Indiana University Bloomington
Indiana University Bloomington is a public research university in Bloomington, Indiana. It is the flagship institution of the Indiana University system and, with over 40,000 students, its largest university. Indiana University is a "Public Ivy" university and ranks in the top 100 national universities in the U. S. and among the top 50 public universities. It is a member of the Association of American Universities and has numerous schools and programs, including the Jacobs School of Music, the School of Informatics and Engineering, the O'Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs, the Kelley School of Business, the School of Public Health, the School of Nursing, the School of Optometry, the Maurer School of Law, the School of Education, the Media School, the Hamilton Lugar School of Global and International Studies; as of Fall 2017, 43,710 students attend Indiana University. While 55.1% of the student body was from Indiana, students from all 50 states, Washington, D. C. Puerto Rico and 165 countries were enrolled.
As of 2018, the average ACT score is a 28 and an SAT score of 1276. The university is home to an extensive student life program, with more than 750 student organizations on campus and with around 17 percent of undergraduates joining the Greek system. Indiana athletic teams are known as the Indiana Hoosiers; the university is a member of the Big Ten Conference. Indiana's faculty and alumni include nine Nobel laureates, 17 Rhodes Scholars, 17 Marshall Scholars, five MacArthur Fellows. In addition and alumni have won six Academy Awards, 49 Grammy Awards, 32 Emmy Awards, 20 Pulitzer Prizes, four Tony Awards, 104 Olympic medals. Notable Indiana alumni include James Watson, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Indiana's state government in Corydon established Indiana University on January 20, 1820, as the "State Seminary." Construction began in 1822 at what is now called Seminary Square Park near the intersection of Second Street and College Avenue. The first professor was Baynard Rush Hall, a Presbyterian minister who taught all of the classes in 1825–27.
In the first year, he taught twelve students and was paid $250. Hall was a classicist who focused on Greek and Latin and believed that the study of classical philosophy and languages formed the basis of the best education; the first class graduated in 1830. From 1820 to 1889 a legal-political battle was fought between IU and Vincennes University as to, the legitimate state university. In 1829, Andrew Wylie became the first president, serving until his death in 1851; the school's name was changed to "Indiana College" in 1829, to "Indiana University" in 1839. Wylie and David Maxwell, president of the board of trustees, were devout Presbyterians, they spoke of the nonsectarian status of the school but hired fellow Presbyterians. Presidents and professors were expected to set a moral example for their charges. After six ministers in a row, the first non-clergyman to become president was the young biology professor David Starr Jordan, in 1885. Jordan followed Baptist theologian Lemuel Moss, who resigned after a scandal broke regarding his involvement with a female professor.
Jordan improved the university's finances and public image, doubled its enrollment, instituted an elective system along the lines of his alma mater, Cornell University. Jordan became president of Stanford University in June 1891. Growth of the college was slow. In 1851, IU had seven professors. IU admitted its first woman student, Sarah Parke Morrison, in 1867, making IU the fourth public university to admit women on an equal basis with men. Morrison went on to become the first female professor at IU in 1873. Mathematician Joseph Swain was IU's first Hoosier-born president, 1893 to 1902, he established Kirkwood Hall in 1894. He began construction for Science Hall in 1901. During his presidency, student enrollment increased from 524 to 1,285. In 1883, IU awarded its first Ph. D. and played its first intercollegiate sport, prefiguring the school's future status as a major research institution and a power in collegiate athletics. But another incident that year was of more immediate concern: the original campus in Seminary Square burned to the ground.
The college was rebuilt between 1884 and 1908 at the far eastern edge of Bloomington. One challenge was that Bloomington's limited water supply was inadequate for its population of 12,000 and could not handle university expansion; the University commissioned a study. In 1902, IU enrolled 1203 undergraduates. There were 82 graduate students including ten from out-of-state; the curriculum emphasized the classics, as befitted a gentleman, stood in contrast to the service-oriented curriculum at Purdue, which presented itself as of direct benefit to farmers and businessmen. The first extension office of IU was opened in Indianapolis in 1916. In 1920/1921 the School of Music and the School of Commerce and Finance (what becam
Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives
Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives are representatives of their territory in the House of Representatives, who do not have a right to vote on proposed legislation in the full House but have floor privileges and are able to participate in certain other House functions. Non-voting members may vote in a House committee of which they are a member and introduce legislation. There are six non-voting members: a delegate representing the federal district of Washington D. C. a resident commissioner representing Puerto Rico, one delegate for each of the other four permanently inhabited US Territories: American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the US Virgin Islands. As with voting members, non-voting delegates are elected every two years, the Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico is elected every four years. Non voting members serve in the House of Representatives—not the Senate. All delegates serve a term of two years, they receive compensation and franking privileges similar to full House members.
Since 1993, the rules governing the rights of a non-voting member have changed three times, current delegates—along with the resident commissioner—enjoy privileges that they did not have previously. Territorial delegates existed before the ratification of the United States Constitution; the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 allowed for a territory with "five thousand free male inhabitants of full age" to elect a non-voting delegate to the Continental Congress. After the ratification of the Constitution, the first United States Congress reenacted the Ordinance and extended it to include the territories south of the Ohio River. In 1790, the state of North Carolina—having ratified the constitution, becoming the 12th state—sent its congressional delegation to what was the federal capital at New York City. Among them was former State of Franklin Governor John Sevier, whose district comprised the "counties beyond the Alleghenies", he took office June 16, 1790, the government of North Carolina had ceded his district to the federal government on February 25, 1790 and it was organized into a territory on August 7, 1790.
He remained a member of the House until March 3, 1791 when he was appointed brigadier general of the militia. On September 3, 1794, James White was elected by the Southwest Territory, which contained Sevier's former district, to be their delegate to Congress. A resolution was put forth in the House to admit him to Congress, but as a delegate was not a position stated in the Constitution, the House debated what, if any, privileges White would have; as the Northwest Ordinance had only stated that a delegate is to sit "in Congress" the first debate was which chamber a delegate would sit in. Resolutions that he sit in both chambers and that his right to debate be limited to territorial matters were defeated; the House voted to allow him a non-voting seat in the House. Following his placement, representatives debated. Representative James Madison stated "The proper definition of Mr. White is to be found in the Laws and Rules of the Constitution, he is not a member of Congress, so cannot be directed to take an oath, unless he chooses to do it voluntarily."
As he was not a Member, he was not directed to take the oath, though every delegate after him has done so. He was extended franking privileges, which allowed him to send official mail free of charge, compensation at the same rate as members. In 1802 Congress passed a law that extended franking privileges and pay to delegates. An act passed in 1817 codified the term and privileges of delegates: n every territory of the United States in which a temporary government has been, or hereafter shall be established...shall have the right to send a delegate to Congress, such delegate shall be elected every second year, for the same term of two years for which members of the House of Representatives of the United States are elected. Similar to delegates are resident commissioners, who represented the large areas acquired during the Spanish–American War, for much of the 20th century were considered colonies, not territories and unlike the acquired areas which would become the contiguous U. S. or Alaska and Hawaii, did not have residents with the rights of, or to U.
S. citizenship. Unlike incorporated territories, they have the right to secede from the Union, in the case of the Philippines, they have. Puerto Rico, a U. S. Commonwealth, has been represented by a non-voting Resident Commissioner since 1901; the resident commissioner holds a status similar to that of a delegate within the House, but serves a four-year term. The resident commissioner is the only individual elected to the House. From 1907 until 1937, while it was a U. S. territory, the Philippines elected two non-voting resident commissioners to serve in the U. S. House of Representatives. From 1937 until 1946, while it was a U. S. Commonwealth, the Philippines sent one non-voting resident commissioner to the House. Upon independence in 1946, the Philippines ceased to be represented in Congress. In the mid-1960s, a number of small territories which had no prospects of becoming states began to petition for representation in Congress. Starting in 1970, the House of Representatives started to grant representation to these territories, but with limited voting rights.
American Samoa, an insular area since 1929, first elected a delegate, A. U. Fuimaono, in 1970. However, A
116th United States Congress
The 116th United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D. C. on January 3, 2019 and will end on January 3, 2021, during the third and fourth years of Donald Trump's presidency. Senators elected to regular terms in 2014 are finishing their terms in this Congress and House seats were apportioned based on the 2010 Census. In the November 2018 midterm elections, the Democratic Party won a new majority in the House, while the Republican Party increased its majority in the Senate; this is the first split Congress since the 113th, the first Republican Senate/Democrat House split since the 99th. This Congress is considered to be the most diverse elected, the youngest in the past three cycles. December 22, 2018 – January 25, 2019: 2018–19 United States federal government shutdown January 3, 2019: Nancy Pelosi elected Speaker of the House, becoming the first former speaker to return to the post since Sam Rayburn in 1955.
February 5, 2019: 2019 State of the Union Address, after being delayed from January 29, 2019, due to the partial government shutdown. February 15, 2019: President Trump declared a National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States. February 27, 2019: Former Trump lawyer Michael Cohen testified before the House Oversight and Reform Committee, accusing Trump of several financial fraud crimes. March 24, 2019: Special Counsel investigation: Summary letter of special counsel Robert Mueller's report issued to congress by attorney general William Barr. February 15, 2019: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2019, Pub. L. 116–6, H. J. 31 March 12, 2019: John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation and Recreation Act, Pub. L. 116–9, S. 47 For the People Act of 2019, H. R. 1 Equality Act, H. R. 5 Recognizing the duty of the Federal Government to create a Green New Deal, H. Res. 109 SAFE Banking Act of 2019, H. R. 1595 Taxpayer First Act of 2019, H. R. 1957 March 15, 2019: A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of a national emergency declaration at the southern border.
Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below. President: Mike Pence President pro tempore: Chuck Grassley President pro tempore emeritus: Patrick Leahy Majority Leader: Mitch McConnell Majority Whip: John Thune Conference Chair: John Barrasso Conference Vice Chair: Joni Ernst Policy Committee Chair: Roy Blunt Campaign Committee Chair: Todd Young Steering Committee Chair: Mike Lee Chief Deputy Whip: Mike Crapo Deputy Whips: Roy Blunt, Shelley Moore Capito, John Cornyn, Cory Gardner, James Lankford, Martha McSally, Rob Portman, Mitt Romney, Tim Scott, Thom Tillis, Todd Young Minority Leader/Caucus Chair: Chuck Schumer Minority Whip: Dick Durbin Assistant Leader: Patty Murray Policy Committee Chair: Debbie Stabenow Caucus Vice Chairs: Mark Warner, Elizabeth Warren Steering Committee Chair: Amy Klobuchar Outreach Chair: Bernie Sanders Policy Committee Vice Chair: Joe Manchin Caucus Secretary: Tammy Baldwin Campaign Committee Chair: Catherine Cortez Masto Chief Deputy Whip: Cory Booker, Jeff Merkley, Brian Schatz Speaker: Nancy Pelosi Majority Leader: Steny Hoyer Majority Whip: Jim Clyburn Assistant Leader: Ben Ray Luján Caucus Chair: Hakeem Jeffries Caucus Vice Chair: Katherine Clark Campaign Committee Chair: Cheri Bustos Policy and Communications Committee Chair: David Cicilline Policy and Communications Committee Co-Chairs: Matt Cartwright, Debbie Dingell, Ted Lieu Steering and Policy Committee Co-Chairs: Rosa DeLauro, Barbara Lee, Eric Swalwell Assistant to the Majority Whip: Cedric Richmond Senior Chief Deputy Whips: John Lewis, Jan Schakowsky Chief Deputy Whips: Pete Aguilar, G. K. Butterfield, Henry Cuellar, Dan Kildee, Sheila Jackson Lee, Debbie Wasserman Schultz, Terri Sewell, Peter Welch Minority Leader: Kevin McCarthy Minority Whip: Steve Scalise Conference Chair: Liz Cheney Conference Vice Chair: Mark Walker Conference Secretary: Jason Smith Policy Committee Chair: Gary Palmer Campaign Committee Chair: Tom Emmer Chief Deputy Whip: Drew Ferguson Most members of this Congress are Christian, with half being Protestant and 30.5% being Catholic.
Jewish membership is the highest percentage in American history. Other religions represented include Buddhism and Hinduism. One senator says that she is religiously unaffiliated, while the number of members refusing to specify their religious affiliation increased; the Senate includes 25 women, the most female senators to date. In six states — California, Nevada, Arizona and New Hampshire — both senators are women. 13 states are represented by one male and one female senator, while 31 states are represented by two male senators. There are 91 non-Hispanic white, four Hispanic, three Black, three Asian, one multiracial senators, while two identify as LGBTQ+. There are 102 women in the largest number in history. There are 313 non-Hispanic whites, 56 black, 44 Hispanic, 15 Asian, 4 Native American. Eight identify as LGBTQ+. Two Democrats — Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Donna Shalala — are the youngest and oldest freshman women in history. Freshmen women Rashida Tlaib and Ilhan Omar are the first two female Muslims and freshmen Sharice Davids and Deb Haaland are the first two female Native American members.
The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 1 seats were contested in the November 2018 elections. In this Congress, class 1 means their term commenced in the current Congress, requiring re-election in 2024.
Party leaders of the United States Senate
The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders are two United States Senators and members of the party leadership of the United States Senate. These leaders serve as the chief Senate spokespeople for the political parties holding the majority and the minority in the United States Senate, manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate, they are elected to their positions in the Senate by the party caucuses: the Senate Democratic Caucus and the Senate Republican Conference. By rule, the Presiding Officer gives the Majority Leader priority in obtaining recognition to speak on the floor of the Senate; the Majority Leader customarily serves as the chief representative of their party in the Senate, sometimes in all of Congress if the House of Representatives and thus the office of Speaker of the House is controlled by the opposition party. The Assistant Majority and Minority Leaders of the United States Senate are the second-ranking members of each party's leadership; the main function of the Majority and Minority Whips is to gather votes on major issues.
Because they are the second ranking members of the Senate, if there is no floor leader present, the whip may become acting floor leader. Before 1969, the official titles were Minority Whip; the Senate is composed of 53 Republicans, 45 Democrats, 2 independents, both of whom caucus with the Democrats. The current leaders are Chuck Schumer from New York; the current Assistant Leaders/Whips are Senators John Thune from South Dakota and Dick Durbin from Illinois. Democrats began the practice of electing floor leaders in 1920. John W. Kern was a Democratic Senator from Indiana. While the title was not official, he is considered to be the first Senate party leader from 1913 through 1917, while serving concurrently as Chairman of the Senate Democratic Caucus. In 1925 the majority Republicans adopted this language when Charles Curtis became the first Majority Leader, although his immediate predecessor Henry Cabot Lodge is considered the first Senate Majority Leader; the Constitution designates the Vice President of the United States as President of the United States Senate.
The Constitution calls for a President pro tempore to serve as the leader of the body when the President of the Senate is absent. In practice, neither the Vice President nor the President pro tempore—customarily the most senior Senator in the majority party—actually presides over the Senate on a daily basis. Since the Vice President may be of a different party than the majority and is not a member subject to discipline, the rules of procedure of the Senate give the presiding officer little power and none beyond the presiding role. For these reasons, it is the Majority Leader; this is in contrast to the House of Representatives where the elected Speaker of the House has a great deal of discretionary power and presides over votes on bills. The Democratic Party first selected a leader in 1920; the Republican Party first formally designated a leader in 1925. Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives President pro tempore of the United States Senate Vice President of the United States Party divisions of United States Congresses List of political parties in the United States Women in the United States Senate Majority and Minority Leaders and Party Whips, via Senate.gov Republican Majority Democratic Minority
Impeachment in the United States
Impeachment in the United States is the process by which the lower house of a legislature brings charges against a civil officer of government for crimes alleged to have been committed, analogous to the bringing of an indictment by a grand jury. At the federal level, this is at the discretion of the House of Representatives. Most impeachments have concerned alleged crimes committed while in office, though there have been a few cases in which officials have been impeached and subsequently convicted for crimes committed prior to taking office; the impeached official remains in office. That trial, their removal from office if convicted, is separate from the act of impeachment itself. Analogous to a trial before a judge and jury, these proceedings are conducted by upper house of the legislature, which at the federal level is the Senate. At the federal level, Article I, Section 2, Clause 5 of the Constitution grants to the House of Representatives "the sole power of impeachment", Article I, Section 3, Clause 6 grants to the Senate "the sole Power to try all Impeachments".
In considering articles of impeachment, the House is obligated to base any charges on the constitutional standards specified in Article II, Section 4: "The President, Vice President, all civil Officers of the United States shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, conviction of, Bribery, or other High Crimes and Misdemeanors." Impeachment can occur at the state level. Each state's legislature can impeach state officials, including the governor, in accordance with their respective state constitution; the number of federal officials impeached by the House of Representatives includes two presidents: Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton. Additionally, an impeachment process against Richard Nixon was commenced, but not completed, as he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment. To date, no president has been removed from office by conviction. Impeachment proceedings may be commenced by a member of the House of Representatives on his or her own initiative, either by presenting a list of the charges under oath or by asking for referral to the appropriate committee.
The impeachment process may be initiated by non-members. For example, when the Judicial Conference of the United States suggests a federal judge be impeached, a charge of actions constituting grounds for impeachment may come from a special prosecutor, the President, or state or territorial legislature, grand jury, or by petition; the type of impeachment resolution determines the committee. A resolution impeaching a particular individual is referred to the House Committee on the Judiciary. A resolution to authorize an investigation regarding impeachable conduct is referred to the House Committee on Rules, to the Judiciary Committee; the House Committee on the Judiciary, by majority vote, will determine whether grounds for impeachment exist. If the Committee finds grounds for impeachment, it will set forth specific allegations of misconduct in one or more articles of impeachment; the Impeachment Resolution, or Articles of Impeachment, are reported to the full House with the committee's recommendations.
The House debates the resolution and may at the conclusion consider the resolution as a whole or vote on each article of impeachment individually. A simple majority of those present and voting is required for each article for the resolution as a whole to pass. If the House votes to impeach, managers are selected to present the case to the Senate. Managers have been selected by resolution, while the House would elect the managers or pass a resolution allowing the appointment of managers at the discretion of the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives; these managers are the equivalent of the prosecution or district attorney in a standard criminal trial. The House will adopt a resolution in order to notify the Senate of its action. After receiving the notice, the Senate will adopt an order notifying the House that it is ready to receive the managers; the House managers appear before the bar of the Senate and exhibit the articles of impeachment. After the reading of the charges, the managers make a verbal report to the House.
The proceedings unfold in the form of a trial, with each side having the right to call witnesses and perform cross-examinations. The House members, who are given the collective title of managers during the course of the trial, present the prosecution case, the impeached official has the right to mount a defense with his or her own attorneys as well. Senators must take an oath or affirmation that they will perform their duties and with due diligence. After hearing the charges, the Senate deliberates in private; the Constitution requires a two-thirds super majority to convict a person being impeached. The Senate enters judgment on its decision, whether that be to convict or acquit, a copy of the judgment is filed with the Secretary of State. Upon conviction in the Senate, the official is automatically removed from office and may be barred from holding future office; the trial is not an actual criminal proceeding and more resembles a civil service termination appeal in terms of the contemplated deprivation.
Therefore, the removed official may still be liable to criminal prosecution under a subsequent criminal proceeding. The President may not grant a pardon in the impeachment case, but may in any resulting Federal criminal case. Beginning in the 1980s with Harry E. Claiborne, the Senate began using "Impeachment
Dean of the United States House of Representatives
The Dean of the United States House of Representatives is the longest continuously serving member of the House. The current Dean is Don Young, a Republican Party representative from Alaska who has served since 1973, is the first Republican Dean in more than eighty years, as well as the first from Alaska; the Dean is a symbolic post whose only customary duty is to swear in a Speaker of the House after he or she is elected. The Dean comes forward on the House Floor to administer the oath to the Speaker-elect, before the new Speaker administers the oath to the other members. While the Dean does swear in newly elected Speakers, he or she does not preside over the election of a Speaker, as do the Father of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom and the Dean of the Canadian House of Commons; because of other privileges associated with seniority, the Dean is allotted some of the most desirable office space, is either chair or ranking minority member of an influential committee. It is unclear when the position first achieved concrete recognition, though the seniority system and increasing lengths of service emerged in the early 20th century.
As late as 1924, Frederick H. Gillett was Dean, Speaker, before becoming a Senator. Modern Deans move into their positions so late in their careers that a move to the Senate is unlikely; when Ed Markey broke Gillett's record for time in the House before moving to the Senate in 2013 he was still decades junior to the sitting Dean. The Deanship can change hands unexpectedly. In the 1952 election, Adolph J. Sabath became the first Representative elected to a 24th term, breaking the record of 23 terms first set by former Speaker Joseph Gurney Cannon, whose service had been discontinuous, whereas Sabath's was not. North Carolina's Robert L. Doughton had not contested that election as he was retiring at the age of 89 years and two months, a House age record broken in 1998 by Sidney R. Yates, again by Ralph Hall in 2012. Claude Pepper, who died early in his final term in 1989, held the record for oldest winner of a House election until Hall broke it in 2012. However, Sabath died before the new term began and Doughton was Dean for the old term's final months before Speaker Sam Rayburn became Dean in the new Congress.
In 1994, Texas Democrat Jack Brooks was defeated by Steve Stockman in the year he was expected to succeed Jamie Whitten as Dean. Years as Dean are followed by name, party and start of service in Congress. All the members of the First Congress had equal seniority, but Muhlenberg, as the Speaker, was the first member to be sworn in. Muhlenberg and Thatcher were among the 13 members who attended the initial meeting of the House on March 4, 1789. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries some state delegations to the House were not elected until after the term had begun. To avoid confusion, this fact is ignored in the list below. Oldest living United States president List of the oldest living members of the United States House of Representatives President Pro Tempore of the United States Senate Dean of the United States Senate List of longest-living United States Senators Earliest serving United States Senator List of oldest living United States governors List of members of the United States Congress by longevity of service House.gov page "Deans/Fathers of the House"
A diary is a record with discrete entries arranged by date reporting on what has happened over the course of a day or other period. A personal diary may include a person's experiences, and/or feelings, excluding comments on current events outside the writer's direct experience. Someone who keeps a diary is known as a diarist. Diaries undertaken for institutional purposes play a role in many aspects of human civilization, including government records, business ledgers, military records. In British English, the word may denote a preprinted journal format. A diary is a collection of notes. Today the term is employed for personal diaries intended to remain private or to have a limited circulation amongst friends or relatives; the word "journal" may be sometimes used for "diary," but a diary has daily entries, whereas journal-writing can be less frequent. Although a diary may provide information for a memoir, autobiography or biography, it is written not with the intention of being published as it stands, but for the author's own use.
In recent years, there is internal evidence in some diaries that they are written with eventual publication in mind, with the intention of self-vindication, or for profit. By extension the term diary is used to mean a printed publication of a written diary; the word diary comes from the Latin diarium. The word journal comes from the same root through Old French jurnal; the earliest use of the word refers to a book in which a daily record was written was in Ben Jonson's comedy Volpone in 1605. The oldest extant diaries come from Middle Eastern and East Asian cultures, although the earlier work To Myself, today known as the Meditations, written in Greek by the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius in the second half of the 2nd century AD displays many characteristics of a diary. Pillowbooks of Japanese court ladies and Asian travel journals offer some aspects of this genre of writing, although they consist of diurnal records; the scholar Li Ao, for example, kept a diary of his journey through southern China.
In the medieval Near East, Arabic diaries were written from before the 10th century. The earliest surviving diary of this era which most resembles the modern diary was that of Ibn Banna' in the 11th century, his diary is the earliest known to be arranged in order of date much like modern diaries. The precursors of the diary in the modern sense include daily notes of medieval mystics, concerned with inward emotions and outward events perceived as spiritually important. From the Renaissance on, some individuals wanted not only to record events, as in medieval chronicles and itineraries, but to put down their own opinions and express their hopes and fears, without any intention to publish these notes. One of the early preserved examples is the anonymous Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris that covers the years 1405–49, giving subjective commentaries on the current events. Famous 14th- to 16th-century Renaissance examples, which appeared much as books, were the diaries by the Florentines Buonaccorso Pitti and Gregorio Dati and the Venetian Marino Sanuto the Younger.
Here we find records of less important everyday occurrences together with much reflection, emotional experience and personal impressions. In 1908 the Smythson company created the first featherweight diary, enabling diaries to be carried about. Many diaries of notable figures have been published and form an important element of autobiographical literature. Samuel Pepys is the earliest diarist, well known today. Pepys was amongst the first who took the diary beyond mere business transaction notation, into the realm of the personal. Pepys' contemporary John Evelyn kept a notable diary, their works are among the most important primary sources for the English Restoration period, consist of eyewitness accounts of many great events, such as the Great Plague of London, the Great Fire of London; the practice of posthumous publication of diaries of literary and other notables began in the 19th century. As examples, the Grasmere Journal of Dorothy Wordsworth was published in 1897. Among important U. S. Civil War diaries are those of George Templeton Strong, a New York City lawyer, Mary Chesnut, the wife of a Confederate officer.
The diary of Jemima Condict, living in the area of what is now West Orange, New Jersey, includes local observations of the American Revolutionary War. Since the 19th century the publication of diaries by their authors has become commonplace – notably amongst politicians seeking justification but amongst artists and litterateurs of all descriptions. Amongst late 20th-century British published political diaries, those of Richard Crossman, Tony Benn and Alan Clark are representative, the latter being more indiscreet in the tradition of the diaries of Chips Channon. In Britain in the field of the arts notable diaries were published by James Lees-Milne, Roy Strong and Peter Hall. Harold Nicolson in the mid-20th century covered the arts. One of the m