Bernard Herrmann was an American composer best known for his work in composing for motion pictures. As a conductor, he championed the music of lesser-known composers. An Academy Award-winner, Herrmann is known for his collaborations with director Alfred Hitchcock, most famously Psycho, North by Northwest, The Man Who Knew Too Much, Vertigo, he composed scores for many other films, including Citizen Kane, The Day the Earth Stood Still, The Ghost and Mrs. Muir, Cape Fear, Fahrenheit 451, Taxi Driver, he worked extensively in radio drama, composed the scores for several fantasy films by Ray Harryhausen, many TV programs, including Rod Serling's The Twilight Zone and Have Gun – Will Travel. Herrmann, the son of a Jewish middle-class family of Russian origin, was born in New York City as Max Herman, he was the son of Ida and Abram Dardik, from Ukraine and had changed the family name. Herrmann attended high school at DeWitt Clinton High School, an all-boys public school at that time on 10th Avenue and 59th Street in New York City.
His father encouraged music activity, taking him to the opera, encouraging him to learn the violin. After winning a composition prize at the age of thirteen, he decided to concentrate on music, went to New York University, where he studied with Percy Grainger and Philip James, he studied at the Juilliard School and, at the age of twenty, formed his own orchestra, the New Chamber Orchestra of New York. In 1934, he joined the Columbia Broadcasting System as a staff conductor. Within two years he was appointed music director of the Columbia Workshop, an experimental radio drama series for which Herrmann composed or arranged music. Within nine years, he had become Chief Conductor to the CBS Symphony Orchestra, he was responsible for introducing more new works to US audiences than any other conductor — he was a particular champion of Charles Ives' music, unknown at that time. Herrmann's radio programs of concert music, which were broadcast under such titles as Invitation to Music and Exploring Music, were planned in an unconventional way and featured heard music and new, not heard in public concert halls.
Examples include broadcasts devoted to music of famous amateurs or of notable royal personages, such as the music of Frederick the Great of Prussia, Henry VIII, Charles I, Louis XIII and so on. Herrmann's many US broadcast premieres during the 1940s included Myaskovsky's 22nd Symphony, Gian Francesco Malipiero's 3rd Symphony, Richard Arnell's 1st Symphony, Edmund Rubbra's 3rd Symphony and Ives' 3rd Symphony, he performed the works of Hermann Goetz, Alexander Gretchaninov, Niels Gade and Franz Liszt, received many outstanding American musical awards and grants for his unusual programming and championship of little-known composers. In Dictators of the Baton, David Ewen wrote that Herrmann was "one of the most invigorating influences in the radio music of the past decade." During the 1940s, Herrmann's own concert music was taken up and played by such celebrated maestri as Leopold Stokowski, Sir John Barbirolli, Sir Thomas Beecham and Eugene Ormandy. Between two films made by Orson Welles, he wrote the score for William Dieterle's The Devil and Daniel Webster, for which he won his only Oscar.
In 1947, Herrmann scored the atmospheric music for The Ghost and Mrs. Muir. In 1951 his score for The Day the Earth Stood Still featured the Theremin. In 1934, Herrmann met a young CBS secretary and aspiring writer, Lucille Fletcher. Fletcher was impressed with Herrmann's work, the two began a five-year courtship. Marriage was delayed by the objections of Fletcher's parents, who disliked the fact that Herrmann was a Jew and were put off by what they viewed as his abrasive personality; the couple married on October 2, 1939. They had two daughters: Dorothy and Wendy. Fletcher was to become a noted radio scriptwriter, she and Herrmann collaborated on several projects throughout their career, he contributed the score to the famed 1941 radio presentation of Fletcher's original story, The Hitch-Hiker, on The Orson Welles Show. The couple divorced in 1948; the next year he married Lucille's cousin, Lucy Anderson. That marriage lasted 16 years, until 1964. While at CBS, Herrmann met Orson Welles, wrote or arranged scores for radio shows in which Welles appeared or wrote, such as the Columbia Workshop, Welles's Mercury Theatre on the Air and Campbell Playhouse series, which were radio adaptations of literature and film.
He conducted the live performances, including Welles's famous adaptation of H. G. Wells's The War of the Worlds broadcast on October 30, 1938, which consisted of pre-existing music. Herrmann used large sections of his score for the inaugural broadcast of The Campbell Playhouse, an adaptation of Rebecca, for the feature film Jane Eyre, the third film in which Welles starred; when Welles gained his RKO Pictures contract, Herrmann worked for him. He wrote his first film score for Citizen Kane and received an Academy Award nomination for Best Score of a Dramatic Picture, he composed the score for Welles's second film, The Magnificent Ambersons. When more than half of his score was removed from the soundtrack, Herrmann bitterly severed his ties with the film and promised legal action if his name were not removed from the credits. Herrmann created the music for Welles's
Jasmine Women is a 2004 Chinese film directed and co-written by Hou Yong in his directorial debut. The film is an adaptation of Su Tong's novel Women's Life and depicts the troubled lives of 4 generations of Shanghainese women from the 1930s to the 1980s. Jasmine Women stars Zhang Ziyi and Joan Chen, who both portrayed multiple characters, as well as Jiang Wen, Lu Yi, Liu Ye; the film was well received by critics and was praised for its use of color and the performances of Zhang Ziyi and Joan Chen. The Chinese name of the movie, Mo li hua kai, is based on a popular Chinese song Mo Li Hua, which means "jasmine flower blossom." The names of the characters in the movie are based on this song. The film is divided into three chapters: "grandmother and daughter". Eighteen-year-old Mo lives with her mother, she longs to become a dream her mother does not understand. One day, Mo meets the boss of a movie studio, she leaves her mother to fulfil her film career dream. She enters a relationship with Mr. Meng, married and becomes pregnant.
She refuses to have an abortion and when the Second Sino-Japanese War begins, Meng leaves Shanghai and abandons Mo. The movie studio is shut down and Mo returns home, she gives birth to Li and blames her child for everything she has lost. Her mother's boyfriend tries to seduce her, using the guise of a free hair appointment, her mother finds out, commits suicide not long after. Li had grown up with her mother Mo in misery. Mo still remembers her dream of being a movie star. Li marries Zou Jie, a member of her high school's chapter of the Communist Youth League of China. After marriage, they move into Jie's home but unused to their lifestyle and unable to bear a child of her own, they move back to stay with Mo. Li adopts a baby girl named Hua. Li becomes mentally unstable. Li's situation gets worse and she accuses Zou for violating Hua, her adopted daughter. Li’s family collapses and her husband Zou commits suicide by throwing himself at an oncoming train. Li leaves home; when Hua grew up she married Du.
After marriage, Du went for further studies overseas after that, decided to leave Hua. Hua was carrying Du’s child. Mo encouraged her to abort the baby because of her experiences with having a child and being unprepared for it, but Hua decided against it. Hua decided to check into a family planning clinic/hospital to have an abortion in any case, but before she could arrive home, Mo died. Years Du returns to Hua to'finalise things', but it seems Hua had moved on with her life. Closing scenes show her moving into a new home with her daughter. Reviewing the film at the Tokyo International Film Festival, Russell Edwards of Variety described Jasmine Women as a "tearjerker of the first order" and a "visual feast" and writes the film is "an impressive showcase" for actress Zhang Ziyi and Joan Chen "in multiple roles as daughters and mothers across three generations." The review further states the film is "a picture postcard, with the scenes set in pre-WWII Shanghai impressive for their art direction."
7th Shanghai International Film Festival, 2004 Grand Jury Prize Golden Goblet 13th Golden Rooster Awards of China, 2004 Best Actress - Zhang Ziyi Best Music - Su Cong, Yin Qing Best Sound - Wu Ling Jasmine Women on IMDb Jasmine Women at AllMovie Jasmine Women at Monkeypeaches.com Jasmine Women at HelloZiyi.us Article on Jasmine Women Jasmine Women review published by Think.com.my
Tianjin romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the nine national central cities of the People's Republic of China, with a total population of 15,621,200 as of 2016 estimation. Its built-up area, made up of 12 central districts, was home to 12,491,300 inhabitants in 2016 and is the world's 29th-largest agglomeration and 11th-most populous city proper, it is governed as one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of central government of the PRC and is thus under direct administration of the central government. Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in northern China. In terms of urban population, Tianjin is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai and Guangzhou. In terms of administrative area population, Tianjin ranks fifth in Mainland China; the walled city of Tianjin was built in 1404. As a treaty port since 1860, Tianjin has been a major gateway to Beijing.
During the Boxer Rebellion the city was the seat of the Tianjin Provisional Government. Under the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China, Tianjin became one of the largest cities in the region. At that time, numerous European-style buildings and mansions were constructed in concessions, many of which are well-preserved today. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Tianjin suffered a depression due to the policy of the central government and Tangshan earthquake, but recovered from 1990s. Nowadays Tianjin is a dual-core city, with its main urban area located along the Hai River, which connects to the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers via the Grand Canal; as of the end of 2010, around 285 Fortune 500 companies have set up base in Binhai. Since 2010, Tianjin's Yujiapu Financial District has become known as China's Manhattan. Tianjin is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese characters 天津, which mean "Heavenly Ford" or "Ford of Heaven"; the origin of the name is obscure. One folk etymology is that it was an homage to the patriotic Chu poet Qu Yuan, whose "Li Sao" includes the verse "...departing from the Ford of Heaven at dawn...".
Another is that it honors a former name of the Girl, a Chinese constellation recorded under the name Tianjin in the Astronomical Record section of the Book of Sui. A third is; the most common are that it was bestowed by the Yongle Emperor of the Ming, who crossed Tianjin's Gu River on his way south to overthrow his nephew the Jianwen Emperor. The land where Tianjin is located today was created in ancient times by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf, including the Yellow River, which entered the open sea in this area at one point; the opening of the Grand Canal during the Sui dynasty prompted the development of Tianjin into a trading center. During the Qing dynasty Tianjin was promoted to a prefecture or Zhou in 1725 with Tianjin County established under the prefecture in 1731, it was upgraded to an urban prefecture or Fu before becoming a relay station under the command of the Viceroy of Zhili. In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, of being engaged in the opium trade.
They imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the same year, the British and French prevailed, the Treaty of Tientsin were signed, which opened Tianjin to foreign trade; the treaties were ratified by the Xianfeng Emperor in 1860, Tianjin was formally opened to Great Britain and France, thus to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britain and France were joined by Japan and Russia, by countries without Chinese concessions such as Austria-Hungary and Belgium, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin, each with its own prisons, schools and hospitals; these nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas. The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin was not always peaceful. In June 1870, the orphanage held by the Wanghailou Church, in Tianjin, built by French Roman Catholic missionaries, was accused of the kidnapping and brainwashing of Chinese children.
On June 21, the magistrate of Tianjin County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and non-Christian Tianjin residents. The furious protestors burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate and killed eighteen foreigners including ten French nuns, the French consul, merchants. France and six other Western nations complained to the Qing government, forced to pay compensation for the incident. In 1885 Li Hongzhang founded the Tianjin Military Academy for Chinese army officers, with German advisers, as part of his military reforms; the move was supported by Anhui Army commander Zhou Shengchuan. The academy was to serve Anhui Green Standard Army officers. Various practical military and science subjects were taught at the academy; the instructors were Germa
Central Conservatory of Music
The Central Conservatory of Music is China's leading music school. Its campus is in the Xicheng District of Beijing, near Fuxingmen Station, it is a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines. Founded in 1950, the conservatory offers courses to both Chinese nationals and foreign students, caters for all levels from primary up to postgraduate programmes. Undergraduate programmes of four or five years are offered in composition, musicology and opera, orchestral instruments, traditional Chinese musical instruments. There is an evening university for mature students. In recent years, the conservatory has developed strong relationships with overseas institutions and individuals. Foreign musicians and scholars are invited to teach or offer lectures at the conservatory which, in turn sends its own faculty members and students to other countries to pursue further studies, lecture, or give performances. Conservatory students and teachers participate in the China Youth Symphony Orchestra, the Chinese Traditional Musical Instruments Ensemble, the Conservatory Students Chorus, the Middle School Students Orchestra and the Primary School Students Performing Group, all of which have performed to much acclaim on every continent.
The conservatory campus covers 53,000 square metres in the centre of Beijing comprising a complex of traditional and modern buildings. The Conservatory Music Library accommodates over 500,000 volumes and is the largest of its kind in China; the conservatory owns over 500 pianos and a large number of other musical instruments. New: 1 Oberlinger-organ from Germany Nov. 2013 The conservatory publishes the Journal of the Central Conservatory of Music. It is considered to be the top academic journal in the field of musicology in China. Bachelor's degrees Musicology Composition & Compositional Theory Vocal Singing Conducting Keyboard Instruments Performance Wind and Stringed Instruments Performance Chinese Musical Instruments Performance The Arts of Instruments Making and RepairMaster's degrees Musicology Composition & Compositional Theory Vocal Singing Conducting Keyboard Instruments Performance Wind and Stringed Instruments Performance Chinese Musical Instruments Performance The Arts of Instruments Making and Repair Doctoral degrees Musicology Composition & Compositional Theory Arken Abdulla Chen Yi Ju Jin Liu Shikun Lang Lang Liang Wang Sa Ding Ding Tan Dun Wang Feng Wu Man Xiaoyong Chen Xu Ke Gong-Qian Yang Ye Xiaogang Yuja Wang Zhang Dingyuan Zhao Jiping Zhou Long Zhu Xiao-Mei Vanessa-Mae Gao Hong China Conservatory of Music Central Conservatory of Music website Campus real three-dimensional map
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
John Waldo Green was an American songwriter, musical arranger and pianist. He was given the nickname "Beulah" by colleague Conrad Salinger, his most famous song was one of his earliest, "Body and Soul". Green won four Academy Awards for his film scores and a fifth for producing a short musical film, he was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1972, he was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. John Waldo Green was born in New York City, the son of musical parents Vivian Isidor Green and Irina Etelka Jellenik, a.k.a. Irma Etelka Jellenik. Vivian and Irina wed on December 1907 in Manhattan. John attended Horace Mann School and the New York Military Academy, was accepted by Harvard at the age of 15, entering the University in 1924, his musical tutors were Ignace Hilsberg and Walter Spalding. Between semesters, bandleader Guy Lombardo heard Green's Gold Coast Orchestra and hired him to create dance arrangements for his nationally famous orchestra, his first song hit, was written for Lombardo.
John's father, compelled him to take a job as a stockbroker. Disliking the job, encouraged by his wife, the former Carol Faulk, John left Wall Street to pursue a musical career. Green wrote a number of songs which have become jazz standards, including "Out of Nowhere" and "Body and Soul", he wrote the scores for various films and TV programs. His earliest songs appeared with the billing "John W. Green," a styling. After that anyone addressing "Johnny" was put right with the statement, "You can call me John – or you can call me Maestro!" At the beginning of his musical career, he arranged for dance orchestras, most notably Jean Goldkette on NBC. He was accompanist/arranger to musicians such as Libby Holman and Ethel Merman, it was while writing material for Gertrude Lawrence in 1930 that he composed "Body and Soul", the first recording of, made by Jack Hylton & His Orchestra eleven days before the song was copyrighted. Between 1930-33, Green was the arranger and conductor for Paramount Pictures and worked with such singers as Ethel Merman, Gertrude Lawrence and James Melton.
He composed many of his hit standards during the 1930s, including Bing Crosby's first number one hit recording, "Out of Nowhere", "Rain Rain Go Away", "I Cover the Waterfront", "You're Mine You", "I Wanna Be Loved", "Easy Come Easy Go" and "Repeal The Blues". He composed the theme for Max Fleischer's Betty Boop cartoons in 1932, with Edward Heyman as lyricist. After 1933, Green had his own orchestra, he until 1940, conducted orchestras for the Jack Benny and Philip Morris records and radio shows. Nathaniel Shilkret and Paul Whiteman commissioned Green to write larger works for orchestra, such as "Night Club", introduced by Whiteman on January 25, 1933 at Carnegie Hall. Green was at piano "one," and Roy Bargy and Ramona played the other two pianos. During the early 1930s, Green wrote music for numerous films at Paramount's Astoria Studios, conducted in East Coast theatres, toured vaudeville as musical director for Buddy Rogers. During his two and a half years at Paramount Astoria, he was able to learn more about film scoring from veterans Adolph Deutsch and Frank Tours.
Green spent much of 1933 in London, where he contributed songs to both Mr. Whittington, a musical comedy for Jack Buchanan at the London Hippodrome, Big Business, the first musical comedy written for BBC Radio. On Green's return to the U. S. A. early in 1934, William S. Paley, president of the Columbia Broadcasting System and an investor in New York's St. Regis Hotel, encouraged him to form what became known as Johnny Green, His Piano and Orchestra; the orchestra, based for a time at the St. Regis, featured Green's piano and arrangements, whose harmony and mood were among the most sophisticated of the day, it made dance records for the Columbia and Brunswick companies, although in the Depression the most popular records sold only in small numbers. In 1935, Green starred on CBS's Socony Sketchbook, sponsored by Socony-Vacuum Oil Co, he lured the young California singer Virginia Verrill to headline with him on the Friday evening broadcasts. His regular cast included his band singers Marjory Logan and Jimmy Farrell, essayist Christopher Morley, stage/screen favorites the Four Eton Boys.
A bigger venture yet in commercial radio was The Fred Astaire Hour, sponsored by Packard Motors over NBC in 1936 and co-featuring tenor Allan Jones and the comedy of Charles Butterworth. Green's band backed Astaire on a series of classic recording dates, in both New York and Hollywood, in 1935–1937, he served as musical director for The Jell-O Program Starring Jack Benny during its 1935–1936 season on NBC. He continued conducting on radio and in theatres into the 1940s leading a dance band for the short-lived Royale Records label in 1939–1940, until he decided to move permanently to Hollywood and work in the film business. Green made an impression at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, where in the 1940s, along with orchestrator Conrad Salinger, he was one of the musicians most responsible for changing the overall sound of the MGM Symphony Orchestra through the re-seating of some of the players; this is why the overall orchestral sound of MGM's musicals from the mid-1940s onward is different from the orchestral sound of those made from 1929 until about 1944.
Miklós Rózsa was a Hungarian-American composer trained in Germany, active in France, the United Kingdom, the United States, with extensive sojourns in Italy from 1953. Best known for his nearly one hundred film scores, he maintained a steadfast allegiance to absolute concert music throughout what he called his "double life."Rózsa achieved early success in Europe with his orchestral Theme and Finale of 1933 and became prominent in the film industry from such early scores as The Four Feathers and The Thief of Bagdad. The latter project brought him to America when production was transferred from wartime Britain, Rózsa remained in the United States, becoming an American citizen in 1946, his notable Hollywood career earned him considerable fame, earning 17 Oscar nominations including 3 wins for Spellbound, A Double Life, Ben-Hur, while his concert works were championed by such major artists as Jascha Heifetz, Gregor Piatigorsky, János Starker. Miklós Rózsa was born in Budapest and was introduced to classical and folk music by his mother, Regina Berkovits, a pianist who had studied with pupils of Franz Liszt, his father, Gyula, a well-to-do industrialist and landowner who loved Hungarian folk music.
Rózsa's maternal uncle Lajos Berkovits, violinist with the Budapest Opera, presented young Miklós with his first instrument at the age of five. He took up the viola and piano. By age eight he was performing in composing, he collected folksongs from the area where his family had a country estate north of Budapest in an area inhabited by the Palóc Hungarians. Rózsa sought to study music in Germany, he enrolled at the University of Leipzig in 1925, ostensibly to study chemistry at the behest of his father. Determined to become a composer, he transferred to the Leipzig Conservatory the following year. There he studied composition with a former student of Max Reger, he studied choral music with Karl Straube at the Thomaskirche, where Johann Sebastian Bach had once been the organist. Rózsa emerged from these years with a deep respect for the German musical tradition, which would always temper the Hungarian nationalism of his musical style. Rózsa's first two published works, the String Trio, Op. 1, the Piano Quintet, Op. 2, were issued in Leipzig by Breitkopf & Härtel.
In 1929 he received his diplomas cum laude. For a time he remained in Leipzig as Grabner's assistant, but at the suggestion of the French organist and composer Marcel Dupré, he moved to Paris in 1932. In Paris, Rózsa composed chamber music and a Serenade for small orchestra, Op. 10, the Theme and Finale, Op. 13, well received and was performed by conductors such as Charles Munch, Karl Böhm, Georg Solti, Eugene Ormandy, Bruno Walter, Leonard Bernstein. To make ends meet, he composed light music under the pseudonym Nic Tomay. Rózsa was introduced to film music in 1934 by the Swiss composer Arthur Honegger. Following a concert which featured their respective compositions, Honegger mentioned that he supplemented his income as a composer of film scores, including the film Les Misérables. Rózsa went to see it and was impressed by the opportunities the film medium offered. However, it was not until Rózsa moved to London that he was hired to compose his first film score for Knight Without Armour, produced by his fellow Hungarian Alexander Korda.
After his next score, for Thunder in the City, he joined the staff of Korda's London Films, scored the studio's epic The Four Feathers. Korda and the studio's music director, Muir Mathieson, brought Rózsa onto their Arabian Nights fantasy The Thief of Bagdad when the operetta-style approach of the original composer, Oscar Straus, was deemed unsuitable. Production was transferred to Hollywood when the war broke out, Rozsa completed his score there in 1940; the film earned him his first Academy Award nomination. A further two followed with Sundown. In 1943, he received his fourth nomination for Korda's Jungle Book In 1943, Rózsa scored his first of several collaborations with director Billy Wilder starting with Five Graves to Cairo, the same year that he scored the themed Humphrey Bogart film Sahara. In 1944, his scores for his second Wilder collaboration, Double Indemnity, for The Woman of the Town, earned him separate Academy Award nominations in the same year. However, Max Steiner won the Oscar for that year.
In 1945, Rózsa was hired to compose the score for Alfred Hitchcock's film Spellbound, after Bernard Herrmann became unavailable due to other commitments. The score, notable for pioneering the use of the theremin, was immensely successful and earned him his first Oscar. However, Hitchcock disliked the score, saying it "got in the way of his direction". Two of his other scores from that year, The Lost Weekend and A Song to Remember, were nominated, making Rózsa, to date, the only composer to have won against two of his own scores. Rózsa, who reportedly hated the interruptions and interference by producer David O Selznick, never worked for either Hitchcock or Selznick again. Rózsa earned another Oscar nomination for scoring The Killers which introduced Burt Lancaster to film audiences. Part of the famed theme for the Dragnet radio and TV show duplicated part of Rozsa's The Killers main theme, he sued for damages, subsequently was given co-credit for the Dragnet theme. Rózsa received his second Oscar in 1947 for A Double Life, which won Ronald Colman an Academy Award