Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union

The Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union was the highest body of state authority of the Soviet Union from 1989 to 1991. The Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union was created as part of Mikhail Gorbachev's reform agenda, was enabled by Gorbachev's first constitutional change. On 1 July 1988, the fourth and last day of the 19th Party Conference, Gorbachev won the backing of the delegates for his last minute proposal to create a new supreme legislative body called the Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union. Frustrated by the'old guard's resistance to his attempts to liberalise, Gorbachev changed tack and embarked upon a set of constitutional changes to try and separate party and state, thereby isolate his conservative opponents. Detailed proposals for the new Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union were published for public consultation on 2 October 1988, to enable the creation of the new legislature the Supreme Soviet, during its 29 November to 1 December 1988 session, implemented the amendments to the 1977 Soviet Constitution, enacted a law on electoral reform, set the date of the election for 26 March 1989.

The Congress consisted of 2,250 deputies elected in three different ways: 750 deputies were elected according to the system used in Soviet of the Union elections in the 1936–1989 period. 750 deputies were elected according to the system used in Soviet of Nationalities elections in the 1936–1989 period. 750 deputies representing "public organizations", such as the Communist Party and the trade unions. The election law would allocate a fixed number of seats to organizations; the congress would gather twice a year and would elect the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union consisting of a smaller number of deputies. The Supreme Soviet would serve as a permanent legislature, deciding all but the most important issues, such as amendments to the Soviet constitution, which were left to the full Congress only; the month-long nomination of candidates for the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR lasted until 24 January 1989. For the next month, selection among the 7,531 districts nominees took place at meetings organized by constituency-level electoral commissions.

On 7 March, a final list of 5,074 candidates was published. In the two weeks prior to the 1,500 districts polls, elections to fill 750 reserved seats of public organizations, contested by 880 candidates, were held. Of these seats, 100 were allocated to the CPSU, 100 to the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, 75 to the Communist Youth Union, 75 to the Soviet Women's Committee, 75 to the War and Labour Veterans' Organization, 325 to other organizations such as the Academy of Sciences; the selection process was completed in April. In the 26 March general elections, voter participation was reported at 89.8%. With this polling, 1,958 – including 1,225 district seats – of the 2,250 CPD seats were filled. In the district races, run-off elections were held in 76 constituencies on 2 and 9 April and fresh elections were organized on 20 April and 14 to 23 May in the 199 remaining constituencies where the required absolute majority was not attained. At its first session commencing on 25 May, the CPD proceeded to choose the 542 Supreme Soviet members from among 573 candidates.

Final results were announced on 27 May. The Supreme Soviet, a "permanent legislative and central body of state authority of the USSR", is to be convened annually by its Presidium for its recurrent spring and autumn sessions to last, as a rule, three to four months each; the Supreme Soviet was convened for its first session on 3 June. On 21 July, the composition of the new Council of Ministers, headed by Nikolai Ryzhkov, was announced. Only one Congress was elected, in March 1989; the fundamental difference from previous elections in Soviet Union was that elections were competitive. Instead of one Communist Party-approved candidate for each seat, multiple candidates were allowed. A variety of different political positions, from Communist to pro-Western, were represented in the Congress, lively debates took place with different viewpoints expressed; as a result of the attempted coup in August 1991, the Congress dissolved itself on 5 September 1991, handing on its powers to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and newly created USSR State Council, which ceased to exist on 26 December 1991, along with the Soviet Union itself.

Congress of People's Deputies of Russia Congress of Soviets


Humanin is a micropeptide encoded in the mitochondrial genome by the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, MT-RNR2. Its structure contains a three-turn α-helix, no symmetry. In in vitro and animal models, it appears to have cytoprotective effects. Humanin is encoded in the mitochondrial genome by the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, MT-RNR2. Multiple isoforms are named MTRNR2L followed by a number; the expressed peptide contains a three-turn α-helix, has no symmetry. The length of the peptide depends on. If it is produced inside the mitochondria it will be 21 amino acids long. If it is produced outside the mitochondria, in the cytosol, it will be 24 amino acids long. Both peptides have been shown to have biological activity; the rat, Rattus norvegicus, has a gene, that encodes a 38 amino acid peptide homologous to humanin. The two genes produce cDNAs; the peptides are 81% identical, with the carboxyl terminal sequence 14 amino acids longer in rattin. Of the 24 amino acids in the rest of the sequence, 20 are identical. Humanin has several cytoprotective effects.

Extracellular interaction with a tripartite receptor composed of gp130, WSX1, CNTFR, as well as interaction with the formyl peptide receptor 2 have been published. Intracellular interaction with BAX, tBID, IGFBP3, TRIM11 may be required for the effects of humanin. Humanin was independently found by three different labs looking at different parameters; the first to publish, in 2001, was the Nishimoto lab, which found humanin while looking for possible proteins that could protect cells from amyloid beta, a major component of Alzheimer's disease. The Reed lab found humanin when screening for proteins that could interact with Bcl-2-associated X protein, a major protein involved in apoptosis; the Pinchas Cohen lab independently discovered humanin when screening for proteins that interact with IGFBP3. Experiments using cultured cells have demonstrated that humanin has both neuroprotective as well as cytoprotective effects and experiments in rodents have found that it has protective effects in Alzheimer's disease models, Huntington's disease models and stroke models.

Humanin is proposed to have myriad cytoprotective effects. Both studies in cells and rodents have both found that administration of humanin or humanin derivatives increases survival and/or physiological parameters in Alzheimer's disease models. In addition to Alzheimer's disease, humanin has other neuroprotective effects against models of Huntington's disease, prion disease, stroke. Beyond the possible neuroprotective effects, humanin protects against oxidative stress, atherosclerotic plaque formation, heart attack. Metabolic effects have been demonstrated and humanin helps improve survival of pancreatic beta-cells, which may help with type 1 diabetes, increases insulin sensitivity, which may help with type 2 diabetes. In rats, the humanin analog appears to reduce diabetes symptoms. Rattin shows the same ability as humanin to defend neurons from the toxicity of beta-amyloid, the cause of degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Small humanin-like peptides are a group of peptides found in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA, possess retrograde signaling functions

Head of the Hawk

Head of the Hawk is the second studio album by the Australian rock band Bluejuice, released through Dew Process on 18 September 2009. The album was recorded with producer Chris Shaw in Sydney's Big Jesus Burger studios in 2009. Rolling Stone Australia gave the album three and a half stars out of five. Time Out Sydney rated the album four out of five stars. "Head of the Hawk" — 2:44 "Miss Johnston" — 3:16 "Broken Leg" — 3:12 "Little Emperor" — 3:08 " Telling the Truth" — 2:43 "Facelift" — 2:08 "Medication" — 2:48 "Knife Fight" — 2:25 "Work" — 2:47 "The Devil" — 2:04 "We Can Get Around It" — 2:50