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Conglomerate (company)

A conglomerate is a multi-industry company – i.e. a combination of multiple business entities operating in different industries under one corporate group involving a parent company and many subsidiaries. Conglomerates are large and multinational. Conglomerates were popular in the 1960s due to a combination of low interest rates and a repeating bear-bull market, which allowed the conglomerates to buy companies in leveraged buyouts, sometimes at temporarily deflated values. Famous examples from the 1960s include Ling-Temco-Vought, ITT Corporation, Litton Industries, Teledyne; because of low interest on the loans, the overall return on investment of the conglomerate appeared to grow. In addition, the conglomerate had a better ability to borrow in the money market, or capital market, than the smaller firm at their community bank. For many years this was enough to make the company's stock price rise, as companies were valued on their return on investment; the aggressive nature of the conglomerators themselves was enough to make many investors, who saw a "powerful" and unstoppable force in business, buy their stock.

High stock prices allowed them to raise more loans, based on the value of their stock, thereby buy more companies. This led to a chain reaction, which allowed them to grow rapidly. However, all of this growth was somewhat illusory and when interest rates rose to offset inflation, conglomerate profits fell. Investors noticed that the companies inside the conglomerate were growing no faster than before they were purchased, whereas the rationale for buying a company was that "synergies" would provide efficiency. By the late 1960s they were shunned by the market, a major sell-off of their shares ensued. To keep the companies going, many conglomerates were forced to shed the industries they had purchased, by the mid-1970s most had been reduced to shells; the conglomerate fad was subsequently replaced by newer ideas like focusing on a company's core competency. In other cases, conglomerates are formed for genuine interests of diversification rather than manipulation of paper return on investment. Companies with this orientation would only make acquisitions or start new branches in other sectors when they believed this would increase profitability or stability by sharing risks.

Flush with cash during the 1980s, General Electric moved into financing and financial services, which in 2005 accounted for about 45% of the company's net earnings. GE owned a minority interest in NBCUniversal, which owns the NBC television network and several other cable networks. In some ways GE is the opposite of the "typical" 1960s conglomerate in that the company was not leveraged, when interest rates rose GE was able to turn this to its advantage, it was less expensive to lease from GE than buy new equipment using loans. United Technologies has proven to be a successful conglomerate. With the spread of mutual funds, investors could more obtain diversification by owning a small slice of many companies in a fund rather than owning shares in a conglomerate. Another example of a successful conglomerate is Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway, a holding company which used surplus capital from its insurance subsidiaries to invest in businesses across a variety of industries; the end of the First World War caused a brief economic crisis in Weimar Germany, permitting entrepreneurs to buy businesses at rock-bottom prices.

The most successful, Hugo Stinnes, established the most powerful private economic conglomerate in 1920s Europe – Stinnes Enterprises – which embraced sectors as diverse as manufacturing, shipbuilding, hotels and other enterprises. The best known British conglomerate was Hanson plc, it followed a rather different timescale than the U. S. examples mentioned above, as it was founded in 1964 and ceased to be a conglomerate when it split itself into four separate listed companies between 1995 and 1997. In Hong Kong, some of the well-known conglomerates include Jardine Matheson, Swire Group, C K Hutchison Whampoa, Sino Group, Swire Group Started by Liverpool natives the Swire family, which controls a wide range of businesses, including property, beverages and trading. Jardine Matheson operates businesses in the fields of property, trading and hotels. CK Hutchison Holdings Limited: Telecoms, Ports and Beauty Retail. Energy, Finance Sino Group: Kerry Logistics, Universal Studios Singapore, Shangri-LaIn Japan, a different model of conglomerate, the keiretsu, evolved.

Whereas the Western model of conglomerate consists of a single corporation with multiple subsidiaries controlled by that corporation, the companies in a keiretsu are linked by interlocking shareholdings and a central role of a bank. Mitsui, Sumitomo are some of Japan's best known keiretsu, reaching from automobile manufacturing to the production of electronics such as televisions. While not a keiretsu, Sony is an example of a modern Japanese conglomerate with operations in consumer electronics, video games, the music industry and film production and distribution, financial services, telecommunications. In China, many of the country's conglomerates are state-own

Alas, I Cannot Swim

Alas, I Cannot Swim is the debut studio album by British singer-songwriter Laura Marling. The album was nominated for the 2008 Mercury Music Prize; the album was produced by the lead vocalist of her previous band and the Whale, Charlie Fink, was released on 4 February 2008, conventionally released a week later. Marling had released a number of EPs before releasing her debut album, she told Neil McCormick of The Daily Telegraph: "I did my first EP just to get rid of songs I didn't like. They were just so awful. I don't think I found out what I was doing until about six months after I signed a deal." "The whole album is about being between 18 and 19. The album was recorded in Eastcote Studios, a small independent studio in the west of London regarded as "honest and organic" by Marling; the album was first released on 4 February 2008 in a "songbox" format, which comprised the CD album, a redeemable code for free concert tickets, a "memento" for every song on the album. Media response to Alas was favourable.

The Guardian's Caroline Sullivan called the album "unnervingly grown-up" and wrote: "Simplicity is the key: playing acoustic guitar and singing in a gentle verge-of-womanhood voice, she keeps things homespun and rootsy." Kev Kharas of Drowned in Sound noted "Marling's skill at making one word bleed with more meaning than half a dozen or so vainglorious chorus lines", while Allmusic's Stewart Mason commented on the "old-school'70s singer/songwriter vibe" of the album, focusing in particular on her "alluringly husky voice and graceful acoustic guitar". Due to the timing of the album coinciding with Feist's commercially successful third studio album The Reminder, Mason said that "there's every chance that will get lost in the shuffle as the unexpected commercial success leads major labels to unleash hordes of talented female singer/songwriters". Comparisons between Marling and Canadian songwriter Joni Mitchell were cited by many, including Andrew Murfett of The Age, Matt Connors of The Courier-Mail and Cameron Adams of The Herald Sun.

In addition, "Ghosts" appeared in Australian radio station Triple J's Hottest 100 of 2008 at #43, "Crawled Out of the Sea" was used in the final episode of the third series of Skins. In October 2011, NME placed "My Manic and I" at number 146 on its list "150 Best Tracks of the Past 15 Years". Alas, I Cannot Swim entered the UK Albums Chart at number 45, it was certified gold in the United Kingdom. All songs composed by Laura Marling. "Alas I Cannot Swim" is included at the end of "Your Only Doll" as a hidden track Laura Marling – voice, guitar Marcus Mumfordaccordion, percussion Tom "Fiddle" Hobden – string arrangement Pete Roebanjo, keyboards Ted Dwane – double bass Joe Ichinose – fiddle Guy Davie – mastering Guy Katsav – recording, mixing Charlie Fink – production

David Johns (cricketer)

David Frank Victor Johns was an English cricketer. Johns was a left-handed batsman, he was born in London. Johns made his debut for Buckinghamshire in the 1950 Minor Counties Championship against Hertfordshire. Johns played Minor counties cricket for Buckinghamshire from 1950 to 1966, which included 83 Minor Counties Championship matches, he made his only List A appearance for Buckinghamshire against Middlesex in the 1965 Gillette Cup. In the match he made 19 runs before being dismissed by Ron Hooker. Johns played a single first-class match for a combined Minor Counties cricket team in 1953 against the touring Australians. In the match he took his only first-class wicket in the Australians first-innings, that of Don Tallon for the cost of 55 runs from 13 overs. With the bat he was dismissed for a duck in the Minor Counties first-innings by Ray Lindwall, while in the Minor Counties second-innings he scored 4 runs before being dismissed by Ron Archer, he died in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire on 20 November 1979.

David Johns at ESPNcricinfo David Johns at CricketArchive

1921–22 Princeton Tigers men's basketball team

The 1921–22 Princeton Tigers men's basketball team represented Princeton University in intercollegiate college basketball during the 1921–22 NCAA men's basketball season. The head coach was J. Hill Zahn and the team captain was Albert Wittmer; the team played its home games in the University Gymnasium on the university campus in Princeton, New Jersey. The team was the winner of the Eastern Intercollegiate Basketball League; the team posted a 20 -- a 9 -- 2 conference record. The team lost three of its first six games, including two to City College of New York. After ending the regular season tied for the conference lead, the team won a one-game playoff against the Penn Quakers on March 28, 1922, at home by a 28–23 margin for the EIBL championship; the team earned the school's first conference championship. The team was led by All-American Arthur Loeb. who repeated as an All-American the following season. Loeb was the school's second two-time All-American. Bill Bradley became the only other Princeton Tiger to equal this accomplishment.

Loeb set numerous records, including the school record for single-season free throws made that surpassed Hamilton Salmon total of 142 set during the 1912–13 season and that would stand until Bill Bradley totaled 258 during his 1962–63 season.


Trinitones is an all-male a cappella ensemble from Trinity College Dublin, the only constituent college of the University of Dublin in Ireland. Founded in 2012, the group are considered the pioneers of the collegiate a cappella genre in Ireland, hitherto seen as an American cultural phenomenon. In February 2013, the group released a cover of Wheatus' "Teenage Dirtbag", which achieved overnight viral success on YouTube and led to acclaim from Wheatus themselves as well as performances on The Morning Show on national broadcaster TV3. Since this inaugural release, the group have gone on to produce further recordings and music videos of a cappella covers which feature as highlights of their diverse popular repertoire. In terms of structure, the group resembles a small male-voice chamber choir of 14 members, featuring bass, baritone and countertenor parts in addition to a vocal percussionist. Membership is open to current students of Trinity College with auditions held in Fresher's Week of the Michaelmas term.

The group have toured Ireland, the UK, Canada, the United States, Australia, continue to perform in Ireland with great regularity throughout the year. They are regulars at Ireland's main music festival, Electric Picnic, Trinity Ball, an longstanding annual music event attended by over 8,000 concertgoers in Trinity College. Of note are the group's biannual productions of their flagship end-of-term shows in their hometown of Dublin; the group was founded by two senior sophister music education students, Patrick Barrett and Lynsey Callaghan. According to Barrett and Callaghan had discussed the idea when on an exchange programme in Hungary. Upon their return to Ireland, they carried out auditions, a 14-strong Trinitones had its inaugural rehearsal in late January 2012. "Gen 1" highlights include the group's first performance as part of Trinity Arts Festival, the maiden performance of the would-be viral hit, Teenage Dirtbag, the beginning of a relationship with the world-renowned, Grammy-award-winning vocal ensemble, The King's Singers.

Barrett and Callaghan continued as directors. The group enjoyed the fruits of a rise in popularity, incorporating major college events and balls into their performance schedule; the undeniable climax of the year was the release of a cover of Wheatus' Teenage Dirtbag, with the YouTube video, characterised by a humorous choral pastiche, garnering 80,000 YouTube views in the 48 hours following its release. This led to several appearances on national TV and radio, the group's first performance at Trinity Ball. With Barrett and Callaghan departing from Trinitones, two new directors were elected in the shape of Ben Jacob and Daragh Kneeshaw, both of whom had been founding members of the group. Two months after taking charge, the pair had led the group to national headlines once more in performing with Scrubs star Sam Lloyd. Over the next two years and Kneeshaw built up the group's profile, led them on two major tours, one to Derry for the Derry International Choral Festival and one to London compete in the International Championship of Collegiate A Cappella, performed with internationally renowned musicians Glen Hansard, Imelda May and Donal Lunny.

Jacob and Kneeshaw's partnership culminated in a debut performance at Electric Picnic, Ireland's largest music festival. As the group entered its fifth year, Jacob was replaced as director by Robert Somerville; the new partnership of Somerville and Kneeshaw reaped dividends as three new music videos were released to the public, garnering significant media attention. The other notable event of Generation V was the group's tour to Hungary, where they performed at the storied Franz Liszt Academy of Music. Kneeshaw and Somerville graduated at the end of the 2015-16 academic year, leaving Neil Dunne to take the reins as director. Despite having a large turnover of members, Dunne led the group to its most successful year to that point. Highlights included joint concerts with the Trinity Tiger Tones of Melbourne and the Yale Whiffenpoofs, as well as an invitation to perform at the prestigious Trinity London Alumni Ball and a sell-out fifth anniversary concert that saw all previous generations perform.

Dunne's directorship built to a crescendo in September 2017, when the group embarked on a tour to Australia that included stops in Sydney and Melbourne. The group received significant media attention, appearing on several radio programmes and featuring in a number of viral videos; the three week tour concluded with a joint performance with the Trinity Tiger Tones in the historic Athenaeum Theatre, Melbourne. A music video was released to commemorate a cover of Bob Dylan's I Shall Be Released. With Dunne leaving Trinity College after the Australian tour, citing "academic differences" with the Engineering department, Andy Keenan replaced him as director for Generation VII. In November 2017, Trinitones were invited to St. Andrew's University to perform in the annual A Cappella Christmas Concert. In February 2018, the group appeared in the audition stage of the first series of reality talent show, Ireland's Got Talent. Despite their cover of Ed Sheeran's "Shape of You" receiving a standing ovation and "Yes" votes from all four judges, including the "biggest yes of the day" from Irish entertainment manager Louis Walsh, the group were not subsequently selected to perform in the live stages of the competition.

The appearance on the programme led to significant attention from local and national media. The following month, the group extended an invite to US and Scottish a cappella groups to join them and the Trinity Belles for a "international celebration of acapella " at the Button Factory venue in Temple

Abram Petrovich Gannibal

"Gannibal" redirects here. For Abram Gannibal's son and Russian general, see Ivan Gannibal. Abram Petrovich Gannibal Hannibal or Ganibal, or Abram Hannibal or Abram Petrov, was a Russian military engineer and nobleman of African origin. Kidnapped as a child, Gannibal was taken to Russia and presented as a gift to Peter the Great, where he was freed and raised in the Emperor's court household as his godson. Gannibal rose to become a prominent member of the imperial court in the reign of Peter's daughter Elizabeth, he had 11 children. The main reliable accounts of Gannibal's life come from The Moor of Peter the Great, Pushkin's unfinished biography of his great-grandfather, published after Pushkin's death in 1837. Scholars argue that Pushkin's account may be inaccurate due to the author’s desire to elevate the status of his ancestors and family. There are a number of contradictions between the biographies of Pushkin and the German novel, The Blackamoor of Peter the Great based on his great-grandfather.

A historical biography by Gannibal's son-in-law, was responsible for the myth, propagated by some historians, that Gannibal was born in Ethiopia. However, more recent research by the scholars Dieudonné Gnammankou and Hugh Barnes has established that the general was instead born in Central Africa, in an area bordering Lake Chad in present-day Cameroon. Richard Pankhurst, the former professor at the Institute of Ethiopian Studies at the University of Addis Ababa in Ethiopia, believed the young Abram, Ibrahim or Abraham, as he named him, was born around 1698, he was the son of chief whose capital was Logon. His father was affluent taking several wives and having 19 children. However, after his father died in battle trying to defend his territory from the Ottoman Turks, Abram was abducted and taken to Constantinople by ship, his sister, Lagan, is said to have drowned in the sea in a desperate attempt to save her brother. Abram stayed in the Ottoman Empire for about a year in the service of Sultan Ahmed III's household.

At the time, the Russian ambassador Sava Vladislavich-Raguzinsky, representing Peter the Great, was looking for "a few clever little African slaves" for the Tsar's palace in Moscow, as was the custom in those days at the great courts in Europe. On orders of Vladislavich's superiors, Abram was selected for this purpose and soon ransomed from the Sultan's viziers with a bribe. In 1704, the ambassador dispatched him by land to Moscow in order to be presented to Tsar Peter the Great; the Tsar is noted to have taken a liking to the boy’s intelligence and potential for military service, brought the child into his household. Abram was baptized in St. Paraskeva Church in Vilnius, with Peter as his godfather; the date of Gannibal’s baptism held personal significance. Abram valued his relationship with his godfather, as well as that of Peter's daughter, was loyal to them as if they were family. Starting at a young age, the boy Abram would travel alongside the emperor during his military campaigns, at these military journeys he served as his godfather’s valet.

In 1717, Abram was sent to Metz to receive an education in the arts and warfare from the highest institutes available. By he was fluent in several languages and excelled in mathematics and geometry. In 1718 Abram joined the French Army with hopes of pleasing his godfather by expanding his learning in military engineering, he enrolled in the royal artillery academy at La Fère in 1720. During Abram's studies, conflict broke out between France and Spain, he fought for France in the War of the Quadruple Alliance, rising to the rank of captain. While fighting in the French war against Spain, Abram received a head injury and was captured by the Spanish army, he continued his studies in Metz. It was during his time in France that Abram adopted the surname "Gannibal" in honor of the Carthaginian general Hannibal. In Paris he befriended such Enlightenment figures as the Baron de Montesquieu and Voltaire. Voltaire called Gannibal the "dark star of the Enlightenment". Gannibal returned to Russia the following year, his advanced training enabled him to apply and acquire posts first as an engineer and as a mathematics tutor for one of the Tsar's private guard units.

Gannibal's education was completed by 1723, he was due to return to Russia. After the death of Peter in 1725, Prince Menshikov gained power in Russia due to his good standing with Peter. However, Menshikov was not fond of Gannibal and was suspicious of his foreign origins and superior education. Gannibal was exiled to Siberia in 1727, some 4,000 miles to the east of Saint Petersburg, he first traveled to Kazan to Tobolsk and Irkutsk, to Selenginsk near the Mongolian border. He was pardoned in 1730 due to his technical skills, completed his service in Siberia in 1733. During this time he built a fortress and led several construction projects, where he became a master engineer. Elizabeth of Russia became the new monarch in 1741. Gannibal became a prominent member of her court, rose to the rank of major-general, became superintendent of Reval, a position he held f