Congressional Debate is a competitive interscholastic high school Debate event in the United States. The National Speech and Debate Association, National Catholic Forensic League and many state associations and national invitational tournaments offer Congressional Debate as an event; each organization and tournament offers its own rules, although the National Forensic League has championed standardization since 2007, when it began to ask its districts to use one of a number of procedures for qualification to its National Tournament. The Pakistan Student Congress event is a conference, not interscholastic competition. In Congressional Debate, high school students emulate members of the United States Congress by debating pieces of legislation, including bills and resolutions. Before the event, each school submits mock legislation to each tournament. After the legislation has been compiled, it is distributed to each participating team; each team attempts to research as many topics as possible, with the goal of being able to speak on both sides of every legislation.
Unlike other debate events, students drive the topics for discussion by drafting their own legislation for submission to tournaments. The bills and resolutions must be national in scope, must either fall within jurisdiction for lawmaking by the United States Congress as a bill, or express a specific position and/or recommendation for further action outside of Congress' jurisdiction as a resolution. A popular type of resolution is to propose amendments to the United States Constitution, which requires action by state legislatures. Tournaments may review legislation submitted before sharing the overall docket with all participating schools. Contestants from each school should research and prepare arguments both in favor and against each legislation in the docket before arriving at the tournament, it is important. Students attending each tournament are divided up into sections of 10-30; these individual rooms are called chambers, sometimes labeled as a "House", or "Senate," depending on the region and the tournament.
During each phase of a tournament, there is at least one round referred to as a "session." The National Speech and Debate Association defines a session as having: Ten minutes of time allocated for each student Election of a presiding officer New seating chart Resetting of precedence/recency New legislation that has not been debated in a previous session at that tournament The same contestants stay in one chamber, until the tournament advances to the next level of elimination. While larger tournaments may have preliminary rounds that precede elimination rounds, smaller tournaments may not have elimination rounds and may recognize and award students in individual chambers. Rounds begin with a method for determining which bills will be debated and in which order, referred to as the docket; this most happens with a nominated docket at the tournament, although some areas have a system of informal caucusing or organized committees, which convene to review legislation, subdivided by the tournament to address a specific topic area, such as is done in the National Catholic Forensic League and Illinois Congressional Debate Association.
A common committee structure includes: "Public welfare", "Economics," and "Foreign Affairs." Congressional Debate speeches last up to three minutes. The first speech on each legislation, known as the "authorship", goes to the person who wrote the legislation, or from the same school of the author. If nobody from the author's school is present, another debater gives a sponsorship speech, functionally identical to an authorship; this first speech is followed by a two-minute questioning period. One three-minute speech in opposition follows it, with another mandatory two minutes of questioning. After these initial speeches, debate alternates in favor and opposition to the legislation with three-minute speeches and one minute of questioning. Within each speech, contestants should develop two or three organized, logical arguments supported by credible evidence for why the chamber should vote for or against the given legislation; the general format of a speech is as follows: Introduction: Usually, speeches begin with some sort of attention-getting device, such as a quotation or statistic.
The introduction is tied to the central thesis of the speech, as the speaker urges the chamber to vote in support or opposition. Sometimes, the two or three main lines of argument are previewed to give the audience an idea of where the speech is leading. Contentions: Two or three arguments for or against the legislation; each contention should be explained in the speaker's own words and supported by evidence from reputable and relevant sources. Conclusion: The speaker restates his 2 or 3 contentions and returns to the attention-getting device from the introduction to give the speech thematic unity. Alternatively, conclusions can consist of 1 or 2 sentences, such as "For these reasons you must pass/defeat this bill/resolution/legislation." Questioning, has been the standard set by the debate rules. One speaker at a time has an opportunity to ask one question at a time, moderated by the presiding officer. Questions attempt to expose faults in the speech given
Matthew Garrett Ramsey is an American professional baseball pitcher for the Toros de Tijuana of the Mexican League. He has played in Major League Baseball for the Los Angeles Angels. Ramsey attended Farragut High School in Tennessee, he did not sign. He attended the University of Tennessee, where he played college baseball for the Tennessee Volunteers. In 2010, he played collegiate summer baseball with the Harwich Mariners of the Cape Cod Baseball League; the Tampa Bay Rays selected Ramsey in the 19th round, with the 600th overall selection, of the 2011 MLB draft, signed. He made his professional debut in 2012 with the Gulf Coast Rays, going 2–1 with a 1.98 ERA in 13.2 innings. He split the 2013 season between the Bowling Green Hot Rods and the Charlotte Stone Crabs, accumulating a 1–2 record with a 2.84 ERA in 50.2 innings. In 2014, he was traded to the Miami Marlins for international bonus slot money, he split 2014 between the Montgomery Biscuits and the Jacksonville Suns, going a combined 3–2 with a 1.47 ERA in 60 innings.
On November 24, 2014, the Marlins added him to the 40-man roster. He spent the entire 2015 season on the disabled list due to an undisclosed injury, he was outrighted off the 40-man roster following the 2015 season. His 2016 season was split between the Gulf Coast Marlins, the Jupiter Hammerheads, Jacksonville, accumulating a 1–1 record with a 1.99 ERA in just 22 innings. Ramsey was selected by the Milwaukee Brewers in the Triple-A phase of the 2016 Rule 5 draft, his 2017 season was split between the Biloxi Shuckers, the Colorado Springs Sky Sox, accumulating a 3–4 record with a 5.26 ERA in 49.2 innings. On December 11, 2017, he signed a minor league contract with the Houston Astros. In 2018, he split the season between the Gulf Coast Astros and the Fresno Grizzlies, accumulating a 3–2 record with a 2.04 ERA in 53 innings. On December 11, 2018, Ramsey signed a minor league contract with the Los Angeles Angels, he opened the 2019 season with the Salt Lake Bees. On April 24, his contract was purchased and he was recalled to the major league roster.
He was designated for assignment on May 31 and released on June 2. On June 28, 2019, Ramsey signed with the Sugar Land Skeeters of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball, his contract was purchased by the Toros de Tijuana of the Mexican League on July 10, 2019. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference
KEIF-LP 104.7 FM was a low-power non-commercial community radio station in Enid, Oklahoma. It broadcast classic rock, local news and weather, specialty programs that feature blues and novelty songs. On March 18, 2013, the FCC rescinded the station's license due to a late renewal application and previous violations; the Enid Public Radio Association was formed on May 26, 2000 to serve the traditional and non-traditional education needs of the citizens of Enid, Oklahoma. The intent of the station is to make time available to various educational, civic and fine arts organizations to broadcast their respective programs, it founded KUAL-LP on June 11, 2001. The station changed its call sign to KEIF-LP on June 7, 2005. In August 2004, the Federal Communications Commission admonished the Enid Public Radio Association for broadcasting advertisements in 2002. No fine was issued at the time, the station reported that it had implemented stricter underwriting policies. However, on May 2, 2005, Chisholm Trail Broadcasting Company filed a petition to prevent renewal of KEIF's licence.
The petition focused on the following complaints: Advertisements identical to those airing in 2004 continued to air in May 2007 that violated the FCC's guidelines "prohibiting comparative or qualitative descriptions of the donor’s products or services, calls to action, or inducements to buy, rent, or lease." The FCC fined the station $5,000 on July 13, 2010. KEIF's antenna mounted on the Broadway Tower had a height above average terrain of 61.94 meters, 22.82 meters higher than the authorized 33 meters for low-power stations and an effective radiated power of 155 watts, 73 watts greater than the authorized wattage of 82 watts and 55 watts greater than the allowed maximum ERP of 100 watts. KEIF was fined an additional $5,000 for this violation on July 13, 2010. Chisholm Trail's petition alleged that an unauthorized transfer of control had taken place. Enid Public Radio's original board consisted of Bruce Sutherland, Carol Clark, Richard Cox, Ron Anderson, Steve Allen. Cox and Allen resigned on July 5, 2002.
The petition alleges that Scott Clark, the station's engineer, had "assumed a position on the board without having been approved". Statements by Cox regarding this lack of board approval were not presented under oath, were therefore, rejected by the FCC; the FCC found that with each board member having a 20 percent influence on the votes of the board. With 40 percent vacant by the resignations of Cox and Allen, 60 percent, therefore, a majority voting stake, still belonged to original board members; the FCC rejected this allegation, no fines were issued. The station's licence application was approved, expiring June 1, 2011. However, the approval was conditional as the station must pay its fines by August 13, 2010, lower its antenna to 33 meters by October 13, 2010, it is required to report information on underwriters and donors, operating logs, transcripts of any on-air announcements which acknowledge donations of funds, services, or goods. Engineer Scott Clark was quoted as saying, "We’re not going off the air, ever."On April 7, 2011, the FCC issued a forfeiture order against the Enid Public Radio association for failing to respond to the FCC regarding its original order in August 2010.
KEIF's license renewal application deadline was June 1, 2011. It denied. On March 18, 2013, KEIF was notified by the FCC that its license was rescinded and all authority to operate was terminated for failure to comply with the conditions of its last renewal, which included moving the antenna down to the authorized height of 33 meters and "a list of all program underwriters and other persons or entities whose donations, payments, or contributions have been acknowledged on air during the 180-day period of the report. Query the FCC's FM station database for KEIF Radio-Locator information on KEIF-LP Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KEIFCopy of FCC letter rescinding license
Estelle Cascarino is a women's association football player from Saint-Priest, Rhône, France. She plays as the France women's national football team. Cascarino started playing football at the age of thirteen for the youth teams of Olympique Lyon, she made her debut in the Division 1 Féminine in Olympique Lyonnais' 2014–15 season. While at Olympique Lyonnais, she won two Division 1 titles. Cascarino signed her first professional contract in 2015. In June 2016, Cascarino left Olympique Lyonnais as she felt that she would not have been selected due to a lack of first team opportunities, she moved to FCF Juvisy on a two-year contract. Cascarino was called up to play for the France women's under-16 national football team in 2012. From there, she moved up the individual French national age grades between 2012 and 2016. In 2016, she played in both the 2016 UEFA Women's Under-19 Championship and the 2016 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup at the respective age groups. In 2017, Cascarino made her debut for the France women's national football team in a friendly against Ghana.
Cascarino is the twin sister of Delphine Cascarino who plays football professionally as a midfielder. They are not related to Tony Cascarino, although they are asked if they are. Estelle Cascarino – FIFA competition record Estelle Cascarino – UEFA competition record Paris FC player profile Estelle Cascarino at Soccerway
Air Chief Marshal Sir William John Wratten, is a retired senior commander in the Royal Air Force, Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief of RAF Strike Command from 1994 to 1997. Educated at Chatham House Grammar School in Ramsgate, Wratten entered RAF Cranwell and was commissioned into the Royal Air Force in 1960, he was appointed Officer Commanding No. 23 Squadron in 1975 and, following his promotion to group captain, he became Station Commander at RAF Coningsby in 1980. In June 1982 he was made the first Station Commander at RAF Stanley in the Falkland Islands after the 1982 war, he went on to serve as Director of Operational Requirements at Ministry of Defence in 1983, as Senior Air Staff Officer at Headquarters No. 1 Group in 1986 and as Air Officer Commanding No. 11 Group in 1989. As an air vice marshal, he was Air Commander British Forces Middle East from 17 November 1990 until the end of the Gulf War, his last appointment was as Air Officer Commanding Strike Command in 1994 before he retired in 1997.
In 1995, following the Chinook Helicopter Crash on the Mull of Kintyre, Wratten was the Senior Reviewing Officer of the Board of Inquiry which had failed to find a cause of the accident. Despite a lack of Accident Data Recorder and cockpit voice recorder, Wratten concluded that because the aircraft hit the ground whilst in cloud/fog, pilot error was the cause of the crash and found the pilots guilty of gross negligence. Following a subsequent Scottish Fatal Accident Inquiry and House of Commons Public Accounts Committee report, a House of Lords Select Committee was appointed to consider all the circumstances surrounding the crash and unanimously concluded "that the reviewing officers were not justified in finding that negligence on the part of the pilots caused the aircraft to crash"
The 2015 Wychavon District Council election took place on 7 May 2015 to elect members of Wychavon District Council in Worcestershire, England. The whole council was up for election and the Conservative party stayed in overall control of the council. After the 2011 elections to Wychavon District Council the Conservatives controlled the council with 39 councillors, while the Liberal Democrats had five seats and there was one Labour party councillor. In March 2012 the Conservative councillor for Lovett and North Claines, Alan Fisher, was suspended from the council for 6 months and on his return sat as an independent councillor. Another change came in December 2013 when the councillor for Elmley Castle and Somerville, Roma Kirke, left the Conservatives to become an independent, before resigning from the council in December 2014. A further seat was vacant at the 2015 election in Badsey ward after the death of Conservative councillor Reg Jakeman, leaving the Conservatives with 36 seats, Liberal Democrats five, Labour one and there was one independent.
The 2015 election was the first time where parliamentary and parish elections were held at the same time in Wychavon since Wychavon District Council was founded in 1974. Over 100 candidates stood in the district election, up from 72 in 2011 and the number of contested wards increased from 21 to 28. Four Conservative candidates were elected unopposed in Bredon, Drakes Broughton and Pebworth, Norton and Whittington wards; the Conservatives retained control of the council after winning 39 seats, the same as in 2011, but up from before the election. Labour lost their only seat on the council to the Conservatives in Droitwich West, after the Labour councillor Peter Pinfield stood down at the election, which meant the Conservatives won every seat in Droitwich; the Liberal Democrats remained the largest opposition party on the council with five seats, after holding all of the seats they had been defending. The only other councillor elected was Ged Bearcroft for the UK Independence Party in Great Hampton ward.
He defeated the Conservative councillor for the previous 32 years, John Smith, by 17 votes after a recount, to win the first UK Independence Party seat on Wychavon District Council. Overall turnout at the election was 70.19%, up from 47% in 2011 and 42% in 2007, reaching 81.78% in Bowbrook. Following the election the Conservative leader of the council, Paul Middlebrough, stepped down as leader after eight years and was succeeded by Linda Robinson. A by-election was held in Droitwich East on 30 July 2015 after the death of Conservative councillor Glenise Noyes; the seat was held for Conservatives by Karen Tomalin with a majority of the 320 votes over Labour party candidate Jacqueline O'Reilly. Two by-elections were held on 4 May 2017. A by-election was held in Evesham South after the retirement of Ken Barclay on health grounds; the seat was held for the Conservatives by Matt Snape with a majority of 351 votes over the Liberal Democrat candidate Julie Haines. A by-election was held in Droitwich South East following the death of Maureen Lawley.
The seat was held for the Conservatives by Sital Harris with a majority of 903 votes over the Liberal Democrat candidate Adrian Key