personal use and a two-year process of decommissioning the mine and making it as environmentally and structurally safe as possible began.
The pumps and fans were turned off and the mine flooded. It was the end of a more-than-100-year era for a special mining facility. Is an ore body rich enough to support such a la