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Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome

Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome is a medical condition present at birth marked by impaired physical and mental development, due to insufficient thyroid hormone caused by insufficient dietary iodine during pregnancy. It is one cause of underactive thyroid function at birth, called congenital hypothyroidism, referred to as cretinism. If untreated, it results in impairment of both physical and mental development. Symptoms may include goiter, poor length growth in infants, reduced adult stature, thickened skin, hair loss, enlarged tongue, a protruding abdomen. In developed countries, thyroid function testing of newborns has assured that in those affected, treatment with the thyroid hormone thyroxine is begun promptly; this screening and treatment has eliminated the consequences of the disease. Iodine deficiency causes gradual enlargement of the thyroid gland, referred to as a goiter. Poor length growth is apparent as early as the first year of life. Adult stature without treatment ranges from 100 to 160 cm, depending on severity and other genetic factors.

Other signs include thickened skin, hair loss, enlarged tongue, a protruding abdomen In children, bone maturation and puberty are delayed. In adults, ovulation is impeded and infertility is common. Mental deterioration is common. Neurological impairment may be mild, with reduced muscle tone and coordination, or so severe that the person cannot stand or walk. Cognitive impairment may range from mild to so severe that the person is nonverbal and dependent on others for basic care. Thought and reflexes are slower. Around the world, the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism is dietary iodine deficiency, it has affected many people worldwide and continues to be a major public health problem in many countries. Iodine is an essential trace element, necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common preventable cause of neonatal and childhood brain damage worldwide. Although iodine is found in many foods, it is not universally present in all soils in adequate amounts.

Most iodine, in iodide form, is in the oceans, where the iodide ions oxidize to elemental iodine, which enters the atmosphere and falls to earth in rain, introducing iodine to soils. Soil deficient in iodine is most common inland, in mountainous areas, in areas of frequent flooding, it can occur in coastal regions, where iodine might have been removed from the soil by glaciation, as well as leaching by snow and heavy rainfall. Plants and animals grown in iodine deficient soils are correspondingly deficient. Populations living in those areas without outside food sources are most at risk of iodine deficiency diseases. Dwarfism may be caused by malnutrition or other hormonal deficiencies, such as insufficient growth hormone secretion, decreased secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone, deficient growth hormone receptor activity and downstream causes, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency.{ There are public health campaigns in many countries which involve iodine administration. As of December 2019, 122 countries have mandatory iodine food fortification programs.

Congenital iodine deficiency has been completely eliminated in developed countries through early diagnosis by newborn screening utilizing a blood test for thyroid function. Treatment consists of lifelong administration of thyroxine. Thyroxine must be dosed as tablets only to newborns, as the liquid oral suspensions and compounded forms cannot be depended on for reliable dosing. For infants, the T4 tablets are crushed and mixed with breast milk, formula milk or water. If the medication is mixed with formulas containing iron or soya products, larger doses may be required, as these substances may alter the absorption of thyroid hormone from the gut. Monitoring TSH blood levels every 2–3 weeks during the first months of life is recommended to ensure that affected infants are at the high end of normal range. A goiter is the most specific clinical marker of either the direct or indirect insufficient intake of iodine in the human body. There is evidence of goiter, its medical treatment with iodine-rich algae and burnt sponges, in Chinese and Roman ancient medical texts.

In 1848, King Carlo Alberto of Sardinia commissioned the first epidemiological study of congenital iodine deficiency syndrome, in northern Savoy where it was frequent. In past centuries, the well reported social diseases prevalent among the poorer social classes and farmers, caused by dietary and agricultural monocultures, were: pellagra, beriberi, scurvy in long-term sailors, the endemic goiter caused by iodine deficiency. However, this disease was less mentioned in medical books because it was erroneously considered to be an aesthetic rather than a clinical disorder. Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome was common in areas of southern Europe around the Alps and was described by ancient Roman writers and depicted by artists; the earliest Alpine mountain climbers sometimes came upon whole villages affected by it. The prevalence of the condition was described from a medical perspective by several travellers and physicians in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. At that time the cause was not known and it was attributed to "stagnant air" in mountain valleys or "bad water".

The proportion of people affected varied markedly throughout southern Europe and within small areas it might be common in one valley and not another. The number of affected persons was always a minority, most persons were only affected to

Wylie High School (Abilene, Texas)

Wylie High School is a public high school located in the far southern portion of Abilene, United States and classified as a 5A school by the UIL. It is a part of the Wylie Independent School District located in northeastern Taylor County. In 2008, Wylie High School was named a National Blue Ribbon School. In 2015, the school was rated "Met Standard" by the Texas Education Agency. In 2017 the school reported an enrollment of 1,164, putting it 14 students above the number needed to realign to conference 5A. In order to avoid confusion with the Wylie High School in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex suburb of Wylie, the school is referred to as Abilene Wylie; the Wylie Bulldogs compete in the following sports - Cross Country, Football, Swimming, Golf, Track, Disc Golf, Softball & Baseball UIL Lone Star Cup Champions 2001, 2006 Girls Basketball - 1970, 1990,2011 2012 Football - 2004 Boys Golf - 1987, 1992 Team Tennis - 2013, 2014, 2016, 2017 Volleyball - 2012 Baseball 2016, 2017 Football 1993, **2004 Girls Basketball - 2001, 2006, 2010, 2015 Football - 2000, 2009, 2016 Team Tennis - 2015 Boys Basketball - 2007, 2013 Baseball 1990, 1997, 2002, 2006, 2007, 2015 Under the leadership of future NFL quarterback Case Keenum, the Bulldogs won the Division 3A-1 State Championship in 2004.

The Bulldogs reached two more State Championship games, but were defeated by Gilmer High School in 2009 and Carthage High School in 2016. Due to the above mentioned rule change Wylie, until 2018, has competed in the same conference since 1976. Wylie team tennis has won a total of 14 of the last 16 state tournaments; the only state wins listed above are those in UIL. UIL has only hosted a team tennis state tournament since 2013, Wylie has appeared in all of them and has won all but one. Prior to 2013 Wylie competed in the Texas Tennis Coaches Association state tournament and won 11 of their last 12 tournaments; the Wylie High School Band is named the "Pure Gold Band". In 2002, with their show “New World”, the band advanced to the UIL State Marching Championship for the second time in its history and advanced to finals for the only time in its history; the semi-official theme of the band is "It Is Well", played at the end of every concert and football game. Division 1 ranking since 1986 Celebrated 30th Division 1 ranking in 2016 15 Area appearances Top three ranking in 7 contest years 1994,2002,2008,2010,2012,2014,2016 1994 2002 “New World” 2008 “New World Symphony” 2010 "Rhythm's Revenge" 2012 “Time” 2014 “Honor and Remember” 2016 “The Story of Our Home” The Wylie Band operates an Honor band and Symphonic band during the concert season.

Case Keenum, record-setting quarterback of the Houston Cougars football team and NFL quarterback for the Washington redskins of the National Football League Gordon Wood, 396 wins, 91 losses, 15 ties in 43 seasons as a Texas high school head football coach Wylie Independent School District

True Confessions (magazine)

True Confessions is a confession magazine targeted at young women readers. It was published by Fawcett Publications, beginning in 1922. Building on the success of Captain Billy's Whiz Bang magazine, Fawcett Publishing, based in Robbinsdale, Minnesota published the first issue of True Confessions in August 1922. With a cover price of 25 cents, the front cover of the October, 1922, issue heralded, "Our Thousand Dollar Prize Winner—'All Hell Broke Loose'." During the 1920s, Jack Smalley was the editor, early issues in the run sometimes featured cover illustrations by Norman Saunders. Directed at a female readership between the ages of 20 and 35, the magazine climbed to a circulation of two million during the 1930s, carrying such articles as "The Romantic Story of Jack Dempsey's Cinderella Bride." With True Confessions Fawcett was in competition with rival publishers Macfadden and Hillman Periodicals. In 1945, Fawcett learned that 72% of the women who read True Confessions were married, just one piece of information gleaned after Fawcett spent $50,000 for a year-long survey involving 600 questions asked of True Confessions readers in Dayton, Ohio.

By 1949, these old-style confession magazines faced a setback in the midst of a new comic book trend, over 100 love and romance titles from two dozen companies, with press runs averaging 500,000. Macfadden reported a loss in the second quarter of 1949, while Fawcett profited with its new romance comics, reaching a million readers with Sweethearts and 700,000 with Life Story. During the 1950s, when True Confessions was priced at 15 cents, the editor was Florence J. Schetty; the contents of the March, 1959, edited by Schetty and priced at 25 cents, provide insight into the magazine's approach during that period. It included "God Is My Guide" by Clint Walker, "Hairdos You Can Do Yourself" by Grace A. Hufner, " "When a Girl Goes to Prison" by Jules Archer, "I Couldn’t Forgive My Brother-in-Law" by Anonymous and "Let’s Enjoy Breakfast" by Erva Jean Vosburgh. Another editor in the field was Clark Dimond, who edited True Experience for Macfadden-Bartell during the 1960s; some articles for True Confessions were condensed for republication in Reader's Digest, Fawcett launched its Gold Medal Books paperback line in 1949 with anthologies of material from True and True Confessions.

Macfadden-Bartell purchased the magazine in 1963. Macfadden spun off its romance and teen magazines as a separate company in 1992, which merged with Sterling publication to form Sterling/Macfadden. Dorchester Media bought Sterling/Macfadden in 2004. In 2006, Dorchester teamed with Leisure Entertainment to launch a series of paperback anthologies titled True Confessions, True Romance and True Story. In 2012, Dorchester Media sold True Confessions and True Story magazines to True Renditions LLC. "The Fawcett Formula" Time Moriarty, editor. True Confessions: Sixty Years of Sin, Suffering & Sorrow Official website Review of True Confessions: Sixty Years of Sin, Suffering & Sorrow First issue of True Confessions, August 1922

2018 Windsor municipal election

The 2018 Windsor municipal election occurred on October 22, 2018 to elect the Mayor of Windsor, Windsor City Council and the Greater Essex County District School Board, Windsor Essex Catholic District School Board, Conseil scolaire catholique Providence and Conseil scolaire Viamonde. The election was be held on the same day as elections in every other municipality in Ontario; as per the Ontario Municipal Elections Act, 1996, nomination papers for candidates for municipal and school board elections would be filed from May 1, 2018, at which time the campaign period began. *Withdrawn but still on ballot


Bioenhancers or bioavailability enhancers is a new chapter in medical science first scientifically established in 1979 after the discovery of world's first bioenhancer Piperine. It is a pocket friendly drug technology which reduces the destruction and elimination of several orally administered drugs inside the body. Definition Bioenhancers are defined as substances that increase the bioavailability and bioefficacy of active substances with which they are combined without having any activity of their own at the dose used. Besides several classes of modern drugs like antibiotics, anti cancer drugs, cardiovascular drugs, anti inflammatory, central nervous drugs, etc. they increase the bioavailability of vitamins and nutrients. Increased Bioavailabiity means increased levels of drug in the blood stream available for drug action. Increased Bioefficacy means the increased effectiveness of the drug due to increased bioavailability and due to other mechanisms. Significance of Bioenhancers Due to an increased bioavailability, the dose and cost of active drug can be reduced, making the formulation cheaper and safer, better tolerated, having better efficacy, better compliance and having lesser risk of developing drug resistance as in case of antibiotics.

As it benefits the dose economy, it is of great value to poor ill diseased segment of society. For example, by reducing the required dose of expensive toxic Rifampicin by 60 percent, it correspondingly reduces the cost and side effects of Rifampicin while treating the dreaded disease Tuberculosis. History Bioenhancers or bioavailability enhancers as a term and chapter did not exist in any modern scientific literature prior to 1979; the term bioavailability enhancers was first coined in 1979 at Indian Institute of Integrative medicine, Jammu RRL,Jammu, by Indian scientists. Subsequently, the concept of bioavailability enhancers was scientifically researched and scientifically established by him and his research team at RRL Jammu; the institute discovered and scientifically validated Piperine as the world's first bioenhancer using Sparteine and Vasicine which became the world's first experimentally bioenhanced drugs. Dr. Atal initiated the bioenhanced anti tubercular drug research project using Rifampicin which resulted in development of world's first bioenhanced anti tubercular drug formulation.

This DCGI approved formulation was released by Indian government at Anusandhan Bhawan Delhi on world tuberculosis day 2011, presented to Mr. Bill Gates, chairman of Microsoft same day at a function at Le Meridian in Delhi. After the discovery of bioenhancer Piperine in 1979, a new chapter was added in medical science. Since it has generated global interest and research in the field and has led to discovery of many other new bioenhancers. Piperine remains the most extensively researched bioenhancer till date, it is safe, effective economical and manufactured for commercial use. It is a broad spectrum bioenhancer acting on several classes of modern drugs as noted elsewhere. Classification bioenhancers can be classified according to their source of origin, either plant based or animal based or else according to their site of action. Bioenhancers so far exclusively discovered in plants, increase the bioavailability of other substances in different ways: Increase of absorption in the intestine Inhibition of degradation in the intestine and the liver by inhibition of drug metabolising enzymes.

Inhibition of elimination in the drug in gut and through bile by inhibition of efflux pumps. Increase of drug permeability of pathogens. Inhibition of defense mechanisms of pathogens or tumor tissue Increasing binding possibilities on binding sites of the pathogen Improving overcoming of the blood-brain barrier'Reduced bioavailability of orally administered drugs by Destruction and wastage inside the body • After oral ingestion and absorption, drugs reach the blood stream where the drug needs to attain a certain desired drug level in the blood to cause desired drug action. • After oral ingestion and absorption, drugs while passing from the gut via the liver to blood stream are inadequately absorbed, wasted and destroyed and therefore a reduced percentage of ingested dose reaches the blood stream resulting in lower drug levels in blood. • Therefore, more quantity of drug has to be ingested to compensate for the losses in order to achieve desired blood levels which in turn increase the cost and side effects of drugs.

Billions of Dollars are wasted globally in various countries due to poor bioavailability of drugs, a huge financial burden on any nation poor developing countries. This is relevant in serious and dreaded diseases on mankind like tuberculosis for which treatment is expensive and prolonged and for which an emergency situation has been declared by UN due to emergence of AIDS and development of serious drug resistance.'BENEFICIAL ROLE OF BIOENHANCERS' Reduced dose- Bioenhancers prevent this wastage of ingested drugs inside the body and increase quantity of drug reaching the blood, therefore a reduced dosage of oral drug is sufficient to achieve the desired blood levels. Reduced burden on raw material of country -This reduced dose needed for desired drug action means beneficial effect on raw materials consumption required to develop drugs, a great savings for any country. Ecological advantage- This translates into ecological advantage in case of rare and expensive plant based drug

2004 K League

The 2004 season of the K-League kicked off on April 3. The league's previous single-season format was replaced by a separated twice 12-game split-season schedule; each team will play 12 matches consisting of a home or away fixture against every other team in each stage. After both stages have been played, First Stage table plus Second Stage and the First Stage and Second Stage winners and table the top 2 teams will enter the championship playoffs to determine the overall champion; the playoff fixtures are set to take place in early December. The first place team qualify for the championship playoffs; the first place team qualify for the championship playoffs. First Stage table plus Second Stage table. Top two teams in this table qualify for the Championship playoffs. Note: 2004 Korean FA Cup winner qualified for 2005 AFC Champions League This list is including championship playoff goals First Stage winners: Pohang Steelers Second Stage winners: Suwon Samsung Bluewings Top two teams in the overall table other than the winners of each stage: Ulsan Hyundai Horangi and Chunnam Dragons.

Suwon Samsung Bluewings win 4-3 on penalties 2004 K-League Cup 2004 Korean FA Cup RSSSF