Gerrit Thomas Rietveld was a Dutch furniture designer and architect. One of the principal members of the Dutch artistic movement called De Stijl, Rietveld is famous for his Red and Blue Chair and for the Rietveld Schröder House, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Rietveld was born in Utrecht in 1888 as the son of a joiner, he left school at 11 to be apprenticed to his father and enrolled at night school before working as a draughtsman for C. J. Begeer, a jeweller in Utrecht, from 1906 to 1911. By the time he opened his own furniture workshop in 1917, Rietveld had taught himself drawing and model-making, he afterwards set up in business as a cabinet-maker. Rietveld designed his Red and Blue Chair in 1917 which has become an iconic piece of modern furniture. Hoping that much of his furniture would be mass-produced rather than handcrafted, Rietveld aimed for simplicity in construction. In 1918, he started his own furniture factory, changed the chair's colours after becoming influenced by the De Stijl movement, of which he became a member in 1919, the same year in which he became an architect.
The contacts that he made at De Stijl gave him the opportunity to exhibit abroad as well. In 1923, Walter Gropius invited Rietveld to exhibit at the Bauhaus, he built, the Rietveld Schröder House, in 1924, in close collaboration with the owner Truus Schröder-Schräder. Built in Utrecht on the Prins Hendriklaan 50, the house has a conventional ground floor, but is radical on the top floor, lacking fixed walls but instead relying on sliding walls to create and change living spaces; the design seems like a three-dimensional realization of a Mondrian painting. The house has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000, his involvement in the Schröder House exerted a strong influence on Truus' daughter, Han Schröder, who became one of the first female architects in the Netherlands. Rietveld broke with De Stijl in 1928 and became associated with a more functionalist style of architecture, known as either Nieuwe Zakelijkheid or Nieuwe Bouwen; the same year he joined the Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne.
From the late 1920s he was concerned with social housing, inexpensive production methods, new materials and standardisation. In 1927 he was experimenting with prefabricated concrete slabs, a unusual material at that time. In the 1920s and 1930s, all his commissions came from private individuals, it was not until the 1950s that he was able to put his progressive ideas about social housing into practice, in projects in Utrecht and Reeuwijk. Rietveld designed the Zig-Zag Chair in 1934 and started the design of the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, finished after his death. In 1951 Rietveld designed a retrospective exhibition about De Stijl, held in Amsterdam and New York. Interest in his work revived as a result. In subsequent years he was given many commissions, including the Dutch pavilion for the Venice Biennale, the art academies in Amsterdam and Arnhem, the press room for the UNESCO building in Paris. Designed for the display of small sculptures at the Third International Sculpture Exhibition in Arnhem’s Sonsbeek Park in 1955, Rietveld's ‘Sonsbeek Pavilion’ was rebuilt at the Kröller-Müller Museum in 1965.
Due to irreparable damages caused by regular decay, it was once again rebuilt, this time with new materials, in 2010. In order to handle all these projects, in 1961 Rietveld set up a partnership with the architects Johan van Dillen and J. van Tricht built hundreds of homes, many of them in the city of Utrecht. His work was neglected when rationalism came into vogue, but he benefited from a revival of the style of the 1920s thirty years later. Gerrit Rietveld's son Wim Rietveld became a renowned industrial designer. Rietveld had his first retrospective exhibition devoted to his architectural work at the Central Museum, Utrecht, in 1958; when the art academy in Amsterdam became part of the higher professional education system in 1968 and was given the status of an Academy for Fine Arts and Design, the name was changed to the Gerrit Rietveld Academy in honour of Rietveld. "Gerrit Rietveld: A Centenary Exhibition" at the Barry Friedman Gallery, New York, in 1988 was the first comprehensive presentation of the Dutch architect's original works held in the U.
S. The highlight of a celebratory “Rietveld Year” in Utrecht, the exhibition “Rietveld’s Universe” opened at the Centraal Museum and compared him and his work with famous contemporaries like Wright, Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe. Two software tools, both for code review, have been named after Gerrit Rietveld: Gerrit and Rietveld. Rietveld Schröder Archive A collection of the Centraal Museum Rietveld furniture and archive in Centraal Museum, The Netherlands Rietvelds furniture designs that are still in production www. ModernFurnitureClassics.com Rietveld Bio Great Buildings Online Project by Gerrit Rietveld in architectureguide.nl
The Weissenhof Estate is a housing estate built for the Deutscher Werkbund exhibition in Stuttgart in 1927. It was an international showcase of what became known as the International style of architecture. Two of the buildings were designed by the French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier and these are now part of the World Heritage Site The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement, designated in 2016; the World Heritage Site consists of 17 separate sites in seven countries. The estate was built for the Deutscher Werkbund exhibition in 1927, included twenty-one buildings comprising sixty dwellings, designed by seventeen European architects; the German architect Mies van der Rohe was in charge of the project on behalf of the city, it was he who selected the architects and coordinated their entries, prepared the site, oversaw construction. Le Corbusier was awarded the two prime sites, facing the city, by far the largest budget; the twenty-one buildings vary in form, consisting of terraced and detached houses and apartment buildings, display a strong consistency of design.
What they have in common are their simplified facades, flat roofs used as terraces, window bands, open plan interiors, the high level of prefabrication which permitted their erection in just five months. All but two of the entries were white. Bruno Taut had the smallest, painted in various colors. Advertised as a prototype of future workers' housing, in fact each of these houses was customized and furnished on a budget far out of a normal worker's reach and with little direct relevance to the technical challenges of standardized mass construction; the exhibition opened to the public on 23 July 1927, a year late, drew large crowds. Of the original twenty-one buildings, eleven survive as of 2006. Bombing damage during World War II is responsible for the complete loss of the homes by Gropius, Bruno Taut, Max Taut, Döcker. Another of Max Taut's homes was demolished in the 1950s. 1-4: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 5-9: J. J. P. Oud 10: Victor Bourgeois Originally, the lot was to be built on by Adolf Loos, but he was scrapped from the list after run-ins with and criticism of the Werkbund.
Instead, Bourgeois built a home, more traditional than the planned design by Loos, to have an innovative relation between up and down. One unique feature is a wine cellar from gravel rather than concrete; the two-story family home was damaged during the war, was turned into a two-family dwelling afterward. 11 and 12: Adolf Gustav Schneck 13-15: Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret 16 and 17: Walter Gropius 18: Ludwig Hilberseimer Designed for a family of six, painted in light gray. For reasons of economy, Hilberseimer's planned sliding windows were replaced with cheaper, conventional ones—when Hilberseimer visited the finished house, he did not recognize it; the building was destroyed in the war. 19: Bruno Taut Taut was part of the group on the recommendation of his older brother, Max Taut. House 19 is a single-family, two-story home with a basement, designed as a "proletarian's home." His house was painted red and yellow, was destroyed in the war. 20: Hans Poelzig Poelzig's contribution is a single-family, two-story home with a winter garden and a sun terrace as prominent features.
It was destroyed in the war. 21 and 22: Richard Döcker Döcker was assigned two lots in van der Rohe's plan, between Rathenaustraße and Bruckmannweg. He designed two connected homes, based on his belief in connections between buildings and spaces, but changed the plans after seeing that none of the other buildings on the estate were connected. Both were no. 22 with one and a half stories, including a garage. Döcker wanted brightly colored homes. 23 and 24: Max Taut 25: Adolf Rading 26 and 27: Josef Frank 28-30: Mart Stam 31 and 32: Peter Behrens 33: Hans Scharoun A much more curved design than the other buildings, Scharoun's is a single-family home with two stories and a basement. New Frankfurt, Frankfurt 1925-32 Berlin Modernism Housing Estates, Berlin 1926 Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Bernau, 1923-1930 The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement / UNESCO Official WebsiteOfficial website Weissenhofmuseum
Structuralism is a movement in architecture and urban planning evolved around the middle of the 20th century. It was a reaction to Rationalism's perceived lifeless expression of urban planning that ignored the identity of the inhabitants and urban forms. Structuralism in a general sense is a mode of thought of the 20th century, which came about in different places, at different times and in different fields, it can be found in linguistics, anthropology and art. At the beginning of the general article Structuralism the following explanations are noted: "Structuralism is a theoretical paradigm emphasizing that elements of culture must be understood in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure." Alternately, as summarized by philosopher Simon Blackburn, "Structuralism is the belief that phenomena of human life are not intelligible except through their interrelations. These relations constitute a structure, behind local variations in the surface phenomena there are constant laws of abstract culture."
In Europe, structuralism is seen as a parallel movement to American postmodern architecture. The first interpretations of both movements came up in the 1960s. Through publications and presentations by authors such as Charles Jencks, Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown, postmodern architecture was successful throughout the world for decades. While postmodernism is concerned with an architectural style, many aspects of architecture and urbanism are treated in the structuralist movement. In contrast to the postmodern movement, structuralism has developed more less noticeably during several periods in the last decades; the theoretical contributions of structuralism were developed in Japan, US and Canada. In 2011, the first comprehensive compilation of structuralist activity appeared in a publication called Structuralism Reloaded. In this extensive book, articles by 47 international authors were published about philosophical, historical and other relevant aspects; the selecting process for all these different views, including what is more or less important, needs time to give a definitive overall picture of structuralism.
The following parts of this article are based on the current state of the publication Structuralism Reloaded. A few months after publishing this book, the RIBA Institute in London discussed the new candidates for the RIBA Gold Medal in 2012. An actual question was: "Should the Venturis be given this year's RIBA Gold Medal?" Enough, the RIBA-committee did not award the Venturis with their postmodernist view, instead, gave Herman Hertzberger the prize for his structuralist architecture and theoretical contributions. The times had changed and a shift in emphasis had occurred; the comment of the former RIBA president Jack Pringle was: "The Royal Gold Medal, Britain's most prestigious award, should go to an architect that has taken us forward, not backwards." Today, postmodern architecture can be compared, to some degree with the architectural movement, Traditionalismus, in Europe. The anthropologist, Claude Lévi-Strauss, remarked: "I do not believe that we can still speak of one structuralism. There were a lot of movements that claimed to be structuralist."
This diversity can be found in architecture. However, architectural structuralism has an autonomy that does not comply with all the principles of structuralism in human sciences. In architecture, the different directions have created different images. In this article two directions are discussed. Sometimes these occur in combination. On the one hand, there is the Aesthetics of Number, formulated by Aldo van Eyck in 1959; this concept can be compared to cellular tissue. The most influential prototype of this direction is the orphanage in Amsterdam by Aldo van Eyck, completed in 1960; the "Aesthetics of Number" can be described as "Spatial Configurations in Architecture" or "Mat-Building". On the other hand, there is the Architecture of Lively Variety, formulated for user participation in housing by John Habraken in 1961. In the 1960s, many well-known utopian projects were based on the principle of "Structure and Coincidence"; the most influential prototype of this direction is the Yamanashi Culture Chamber in Kofu by Kenzo Tange, completed in 1967.
Similar notions of "Architecture of Lively Variety" are: "Architecture of Diversity", "Pluralistic Architecture", "Two-Components-Approach" or "Open Structures". Structuralism in architecture and urban planning had its origins in the Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne after World War II. Between 1928 and 1959, the CIAM was an important platform for the discussion of architecture and urbanism. Various groups with conflicting views were active in this organization. Individual members of the small splinter group Team 10 laid the foundations for Structuralism; the influence of this team was interpreted by second generation protagonist Herman Hertzberger when he said: "I am a product of Team 10." As a group of avant-garde architects, Team 10 was active from 1953 to 1981, two different movements emerged from it: the New Brutalism of the English members and the Structuralism of the Dutch members. Outside Team 10, other ideas developed that furthered the Structuralist movement - influenced by the concepts of Louis Kahn in the United States, Kenzo Tange in Japan and John
Josef Frank (architect)
Josef Frank was an Austrian-born architect and designer who adopted Swedish citizenship in the latter half of his life. Together with Oskar Strnad, he created the Vienna School of Architecture, its concept of Modern houses and interiors. Josef Frank was of Jewish ancestry, his parents, merchant Ignaz Frank and the Vienna-born Jenny, were from Heves in Hungary. He designed his parents' grave in the old Jewish section of Vienna's Central Cemetery, he studied architecture at the Vienna University of Technology. He taught at the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts from 1919 to 1925, he was a founding member of the Vienna Werkbund and leader of the 1932 project Werkbundsiedlung in Vienna. In 1933, he emigrated to Sweden, where he gained citizenship in 1939, he was the most prestigious designer in the Stockholm design company Svenskt Tenn. He remained in Sweden after 1945 despite attempts to return him to Vienna; the Vienna Circle manifesto lists three of his publications in a bibliography of related authors.
He was the brother of the physicist and philosopher Philipp Frank. Josef Frank dealt early on with public housing estates. Contrary to most other architects of the interwar period in Vienna, he took the idea of settlement and not the creation of so-called super blocks in the municipal housing, he rejected facade decor and preferred functional forms. The Viennese architect and furniture designer Luigi Blue refers to him as one of his idols. In addition to his architectural work he created numerous designs for furniture, fabrics and carpet, he has been a painter, as well. An exhibition of his textile designs is to be held from January to May 2017, at the Fashion and Textile Museum in London. 1965 First Austrian Frank exhibition by the Austrian Society for Architecture 1965 Grand Austrian State Prize for Architecture 1991 The Josef-Frank-Gasse street in Donaustadt Vienna was named after the architect 2007 The exhibition Josef Frank. Architect and Outsider, The Jewish Museum Vienna field office Judenplatz 2010 Was honored with a Google Doodle on July 15 in honor of his 125th birthday.
Exhibition design of the East Asian Museum in Cologne House Wilbrandtgasse 12, Vienna with Oskar Wlach and Oskar Strnad Municipal housing Hoffingergasse in Altmannsdorf, together with Erich Faber Residential Building Wiedenhoferhof, Vienna Residential Building Winarskyhof, together with Adolf Loos, Peter Behrens, Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky Duplex in the Weißenhofsiedlung, Stuttgart Residential Building Sebastian-Kelch-Gasse 1–3, Vienna House Beer Residential Building Simmeringer Hauptstraße 142–150, with Oskar Wlach Residential Building Leopoldine-Glöckel-yard in Vienna Management of the Werkbundsiedlung in Vienna and Project for a house at Woinovichgasse 32 Five villas in Falsterbo, southern Sweden Architecture as Symbol: Elements of the German New Building', 1931 The International Werkbundsiedlung Vienna 1932, 1932 Josef Frank. Schriften/Writings.
Walter Adolph Georg Gropius was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, along with Alvar Aalto, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modernist architecture. Gropius was a leading architect of the International Style. Born in Berlin, Walter Gropius was the third child of Walter Adolph Gropius and Manon Auguste Pauline Scharnweber, daughter of the Prussian politician Georg Schwarnweber. Walter's uncle Martin Gropius was the architect of the Kunstgewerbemuseum in Berlin and a follower of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, with whom Walter's great-grandfather Carl Gropius, who fought under Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher at the Battle of Waterloo, had shared a flat as a bachelor. In 1915 Gropius married Alma Mahler, widow of Gustav Mahler. Walter and Alma's daughter, named Manon after Walter's mother, was born in 1916; when Manon died of polio at age 18, in 1935, composer Alban Berg wrote his Violin Concerto in memory of her.
Gropius and Mahler divorced in 1920. On 16 October 1923, Gropius married Ilse Frank; the couple adopted a daughter together, Beate Gropius, known as Ati. Ise Gropius died on 9 June 1983 in Massachusetts. Walter's only sister Manon Burchard is the great-grandmother of the German film and theater actresses Marie Burchard and Bettina Burchard, of the curator and art historian Wolf Burchard. Gropius could not draw, was dependent on collaborators and partner-interpreters throughout his career. In school he hired an assistant to complete his homework for him. In 1908, after studying architecture in Munich and Berlin for four semesters, Gropius joined the office of the renowned architect and industrial designer Peter Behrens, one of the first members of the utilitarian school, his fellow employees at this time included Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Dietrich Marcks. In 1910 Gropius left the firm of Behrens and together with fellow employee Adolf Meyer established a practice in Berlin. Together they share credit for one of the seminal modernist buildings created during this period: the Faguswerk in Alfeld-an-der-Leine, Germany, a shoe last factory.
Although Gropius and Meyer only designed the facade, the glass curtain walls of this building demonstrated both the modernist principle that form reflects function and Gropius's concern with providing healthful conditions for the working class. The factory is now regarded as one of the crucial founding monuments of European modernism. Gropius was commissioned in 1913 to design a car for the Prussian Railroad Locomotive Works in Königsberg; this locomotive was unique and the first of its kind in Germany and in Europe. Other works of this early period include the office and factory building for the Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne. In 1913, Gropius published an article about "The Development of Industrial Buildings," which included about a dozen photographs of factories and grain elevators in North America. A influential text, this article had a strong influence on other European modernists, including Le Corbusier and Erich Mendelsohn, both of whom reprinted Gropius's grain elevator pictures between 1920 and 1930.
Gropius's career was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I in 1914. He was drafted August 1914 and served as a sergeant major at the Western front during the war years and as a lieutenant in the signal corps. Gropius was awarded the Iron Cross twice after fighting for four years. Gropius like his father and his great-uncle Martin Gropius before him, became an architect. Gropius's career advanced in the postwar period. Henry van de Velde, the master of the Grand-Ducal Saxon School of Arts and Crafts in Weimar was asked to step down in 1915 due to his Belgian nationality, his recommendation for Gropius to succeed him led to Gropius's appointment as master of the school in 1919. It was this academy which Gropius transformed into the world-famous Bauhaus, attracting a faculty that included Paul Klee, Johannes Itten, Josef Albers, Herbert Bayer, László Moholy-Nagy, Otto Bartning and Wassily Kandinsky. In principle, the Bauhaus represented an opportunity to extend beauty and quality to every home through well designed industrially produced objects.
The Bauhaus program was experimental and the emphasis was theoretical. One example product of the Bauhaus was the armchair F 51, designed for the Bauhaus's directors room in 1920 – nowadays a re-edition in the market, manufactured by the German company TECTA/Lauenfoerde. In 1919, Gropius was involved in the Glass Chain utopian expressionist correspondence under the pseudonym "Mass." More notable for his functionalist approach, the "Monument to the March Dead," designed in 1919 and executed in 1920, indicates that expressionism was an influence on him at that time. In 1923, Gropius designed his famous door handles, now considered an icon of 20th-century design and listed as one of the most influential designs to emerge from Bauhaus. Gropius designed the new Bauhaus Dessau school building in 1925-26 on commission from the city of Dessau, he collaborated with Carl Fieger, Ernst Neufert and others within his private architectural practice. He designed large-scale housing projects in Berlin and Dessau in 1926–32 that were major contributions to the New Objectivity movement, including a contribution to the Siemensstadt project in Berlin.
Gropius moved to Berlin. Hannes Meyer to
Expressionist architecture is an architectural movement in Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts that developed and dominated in Germany. Brick Expressionism is a special variant of this movement in western and northern Germany and in The Netherlands. Expressionist architecture is one of the three dominant styles of Modern architecture; the term "Expressionist architecture" described the activity of the German, Austrian and Danish avant garde from 1910 until 1930. Subsequent redefinitions extended the term backwards to 1905 and widened it to encompass the rest of Europe. Today the meaning has broadened further to refer to architecture of any date or location that exhibits some of the qualities of the original movement such as; the style was characterised by an early-modernist adoption of novel materials, formal innovation, unusual massing, sometimes inspired by natural biomorphic forms, sometimes by the new technical possibilities offered by the mass production of brick and glass.
Many expressionist architects fought in World War I and their experiences, combined with the political turmoil and social upheaval that followed the German Revolution of 1919, resulted in a utopian outlook and a romantic socialist agenda. Economic conditions limited the number of built commissions between 1914 and the mid-1920s, resulting in many of the most important expressionist works remaining as projects on paper, such as Bruno Taut's Alpine Architecture and Hermann Finsterlin's Formspiels. Ephemeral exhibition buildings were numerous and significant during this period. Scenography for theatre and films provided another outlet for the expressionist imagination, provided supplemental incomes for designers attempting to challenge conventions in a harsh economicate. Important events in expressionist architecture include; the major permanent extant landmark of Expressionism is Erich Mendelsohn's Einstein Tower in Potsdam. By 1925 most of the leading architects of Expressionism such as. A few, notably Hans Scharoun, continued to work in an expressionist idiom.
In 1933, after the Nazi seizure of power in Germany, expressionist art was outlawed as degenerate. Until the 1970s scholars played down the influence of the expressionists on the International style, but this has been re-evaluated in recent years. Expressionist architecture was individualistic and in many ways eschewed aesthetic dogma, but it is still useful to develop some criteria which defines it. Though containing a great variety and differentiation, many points can be found as recurring in works of Expressionist architecture, are evident in some degree in each of its works. Distortion of form for an emotional effect. Subordination of realism to symbolic or stylistic expression of inner experience. An underlying effort at achieving the new and visionary. Profusion of works on paper, models, with discovery and representations of concepts more important than pragmatic finished products. Hybrid solutions, irreducible to a single concept. Themes of natural romantic phenomena, such as caves, lightning and rock formations.
As such it is more mineral and elemental than florid and organic which characterized its close contemporary art nouveau. Uses creative potential of artisan craftsmanship. Tendency more towards the gothic than the classical. Expressionist architecture tends more towards the romanesque and the rococo than the classical. Though a movement in Europe, expressionism is as eastern as western, it draws as much from Moorish, Islamic and Indian art and architecture as from Roman or Greek. Conception of architecture as a work of art. Political and artistic shifts provided a context for the early manifestations of expressionist architecture; the loss of the war, the subsequent removal of Kaiser Wilhelm II, the depravations and the rise of social democracy and the optimism of the Weimar republic created a reluctance amongst architects to pursue projects initiated before the war and provided the impetus to seek new solutions. An influential body of the artistic community, including architects, sought a similar revolution as had occurred in Russia.
The costly and grandiose remodelling of the Grosses Schauspielhaus, was more reminiscent of the imperial past, than wartime budgeting and post-war depression. Artistic movements that preceded expressionist architecture and continued with some overlap were the arts and crafts movement and art nouveau or in Germany, jugendstil. Unity of designers with artisans, was a major preoccupation of the Arts and Crafts movement which extended into expressionist architecture; the frequent topic of naturalism in art nouveau, prevalent in romanticism, continued as well, but took a turn for the more earthen than floral. The naturalist, Ernst Haeckel was known by Finsterlin and shared his
A manifesto is a published declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, political party or government. A manifesto accepts a published opinion or public consensus or promotes a new idea with prescriptive notions for carrying out changes the author believes should be made, it is political or artistic in nature, but may present an individual's life stance. Manifestos relating to religious belief are referred to as creeds, it is derived from the Italian word manifesto, itself derived from the Latin manifestum, meaning clear or conspicuous. Its first recorded use in English is from 1620, in Nathaniel Brent's translation of Paolo Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent: "To this citation he made answer by a Manifesto". "They were so farre surprised with his Manifesto, that they would never suffer it to be published". Educational manifestos are documents proposing a change or changes to a current education system, they can be written by governing bodies, organizations, or individuals involved in education as parents, administrators, or other stakeholders.
The writer or writers are positioned with manifestos aimed at a majority group. Educational manifestos include personal or group beliefs about what is important or right in education, make statements about the current state of education, differentiate common terms in education, make suggestions for changing current education systems, they can include observations about society and whether or not students are prepared to participate in it when they are finished with mandatory schooling. These observations can include a perceived misalignment between mandatory school and society, an unjust, unfair, or right aspect of education, or perceived lack of personalization in learning. Other topics that are addressed in educational manifestos include curriculum, personalization, class size, teacher burnout, standardized testing, among others; these manifestos may offer a reflection or rethinking of some aspect of education or teaching and learning. These may include personal stories, anecdotes, or experiences in the classroom or administration.
The reflection or rethinking serves to illustrate how or why an aspect of an educational system requires change. These reflections remind readers of the importance of positive, consistent teacher-student relationships in a good education system. Educational manifestos call for reflection or ‘rethinking' on the part of the majority in education, offer a reason to hope for change, make recommendations to put change into action. Reasons for hope can include anecdotes from students, teachers, or parents, or a callback to what motivates teachers and students to teach and learn together. Manifestos written by individuals conclude by sharing techniques, tactics, or philosophies that the writer has found helpful in their own teaching or administrative practice; those written by groups or organizations include recommendations for initiating or continuing change in appropriate areas. Examples of notable manifestos: The Baghdad Manifesto The Act of Abjuration The United States Declaration of Independence The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen during the French Revolution The Haitian Declaration of Independence after the Haitian Revolution The Cartagena Manifesto, by Simón Bolívar The Tamworth Manifesto issued in 1834 by Sir Robert Peel The Declaration of Sentiments The Communist Manifesto, by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The Anarchist Manifesto, by Anselme Bellegarrigue The 1890 Manifesto dealing with plural marriage, issued by Wilford Woodruff as president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints The Second Manifesto dealing with plural marriage, issued by Joseph F. Smith as president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints The October Manifesto issued by Nicholas II, in an effort to cease the 1905 Russian Revolution The Manifesto of the Sixteen The Urmia Manifesto of the United Free Assyria, by Dr. Freydun Atturaya The Liminar Manifesto in the Argentine University Revolution The Amasya Circular The Fascist Manifesto, by Fasci di Combattimento The Manifesto of the Anti-Fascist Intellectuals, by Benedetto Croce Mein Kampf, by Adolf Hitler The Cannibal Manifesto, by Oswald de Andrade The Regina Manifesto, by the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation The Humanist Manifesto I, II and III The Ventotene Manifesto, by Altiero Spinelli and Ernesto Rossi encouraged a federation of European states, meant to keep the countries of Europe close, thus preventing war, it is seen as the birth of European federalism.
The PKWN manifesto, by Polish Committee of National Liberation The Oxford Manifesto describing the basic principles of Liberal International The Objectives Resolution of Pakistan, by Liaquat Ali Khan "The Christian Manifesto", condemning Protestant missions in China and pledging allegiance to the People's Republic The Russell-Einstein Manifesto, against nuclear weapons and war The Southern Manifesto, opposing the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education Report on the Construction of Situations, by Guy Debord The Manifesto of the 121 against the Algerian War The Sharon Statement, by M. Stanton Evans et al; the Port Huron Statement, by Tom Hayden et al. The SCUM Manifesto, by Valerie Solanas The Black Manifesto, by the Black Economic Development Council, including James Forman The Manifesto of the 343, by Simone de Beauvoir in which 343 French women admitted to havi