click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Conformance testing

Conformance testing — an element of conformity assessment, known as compliance testing, or type testing — is testing or other activities that determine whether a process, product, or service complies with the requirements of a specification, technical standard, contract, or regulation. Testing is either logical testing or physical testing; the test procedures may involve other criteria from mathematical chemical testing. Beyond simple conformance, other requirements for efficiency, interoperability or compliance may apply. Conformance testing is performed by an accredited independent organization, which can sometimes be the author of the standard; when testing is accompanied by Certification, the products or services may be advertised as being certified in compliance with the referred technical standard. Manufacturers and suppliers of products and services rely on such certification including listing on the certification body's website, to assure quality to the end user and that competing suppliers are on the same level.

Aside from the various types of testing, related conformance testing activities include: Surveillance Inspection Auditing Certification Accreditation Conformance testing is applied in various industries where a product or service must meet specific quality and/or regulatory standards. This includes areas such as: biocompatibility proofing data and communications protocol engineering document engineering electronic and electrical engineering medical procedure proofing pharmaceutical packaging software engineering building construction In all such testing, the subject of test is not just the formal conformance in aspects of completeness of filed proofs, validity of referred certificates, qualification of operating staff. Rather, it heavily focuses on operational conditions, physical conditions, applied test environments. By extension conformance testing leads to a vast set of documents and files that allow for reiterating all performed tests. In software testing, conformance testing verifies that a product performs according to its specified standards.

Compilers, for instance, are extensively tested to determine whether they meet the recognized standard for that language. In electronic engineering and electrical engineering, some countries and business environments require that an electronic product meet certain requirements before they can be sold. Standards for telecommunication products written by standards organizations such as ANSI, the FCC, IEC have certain criteria that a product must meet before compliance is recognized. In countries such as Japan, China and some parts of Europe, products cannot be sold unless they are known to meet those requirements specified in the standards. Manufacturers set their own requirements to ensure product quality, sometimes with levels much higher than what the governing bodies require. Compliance is realized after a product passes a series of tests without occurring some specified mode of failure. Compliance testing for electronic devices include emissions tests, immunity tests, safety tests. Emissions tests ensure that a product will not emit harmful electromagnetic interference in communication and power lines.

Immunity tests ensure that a product is immune to common electrical signals and electromagnetic interference that will be found in its operating environment, such as electromagnetic radiation from a local radio station or interference from nearby products. Safety tests ensure that a product will not create a safety risk from situations such as a failed or shorted power supply, blocked cooling vent, powerline voltage spikes and dips. For example, Ericsson's telecommunications research and development subsidiary Telcordia Technologies publishes conformance standards for telecommunication equipment to pass the following tests: Radiated immunity An antenna is used to subject the device to electromagnetic waves, covering a large frequency range. Radiated emissions One or more antennas are used to measure the amplitude of the electromagnetic waves that a device emits; the amplitude must be with the limit depending on the device's classification. Conducted immunity Low frequency signals are injected onto the data and power lines of a device.

This test is used to simulate the coupling of low frequency signals onto the power and data lines, such as from a local AM radio station. Conducted emissions Similar to radiated emissions, except the signals are measured at the power lines with a filter device. Electrostatic discharge immunity Electrostatic discharges with various properties are applied to the areas on the device that are to be discharged too, such as the faces, near user accessible buttons, etc. Discharges are applied to a vertical and horizontal ground plane to simulate an ESD event on a nearby surface. Voltages are from 2 kV to 15 kV, but go as high as 25 kV or more. Electrical Fast Transient Burst immunity Bursts of high voltage pulses are applied to the powerlines to simulate events such as repeating voltage spikes from a motor. Powerline dip immunity The line voltage is dropped down brought back up. Powerline surge immunity A surge is applied to the line voltage. Several international standards relating to conformance testing are published by the International Organization for Standardization and covered in the divisions of ICS 03.120.20 for management and ICS 23.040.01 for technical.

Other standalone ISO standards include: ISO/TR 13881:2000 Petroleum and natural gas industries—Classification and conformity assessment of products and services ISO 18436-4:2008 Condition monito

A-Teen 2

A-Teen 2 is a 2019 South Korean web series, the sequel to the 2018 web series A-Teen. It aired on Naver TV Cast's Thursdays and Sundays at 19:00 KST from April 25 to June 30, 2019; the web series accumulated 35 million views within two weeks of its premiere. To celebrate this achievement, part of the cast held a fan meeting on June 13, 2019; as of September 2019, the Korean and English version of the series on YouTube have a combined view count of 60 million views. The story of seven students who learn the joys and hardships of being 19-year-olds. Lee Na-eun as Kim Ha-na Choi Bo-min as Ryu Joo-ha Shin Ye-eun as Do Ha-na Shin Seung-ho as Nam Shi-woo Kim Dong-hee as Ha Min Kim Su-hyun as Yeo Bo-ram Ryu Ui-hyun as Cha Gi-hyun Kang Min-ah as Cha Ah-hyun Ahn Jung-hoon as Nam Ji-woo Cho Young-in as Kim Min-ji Seventeen's Joshua as Ryu Joo-ha's friend Baek Soo-hee as Lee Jeong-min Jeon Hye-yeon as Park Jin-ho Iz*One's Kim Min-ju as a restaurant employee Stray Kids's Hyunjin and I. N as Cha Ah-Hyun's friends A-Teen 2 at HanCinema A-Teen 2 on IMDb

Paracatu, Minas Gerais

Paracatu is a municipality in the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil. The region of Paracatu has been explored by Europeans since the end of the 16th century. In the middle of the 18th century deposits of gold and silver were discovered, the area was settled; the settlement became the town Vila de Paracatu do Príncipe by royal charter in 1798. The economy is centered on gold agriculture. In Paracatu, gold has been mined since 1722; the Morro do Ouro open-pit mine is operated by Rio Paracatu Mineração, a 100% owned subsidiary of the Canadian company Kinross Gold Corporation. The gold content of the ore is comparatively low, about 0.41 gram of gold for every ton of ore extracted. Annual production is 5 tonnes of silver. Kinross Gold owns the open-pit Paracatu gold mine operated as Kinross Brasil Mineração S. A. that includes two process plants, two tailings facilities, as well as accompanying infrastructure. This mine is the region's largest employer. In 2015, Paracatu produced 477,662 gold equivalent ounces.

Cattle raising is the main agricultural activity with 231,000 head. The main breeds are: Zebu, Girolanda and Brown-Swiss. There is large production of soybeans, rice and some coffee. Paracatu is the commercial center for an area one third the size of Portugal. In 2006 there were 6 banking branches: Banco do Brasil, Itaú, Banco Mercantil, Banco Bamerindus, Caixa Econômica Federal; the GDP was R$754,090,000. In 1978 the municipality began to receive investments from the Brazilian and the Japanese government to develop the cerrado soils, through the PRODECER-Programa de Cooperação Nipo-Brasileiro para o Desenvolviemnto do Cerrado; because of new technologies used to develop the cerrado, agriculture in Paracatu became efficient and profitable in many properties. Nowadays, the cultivated area in the municipality surpasses 1000 square kilometres, with 300 square kilometres irrigated by central pivot sprinklers; this number has raised Paracatu to the position of greatest continuous area irrigated by center pivot irrigation in South America, using 318 center pivot sprinklers.

In 2006 there were 995 rural producers with total agricultural land of 389,095 ha. Of the total 85,000 ha. were planted, 180,000 ha. were in natural pasture, 113,000 were in forest or woodland. Around 4,500 persons were employed in agriculture. There were 768 tractors; the planted area of some of the main crops in hectares was: Corn: 12,000 Soybeans: 30,000 Sorghum: 2,000 Rice: 2,670 Coffee: 1,050 Cotton: 3,000 Sugarcane: 1,600 Beans: 9,100 Watermelon: 1,050 Many quilombola communities live in and near Paracatu in poverty. In 2005 there were 19 of which were public and 10 of which were private. There was 1 hospital with 139 beds; the score on the Municipal Human Development Index was 0.760. This ranked Paracatu 207 out of 853 municipalities in the state, with Poços de Caldas in first place with 0.841 and Setubinha in last place with 0.568. Paracatu has 4 faculties with undergraduation and graduation courses: Faculdade Tecsoma, FINOM – Faculdade do Noroeste de Minas, Faculdade Unimontes, Faculdade Atenas.

List of municipalities in Minas Gerais City Hall of Paracatu website Government of the State of Minas Gerais website

Quantum lithography

Quantum lithography is a type of photolithography, which exploits non-classical properties of the photons, such as quantum entanglement, in order to achieve superior performance over ordinary classical lithography. Quantum lithography is related to the fields of quantum imaging, quantum metrology, quantum sensing; the effect exploits. Quantum lithography was invented at Jonathan P. Dowling's group at JPL, has been studied by a number of groups. Of particular importance, quantum lithography can beat the classical Rayleigh criterion for the diffraction limit. Classical photolithography has an optical imaging resolution that cannot be smaller than the wavelength of light used. For example, in the use of photolithography to mass-produce computer chips, it is desirable to produce smaller and smaller features on the chip, which classically requires moving to smaller and smaller wavelengths, which entails exponentially greater cost to produce the optical imaging systems at these short optical wavelengths.

Quantum lithography exploits the quantum entanglement between specially prepared photons in the NOON state and special photoresists, that display multi-photon absorption processes to achieve the smaller resolution without the requirement of shorter wavelengths. For example, a beam of red photons, entangled 50 at a time in the NOON state, would have the same resolving power as a beam of x-ray photons; the field of quantum lithography is in its infancy, although experimental proofs of principle have been carried out using the Hong–Ou–Mandel effect, it is still a long way from practical uses. American Institute of Physics Introduction to Quantum Lithography New York Times Science News

Temple, New Hampshire

Temple is a town in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 1,366 at the 2010 census, it is home to Temple Mountain State Reservation, home to Temple Mountain Ski Area. The area was first called Peterborough Slip. In 1758, Maj. Ephraim Heald and his wife Sarah, moved to Temple, along with his brother, Dea. Peter Heald, a cousin, Oliver Heald, were among the first settlers. Peter Heald is considered to be the founder of Temple, his child, was the first white child born in the town. In 1768, it was incorporated by colonial Governor John Wentworth, who named it after his lieutenant governor, John Temple; the town of Temple, Maine was in turn named for it. Temple Glassworks was founded here in 1780 by Robert Hewes of Boston. Although the company is long defunct, surviving examples of Temple glass are today rare and prized collectibles. By 1859, the town's population was 579, when Temple had two sawmills, one gristmill, a tannery. Terrain is uneven and rocky, it is elevated, commanding distant views to the east and south.

As John Farmer and Jacob Bailey Moore wrote in 1823, "From the highest point of elevation, twenty meetinghouses may be seen when the atmosphere is clear." According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.4 square miles, of which 22.2 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water, comprising 0.96% of the town. The highest point in Temple is 2,190 feet above sea level, on an eastern spur of South Pack Monadnock Mountain. South of Route 101, 2,045-foot Temple Mountain forms the town's western boundary for several miles. Greenfield, New Hampshire Lyndeborough, New Hampshire Wilton, New Hampshire Greenville, New Hampshire New Ipswich, New Hampshire Sharon, New Hampshire Peterborough, New Hampshire As of the census of 2000, there were 1,297 people, 440 households, 347 families residing in the town; the population density was 55.8 people per square mile. There were 465 housing units at an average density of 20.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.00% White, 0.31% African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.54% from other races, 0.54% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.69% of the population. There were 440 households out of which 42.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.5% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.1% were non-families. 16.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.24. In the town, the population was spread out with 29.8% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $56,500, the median income for a family was $64,297. Males had a median income of $36,563 versus $29,545 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,897. About 2.8% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.2% of those under age 18 and 4.5% of those age 65 or over.

Town of Temple official website Mansfield Public Library New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau Profile

Karikili Bird Sanctuary

Karikili Bird Sanctuary is a 61.21-hectare protected area located in the Kancheepuram District of the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The sanctuary is about 75 kilometres from Chennai, south of Chengalpattu. About 100 species were recorded from this sanctuaryKarikili is situated about 10 km from Vedanthangal, there are two tanks combined established as the bird sanctuary in 1988; this region is surrounded by paddy fields and scrub forest. Several migratory birds such as Northern Pintail, Common Sandpiper were recorded from Karikili. Karikili Bird Sanctuary along with Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary has been identified as one of the Important Bird Areas of Tamil Nadu. Several waterbirds use Vedanthangal as a nesting site and Karikili as a foraging site