Antananarivo known by its colonial shorthand form Tana, is the capital and largest city of Madagascar. The larger urban area surrounding the city, known as Antananarivo-Renivohitra, is the capital of Analamanga region; the city is located 1,280 m above the sea level in the center of the island and has been the country's largest population center since at least the 18th century. Antananarivo was the capital of the Merina people, who continue to form the majority of the city's estimated 1,300,000 inhabitants, as well as the surrounding urban areas which in all have a total metropolitan population approaching three million. All 18 Malagasy ethnic groups, as well as residents of Chinese, Indian and other origins, are well represented in the city. Antananarivo is the political, economic and cultural heart of Madagascar; the presidency, National Assembly and Supreme Court are located there, as are 21 diplomatic missions and the headquarters of many national and international businesses and NGOs. Antananarivo hosts the largest number of universities, art venues, medical services and other social service institutions of any city on the island.
Several national and local sports teams, including the championship-winning national rugby team, the Makis,and several basketball and football teams, are based in Antananarivo. Antananarivo was founded from about 1610 to 1625, when the Merina King Andrianjaka expelled the Vazimba inhabitants of the village of Analamanga at the highest meeting point of two forested ridges rising above the surrounding highland plains. Declaring it the site of his capital, Andrianjaka built a rova that expanded to become the royal palaces of the Kingdom of Imerina. According to oral history, he deployed a garrison of 1,000 soldiers to guard the site; the city served as the capital of the Kingdom of Imerina from its founding until 1710, when Imerina split into four warring quadrants. Antananarivo was declared the capital of the southern quadrant, his diplomatic and military successes extended Imerina far beyond its traditional borders, bringing the lands of neighboring ethnic groups under Merina control. These conquests were continued under his son, Radama I, whose control extended over two-thirds of the island, leading him to be considered the King of Madagascar by European diplomats, with Antananarivo as the island's capital.
Antananarivo remained the island's capital after Madagascar was colonized by the French in 1897 and remained thus after independence in 1960. Antananarivo has expanded from the royal palaces at its center, which dominate every view from their location at the peak of a curving ridge 200 m above the surrounding Betsimitatatra plains. In the 17th century, the plains were transformed into paddy fields to meet the population's need for rice. Around the palaces, which were destroyed in a 1995 fire but have since been reconstructed, lies the historic district, populated by members of the andriana; the Analakely valley at the base of the ridge was the site of a Friday market established in the 18th century that, until being discontinued in 1997 because of traffic congestion, was considered the largest open air market in the world. This neighborhood was further developed under French rule and continues to serve as the capital's economic heart; the city is managed by the Commune Urbaine d'Antananarivo under the direction of its President of the Special Delegation, Ny Havana Andriamanjato, appointed in March 2014.
Limited funds and mismanagement have hampered consecutive CUA efforts to manage overcrowding and traffic, waste management, security, public water and electricity, other challenges linked to explosive population growth. Major historic landmarks and attractions in the city include the reconstructed royal palaces and the Andafiavaratra Palace, the tomb of Rainiharo, Tsimbazaza Zoo, Mahamasina Stadium, Lake Anosy, four 19th-century martyr cathedrals, the Museum of Art and Archaeology; the English pronunciation of Antananarivo is or. The Malagasy pronunciation is, the pronunciation of the old French name Tananarive is or in English and in French. Antananarivo was the site of a town called Analamanga, meaning "Blue Forest" in the Central Highlands dialect of the Malagasy language. Analamanga was established by a community of the island's first occupants. Merina King Andrianjaka, who migrated to the region from the southeast coast, seized the location as the site of his capital city. According to oral history, he deployed a garrison of 1,000 soldiers to capture and guard the site.
The hill and its city retained the name Analamanga until the reign of King Andriamasinavalona, who renamed it Antananarivo in honor of Andrianjaka's soldiers. Unlike most capital cities in southern Africa, Antananarivo was a major city before the colonial era. After expelling the Vazimba who inhabited the town at the peak of Analamanga hill, Andrianjaka chose the site for his rova, which expanded over time to enclose the royal palaces and the tom
Communist Party of Réunion
The Communist Party of Réunion is a Communist political party in the French overseas department of Réunion. PCR was founded in 1959, as the French Communist Party federation in Reunion became an independent party. In the same year, they decided to include demands for autonomy in their manifesto; the party said. It has since abandoned its policy of autonomism. Paul Vergès led the party from its foundation until February 1993, when he stepped down and Élie Hoarau was elected general secretary. During the late 1990s the relations between PCF and PCR became somewhat strained, regarding differences in party lines. Relations were, however restored in 2005, on the occasion of PCF leader Marie-George Buffet's visit to the island; the main party leaders are Huguette Bello and Pierre Vergès. The press outlet of the party is the daily newspaper Témoignages, founded by Paul Vergès' father, Dr. Raymond Vergès, in 1944. Temoignages has headquarters in Le Port, where the Communist Party gets most of their votes.
Élie Hoarau Paul Vergès Gélita Hoarau Huguette Bello Huguette Bello Claude Hoarau Roland Robert Yolande Pausé Eric Fruteau Jean-Yves Langenier Paul Vergès Maya Cesari Yasmina Panshbaya Élie Hoarau Rahiba Dubois Catherine Gaud Aline Hoarau Murin Béatrice Leperlier Philippe Jean-Pierre Maurice Gironcel Roland Ramakistin Yvon Virapin Robert Nativel Yvon Bello Eric Fruteau Monica Govindin Jean-Yves Langenier Roland Robert Pierre Vergès Marxist–Leninist Communist Organisation of Réunion Gilles Gauvin, Le parti communiste de la Réunion, Vingtième Siècle. Revue d'histoire, No. 68, pp. 73–94 Témoignages Paul Vergès MEP
Communist Party of Chile
The Communist Party of Chile is a Chilean political party inspired by the thoughts of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. It was founded in 1922, as the continuation of the Socialist Workers Party, in 1932 it established its youth wing, the Communist Youth of Chile, it achieved congressional representation shortly thereafter and played a leading role in the development of the Chilean labor movement. Tied to the Soviet Union and the Third International, the PCCh participated in the Popular Front government of 1938, growing among the unionized working class in the 1940s, it participated to the Popular Front's successor, the Democratic Alliance. Concern over the PCCh's success at building a strong electoral base, combined with the onset of the Cold War, led to its being outlawed in 1948 by a Radical government, a status it had to endure for a decade until 1958 when it was again legalized. By the 1960s, the party had become a veritable political subculture, with its own symbols and organizations and the support of prominent artists and intellectuals such as Pablo Neruda, the Nobel Prize-winning poet, Violeta Parra, the songwriter and folk artist.
At the time, the U. S. State Department estimated the party membership to be 27,500, it came to power along with the Socialist Party in the Unidad Popular coalition in 1970. Within the broad Unidad Popular alliance, the communists sided with Allende, a relative moderate from the Socialist Party, other more moderate forces of that coalition, supporting more gradual reforms and urging to find a compromise with the Christian Democrats; this line was opposed by more radically leftist factions of the Socialist Party and smaller far-left groups. The party was outlawed after the 1973 coup d'état. Much of the Communist leadership went underground, for a while the party's moderation continued after the coup had taken place, it has been argued by Mark Ensalaco that crushing the Communist Party was not a top priority for the military junta. In its first statement after the coup, the party leadership still argued that the coup could succeed because the Unidad Popular was too isolated, due to actions of the'far-left'.
Around 1977, the party changed direction. Communist Party members set up the Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front. With the restoration of democracy and the election of a new president in 1990, the Communist Party of Chile was legalized again; as part of the Popular Unity coalition the PCCh advocated a broad alliance. Since the restoration of democracy it has acted independently of its previous partners. Between 1983 and 1987 it was a member of the People's Democratic Movement. In the 1999/2000 presidential elections the party supported Gladys Marín Millie for the national presidential elections, she won 3.2% of the vote in the first round. At the 2005 legislative election, 11 December 2005, the party won 5.1% of the popular vote, but as a result of Chile's binomial electoral rules, no seats. The small but significant support of the PCCh is believed to have aided in the electoral victories of former socialist president Ricardo Lagos in the 2000 elections, in the more recent victory of Chile's first female president, the socialist Michelle Bachelet in January 2006, both of whom won in competitive second round runoffs.
The PCCh is a member of “New Majority”, a leftist coalition led by Michelle Bachelet. KeysRP = supported a candidate from the Radical Party SP = supported a candidate from the Socialist Party PU–SP = member of the Popular Unity coalition, supported the candidate from the Socialist Party PDC = supported a candidate from the Christian Democratic Party Ind = supported an independent candidate HP = supported a candidate from the Humanist Party NM–SP = member of the New Majority coalition, supported the candidate from the Socialist Party NM–Ind = member of the New Majority coalition, supported an independent candidate Communist Youth of Chile Luis Emilio Recabarren Popular Unity Co-ordinating Committee of Communist Parties in Britain Juntos PODEMOS Más Norte Grande insurrection Olga Ulianova and Alfredo Riquelme, Chile en los archivos soviéticos: 1922-1991: Tomo I, Komintern y Chile, 1922-1931. Santiago: Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana, Lom Ediciones, 2005. Olga Ulianova and Alfredo Riquelme, Chile en los archivos soviéticos: 1922-1991: Tomo II, Komintern y Chile, 1931-1935.
Santiago: Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana, Lom Ediciones, 2009. Homepage
Madagascar the Republic of Madagascar, known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean 400 kilometres off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from the Indian subcontinent around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; the island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the growing human population and other environmental threats. The first archaeological evidence for human foraging on Madagascar may have occurred as much as 10,000 years ago. Human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and 550 AD by Austronesian peoples, arriving on outrigger canoes from Borneo; these were joined around the 9th century AD by Bantu migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa. Other groups continued to settle on Madagascar over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life.
The Malagasy ethnic group is divided into 18 or more subgroups, of which the largest are the Merina of the central highlands. Until the late 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by a fragmented assortment of shifting sociopolitical alliances. Beginning in the early 19th century, most of the island was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar by a series of Merina nobles; the monarchy ended in 1897 when the island was absorbed into the French colonial empire, from which the island gained independence in 1960. The autonomous state of Madagascar has since undergone four major constitutional periods, termed republics. Since 1992, the nation has been governed as a constitutional democracy from its capital at Antananarivo. However, in a popular uprising in 2009, president Marc Ravalomanana was made to resign and presidential power was transferred in March 2009 to Andry Rajoelina. Constitutional governance was restored in January 2014, when Hery Rajaonarimampianina was named president following a 2013 election deemed fair and transparent by the international community.
Madagascar is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Madagascar belongs according to the United Nations. Malagasy and French are both official languages of the state; the majority of the population adheres to traditional beliefs, Christianity, or an amalgamation of both. Ecotourism and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education and private enterprise, are key elements of Madagascar's development strategy. Under Ravalomanana, these investments produced substantial economic growth, but the benefits were not evenly spread throughout the population, producing tensions over the increasing cost of living and declining living standards among the poor and some segments of the middle class; as of 2017, the economy has been weakened by the 2009–2013 political crisis, quality of life remains low for the majority of the Malagasy population. In the Malagasy language, the island of Madagascar is called Madagasikara and its people are referred to as Malagasy.
The island's appellation "Madagascar" is not of local origin but rather was popularized in the Middle Ages by Europeans. The name Madageiscar was first recorded in the memoirs of 13th-century Venetian explorer Marco Polo as a corrupted transliteration of the name Mogadishu, the Somali port with which Polo had confused the island. On St. Laurence's Day in 1500, Portuguese explorer Diogo Dias landed on the island and named it São Lourenço. Polo's name popularized on Renaissance maps. No single Malagasy-language name predating Madagasikara appears to have been used by the local population to refer to the island, although some communities had their own name for part or all of the land they inhabited. At 592,800 square kilometres, Madagascar is the world's 47th largest country and the fourth-largest island; the country lies between latitudes 12°S and 26°S, longitudes 43°E and 51°E. Neighboring islands include the French territory of Réunion and the country of Mauritius to the east, as well as the state of Comoros and the French territory of Mayotte to the north west.
The nearest mainland state is Mozambique, located to the west. The prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana separated the Madagascar–Antarctica–India landmass from the Africa–South America landmass around 135 million years ago. Madagascar split from India about 88 million years ago during the late Cretaceous period allowing plants and animals on the island to evolve in relative isolation. Along the length of the eastern coast runs a narrow and steep escarpment containing much of the island's remaining tropical lowland forest. To the west of this ridge lies a plateau in the center of the island ranging in altitude from 750 to 1,500 m above sea level; these central highlands, traditionally the homeland of the Merina people and the location of their historic capital at Antananarivo, are the most densely populated part of the island and are characterized by terraced, rice-growing valleys lying between grassy hills and patches of the subhumid forests that covered the highland region. To the west of the highlands, the arid terrain slope
Marxism is a theory and method of working class self-emancipation. As a theory, it relies on a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation, it originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Friedrich Engels. Marxism uses a methodology, now known as historical materialism, to analyze and critique the development of class society and of capitalism as well as the role of class struggles in systemic economic and political change. According to Marxist theory, in capitalist societies, class conflict arises due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed and exploited proletariat—a class of wage labourers employed to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie—the ruling class that owns the means of production and extracts its wealth through appropriation of the surplus product produced by the proletariat in the form of profit.
This class struggle, expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness. In periods of deep crisis, the resistance of the oppressed can culminate in a proletarian revolution which, if victorious, leads to the establishment of socialism—a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use; as the productive forces continued to advance, Marx hypothesized that socialism would be transformed into a communist society: a classless, humane society based on common ownership and the underlying principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs". Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, with the result that there is now no single definitive Marxist theory.
Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects. Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts, which has led to contradicting conclusions; however there is movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and dialectical materialism remains the fundamental aspect of all Marxist schools of thought. Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia and has influenced many fields such as archaeology, media studies, political science, history, art history and theory, cultural studies, economics, criminology, literary criticism, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy; the term "Marxism" was popularized by Karl Kautsky, who considered himself an "orthodox" Marxist during the dispute between the orthodox and revisionist followers of Marx. Kautsky's revisionist rival Eduard Bernstein later adopted use of the term. Engels did not support the use of the term "Marxism" to describe either his views.
Engels claimed that the term was being abusively used as a rhetorical qualifier by those attempting to cast themselves as "real" followers of Marx while casting others in different terms, such as "Lassallians". In 1882, Engels claimed that Marx had criticized self-proclaimed "Marxist" Paul Lafargue, by saying that if Lafargue's views were considered "Marxist" "one thing is certain and, that I am not a Marxist". Marxism analyzes the material conditions and the economic activities required to fulfill human material needs to explain social phenomena within any given society, it assumes that the form of economic organization, or mode of production, influences all other social phenomena—including wider social relations, political institutions, legal systems, cultural systems and ideologies. The economic system and these social relations form a superstructure; as forces of production, i.e. technology, existing forms of organizing production become obsolete and hinder further progress. As Karl Marx observed: "At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or—this expresses the same thing in legal terms—with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto.
From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Begins an era of social revolution"; these inefficiencies manifest themselves as social contradictions in society which are, in turn, fought out at the level of the class struggle. Under the capitalist mode of production, this struggle materializes between the minority who own the means of production and the vast majority of the population who produce goods and services. Starting with the conjectural premise that social change occurs because of the struggle between different classes within society who are under contradiction against each other, a Marxist would conclude that capitalism exploits and oppresses the proletariat, therefore capitalism will lead to a proletarian revolution. Marxian economics and its proponents view capitalism as economically unsustainable and incapable of improving the living standards of the population due to its need to compensate for falling rates of profit by cutting employee's wages, social benefits and pursuing military aggression.
The socialist system would succeed capitalism as humanity's mode of production through workers' revolution. According to Marxian crisis theory, socialism is not an economic necessity. In a sociali
Communist Party of Cuba
The Communist Party of Cuba is the ruling political party in the Republic of Cuba. It is a communist party of the Marxist–Leninist model; the Cuban constitution ascribes the role of the party to be the "leading force of society and of the state". Since April 2011, the First Secretary of the Central Committee has been Raúl Castro, younger brother of the previous First Secretary Fidel Castro, who died on 25 November 2016; the Second Secretary has been José Ramón Machado Ventura. Cuba had a number of communist and anarchist organizations from the early period of the Republic; the original "internationalised" Communist Party of Cuba formed in the 1920s. In 1944, it renamed itself as the Popular Socialist Party for electoral reasons. In July 1961, two years after the successful overthrow of Fulgencio Batista and the creation of a revolutionary government, the Integrated Revolutionary Organizations was formed from the merger of: Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement The Popular Socialist Party led by Blas Roca The student-based Revolutionary Directory led by Faure ChomónOn 26 March 1962, the ORI became the United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution, which in turn became the Communist Party of Cuba on 3 October 1965.
In Article 5 of the Cuban constitution of 1976, the Communist Party is recognized as "the superior guiding force of society and of the State, that organizes and orients common efforts toward the high goals of the construction of socialism and the advancement toward communist society". All parties, including the Communist Party, are prohibited from publicly advertizing their organizations. For the first fifteen years of its formal existence, the Communist Party was completely inactive outside of the Politburo; the 100 person Central Committee met and it was ten years after its founding that the first regular party Congress was held. In 1969, membership of the party was only 55,000 or 0.7% of the population, making the PCC the smallest ruling communist party in the world. In the 1970s, the party's apparatus began to develop. By the time of the first party Congress in 1975, the party had grown to just over two hundred thousand members, the Central Committee was meeting and provided the organizational apparatus giving the party the leading role in society that ruling Communist parties hold.
By 1980, the party had grown to over 430,000 members and it grew further to 520,000 by 1985. Apparatuses of the party had grown to ensure that its leading cadres were appointed to key government positions; the Communist Party of Cuba held its first party Congress in 1975 and has had additional congresses in 1980, 1986, 1991, 1997 and 2011. The Seventh Congress took place from 19 April to 22 April 2016, around the 55th anniversary of the Bay of Pigs Invasion, concluding with remarks by Fidel Castro. See also: List of members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba The leading bodies of the party were the Politburo and the Secretariat until 1991 when the two bodies were merged into an expanded Politburo with over twenty members. However, the Secretariat was re-introduced in 2002. There is a Central Committee which meets between party congresses. At the Fifth Congress, the size of the Central Committee was reduced to 150 members from the previous membership of 225. Fidel Castro was the party's First Secretary since its inception while Raúl Castro was the Second Secretary.
Upon Fidel Castro's 2008 resignation from the party and Cuban government, Raúl Castro became First Secretary. The 7th Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba was elected by the Central Committee on 19 April 2016 following the 7th Congress; the 6th Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba was elected by the Central Committee on 19 April 2011 following the 6th Congress. The Communist Party of Cuba has a youth wing, the Young Communist League, a member organization of the World Federation of Democratic Youth, it has a children's group, the José Martí Pioneer Organization. Compared with other ruling Communist Parties, such as in Vietnam and Laos, the Communist Party of Cuba retains a stricter adherence to the tradition of Marxism–Leninism and the traditional Soviet model; the party has been more reluctant in engaging in market reforms, though it has been forced to accept some market measures in its economy due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the resultant loss of economic subsidies.
The Communist Party of Cuba has favored supporting revolutions abroad and was active in assisting the ELN in Colombia, the FMLN in El Salvador, the Sandinistas in Nicaragua, Maurice Bishop's New Jewel Movement in Grenada. Their most significant international role was in the civil war in Angola, where there was Cuban direction of a joint Angolan/Soviet/Cuban force, involved in the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale; this led to the withdrawal of intervening forces and in the following peace agreement the independence of Namibia from South African rule. The party maintains a policy of sending thousands of Cuban doctors, agricultural technicians, other professionals to other countries throughout the developing world. More the party has sought to support left-wing leaders such as Hugo Chávez and Nicolás Maduro in Venezuela and Evo Morales in Bolivia. Raúl Castro is campaigning to "renew" Cuba's socialist economy through incorporating new exchange and distribution systems that have been traditionally seen as "market" oriented.
This has led to some speculation that Cuba may transition towards a model more similar to that of China. List of political parties in Cuba Citations Barry Carr. Tim Rees and Andrew Thorpe. "From Caribbean Backwater to Revolutionary Opportunity: Cuba's Evolving Relationship with the Comintern, 1
Antsiranana, named Diego-Suarez prior to 1975, is a city in the far north of Madagascar. Antsiranana is the capital of Diana Region, it had an estimated population of 115,015 in 2013. The bay and city used the name Diego Suarez, named after Diogo Soares, a Portuguese navigator who visited the bay in 1543–44. In the 1880s, the bay was coveted by France. After the first Franco-Hova War, Queen Ranavalona III signed a treaty on December 17, 1885 granting France a protectorate over the bay and surrounding territory, as well as the islands of Nosy-Be and Ste. Marie de Madagascar; the colony's administration was subsumed into that of Madagascar in 1896. The Second Pacific Squadron of Imperial Russia anchored and was resupplied at Diego-Suarez on its way to the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. In 1942, Diego Suárez was the primary objective of Operation Ironclad, the starting point of the Allied invasion and capture of Madagascar; the Allies were concerned that Japan would pressure Vichy France into granting use of Madagascar, as they had with French Indo-China during the previous year, determined that the island should not be made a base for the interception of Allied shipping.
Diego Suarez, with its superb harbour and a concentration of government officials, was selected as the initial invasion point. The Japanese responded with an attack by midget submarines on the British naval forces in the harbour, damaging the battleship HMS Ramillies and sinking an oil tanker. France continued to use the city as a military base after Malagasy independence in 1960 until the socialist revolution of 1973. Antsiranana is situated on Antsiranana Bay, one of the largest deep-water harbours in the Indian Ocean, but the remote location, until a bad road to the south, rendered it unimportant for freight traffic. Arrachart Airport provides communication with other parts of Madagascar. Lycée Français Diego Suarez, or Lycée Français Sadi-Carnot, is a French international school in Antsiranana, it was the Collège français Sadi Carnot. The climactic scenes of the alternative history novel The Madagaskar Plan are set in the city. Antsiranana Bay Decauville railway at Diégo Suarez Atlantis Loved Kilimanjaro at Archive.today Diego Suarez review