France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Saintonge spelled Xaintonge and Xainctonge, is a former province of France located on the west central Atlantic coast. The capital city was Saintes. Other principal towns include Saint-Jean-d'Angély, Frontenay-Rohan-Rohan, Marennes and Barbezieux-Saint-Hilaire; the borders of the province shifted through history, some mapmakers, such as Nicolas Sanson, Johannes Blaeu, Bernard Antoine Jaillot, show it extending into Cognac, traditionally part of Angoumois, to the parishes of Braud-et-Saint-Louis and Étauliers, part of the Pays Gabay on the right bank of the Gironde River. Today, four fifths of the historical Saintonge province occupies the modern département of Charente-Maritime. Most of the other fifth is in Charente, a small section extends north into Deux-Sèvres, all within the administrative region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine; the province derives its name from the Santones, an ancient Gallic tribe that once inhabited the area. During antiquity, Saintonge was part of the Roman province of Gallia Aquitania, Saintes became its first capital.
The region fell under the control of the kings and dukes of Aquitaine, the counts of Anjou the counts of Poitiers, before becoming integrated for centuries in the new Duchy of Aquitaine. Occupying the frontier between Capetian and Plantagenet-controlled areas during the late Middle Ages, between 1152 and 1451, it was the site of constant struggles between lords torn between their allegiance to Anglo-Aquitaine and those linked to Paris. Saintonge was attached to Anglo-Aquitaine until the mid-fourteenth century. However, errors by Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Edward, the Black Prince contributed to weakening English power, the province came under the control of the King of France, Charles VII, "the Victorious", in 1451. Saintonge was the birthplace of French explorer Jean Allefonsce in 1484, Samuel de Champlain in 1574, who explored the New World and founded Quebec, it was one of the centers of French Huguenots, Protestants. The distinctive Saintongeais dialect was once spoken throughout Saintonge, as well as in the provinces of Aunis and Angoumois.
The region is famous for its grapes, which are used to produce Pineau des Charentes. This area is famous for its medieval pottery, exported. Shards of it have been found in large quantities in medieval excavations throughout Ireland and other European countries; these shards are from vessels exported as a by-product of the Bordeaux wine trade. This ware has been found on Irish excavations from the 12th century but it is most uncovered in 13th-century contexts, they consist of an off-white micaceous fabric with moderate amounts of quartz and sparse inclusions of haematite. They are glazed on the external surface only, with a clear lead glaze. In Saintonge Green wares, the addition of copper filings, or copper oxide to the clear lead glaze, produced a mottled mid-green colouring. Many forms of Saintonge wares were produced, including Saintonge Polychrome, Saintonge Green, in some cases unglazed wares. Slipped Saintonge is more consistent in colour and appearance than unslipped, having the benefit of an undercoating to regulate the process.
The most common forms of vessel produced in this ware were wine jugs. These were characteristically tall, with ovoid bodies, flat bases, parrot-beak spouts and strap handles. Saintonge was exported well through the 17th century. Acadians and French colonists in Quebec and Eastern Canada imported many Saintonge ceramics, including bowls, plates and other types. Many Saintonge ceramic fragments have been found in context with 17th-century colonists and are used as evidence of pre-British occupation of these areas. Saintonge Regiment Derœux, D. & Dufournier, D. 1991. "Réflexions sur la diffusion de la céramique très decorée d’origine française en Europe du nord-ouest XIII-XIVe siècles", Archéologie médiévale 21, pp. 163–77
The Turonian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the second age in the Late Cretaceous epoch, or a stage in the Upper Cretaceous series. It spans the time between 93.9 ± 0.8 Ma and 89.8 ± 1 Ma. The Turonian underlies the Coniacian stage. At the beginning of the Turonian an anoxic event took place, called the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event or the "Bonarelli Event"; the Turonian was defined by the French paleontologist Alcide d'Orbigny in 1842. Orbigny named it after the French city of Tours in the region of Touraine, the original type locality; the base of the Turonian stage is defined as the place where the ammonite species Wutinoceras devonense first appears in the stratigraphic column. The official reference profile for the base of the Turonian is located in the Rock Canyon anticline near Pueblo, Colorado; the top of the Turonian stage is defined as the place in the stratigraphic column where the inoceramid bivalve species Cremnoceramus rotundatus first appears. The Turonian is sometimes subdivided in Lower/Early and Upper/Late substages or subages.
In the Tethys domain, it contains the following ammonite biozones: zone of Subprionocyclus neptuni zone of Collignoniceras woollgari zone of Mammites nodosoides zone of Watinoceras coloradoense or Watinoceras devonense Other important index fossils are species of the inoceramid genus Inoceramus. Inoceramids are bivalve Mollusca related to today's mussels. Gradstein, F. M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. Kennedy, W. J.. & Cobban, W. A.. S. A. Episodes 28: pp 93–104. GeoWhen Database - Turonian Late Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic charts of the Cretaceous: and, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy Turonian Microfossils: 48 images of Foraminifera
The Aptian is an age in the geologic timescale or a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is a subdivision of the Early or Lower Cretaceous epoch or series and encompasses the time from 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma, approximately. The Aptian precedes the Albian, all part of the Lower/Early Cretaceous; the Aptian overlaps the upper part of the regionally used stage Urgonian. The Selli Event known as OAE1a, was one of two oceanic Anoxic events in the Cretaceous period, which occurred around 120 Ma and lasted 1 to 1.3 million years. The Aptian extinction was a minor extinction event hypothesized to have occurred around 116 to 117 Ma; the Aptian was named after the small city of Apt in the Provence region of France, known for its crystallized fruits. The original type locality is in the vicinity of Apt; the Aptian was introduced in scientific literature by French palaeontologist Alcide d'Orbigny in 1840. The base of the Aptian stage is laid at magnetic anomaly M0r. A global reference profile for the base had in 2009 not yet been appointed.
The top of the Aptian is at the first appearance of coccolithophore species Praediscosphaera columnata in the stratigraphic record. In the Tethys domain, the Aptian contains eight ammonite biozones: zone of Hypacanthoplites jacobi zone of Nolaniceras nolani zone of Parahoplites melchioris zone of Epicheloniceras subnodosocostatum zone of Duffrenoyia furcata zone of Deshayesites deshayesi zone of Deshayesites weissi zone of Deshayesites oglanlensisSometimes the Aptian is subdivided in three substages or subages: Bedoulian and Clansayesian. Examples of rock units formed during the Aptian are: Antlers Formation, Cedar Mountain Formation, Cloverly Formation, Elrhaz Formation, Jiufotang Formation, Little Atherfield, Mazong Shan, Potomac Formation, Santana Formation, Twin Mountains Formation, Xinminbao Group and Yixian Formation. Eogaudryceras Georgioceras Lithancylus Pictetia Salfeldiella Zuercherella Lower Ammonitoceras Australiceras Cheloniceras Cicatrites Colombiceras Dufrenoya Eotetragonites Helicancylus Melchiorites Parahoplites Procheloniceras Prodeshayesites Pseudosaynella Roloboceras Shastoceras Upper Acanthohoplites Acanthoplites Ammonoceratites Argonauticeras Beudanticeras Burckhardites Cloioceras Desmoceras Diadochoceras Diodochoceras Eodouvilleiceras Epancyloceras Epicheloniceras Gabbioceras Gargasiceras Gyaloceras Hamites Hulenites Hypacanthoplites Jauberticeras Kazanskyella Knemiceras Mathoceras Mathoceratites Megatyloceras Metahamites Miyakoceras Neosilesites Nodosohoplites Nolaniceras Protacanthoplites Protanisoceras Sinzovia Somalites Tetragonites Theganoceras Trochleiceras Tropaeum Uhligella Conoteuthis Vectibelus Lower Parahibolites Peratobelus Tetrabelus Carinonautilus Heminautilus Upper Zhuralevia Upper Euphylloceras Upper Adygeya Naefia Boluochia zhengi Changchengornis hengdaoziensis Chaoyangia beishanensis Confuciusornis sanctus Cuspirostrisornis houi Jeholornis prima Jixiangornis orientalis Largirostrornis sexdentoris Longchengornis sanyanensis Longipteryx chaoyangensis Sapeornis chaoyangensis Sinornis santensis/Cathayornis yandica Songlingornis linghensis Yanornis martini Yixianornis grabaui Sarcosuchus Hybodus Jinanichthys longicephalus Lycoptera davidi Lycoptera muroii Peipiaosteus pani Protosephurus liui Sinamia zdanskyi Amblydectes Anhanguera Araripedactylus dehmi Araripesaurus castilhoi Arthurdactylus conandoylei Boreopterus cuiae Brasileodactylus araripensis Cearadactylus atrox Chaoyangopterus zhangi Dsungaripterus weii Dsungaripterus brancai Eoazhdarcho liaoxiensis Eopteranodon lii Gegepterus changi Haopterus gracilis Hongshanopterus lacustris Huaxiapterus benxiensis Huaxiapterus corollatus Huaxiapterus jii Istiodactylus latidens Istiodactylus sinensis Jidapterus edentus Liaoningopterus gui Liaoxipterus brachyognathus Lonchodectes Longchengpterus zhaoi Ludodactylus sibbicki Nemicolopterus crypticus Nurhachius ignaciobritoi Ornithocheirus simus Ornithocheirus mesembrinus Pricesaurus megalodon Santanadactylus Sinopterus dongi Sinopterus gui Tapejara navigans Tapejara wellnhoferi Thalassodromeus sethi Tropeognathus mesembrinus Tropeognathus robustus Tupandactylus imperator Aptian extinction Gradstein, F.
M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. D'Orbigny, A. C. V. M.. GeoWhen Database - Aptian Mid-Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic charts of the Lower Cretaceous: and, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
In the geological timescale, the Berriasian is an age or stage of the Early Cretaceous. It is the oldest, or lowest, subdivision in the entire Cretaceous, it spanned the time between 145.0 139.8 ± 3.0 Ma. The Berriasian precedes the Valanginian; the Berriasian Stage was introduced in scientific literature by Henri Coquand in 1869. It is named after the village of Berrias in the Ardèche department of France; the non-marine English Purbeck Formation is in part of Berriasian age. In fact, the first rocks to be described of this age were the beds of the English Purbeck Formation, named as the Purbeckian by Alexandre Brongniart in 1829 following description by Henry De la Beche, William Buckland, Thomas Webster and William Henry Fitton; the base of the Berriasian, the base of the Cretaceous system, has traditionally been placed at the first appearance of fossils of the ammonite species Berriasella jacobi. But this is a species that has a stratigraphically problematic and geographically limited distribution.
A global reference profile for the Berriasian has been under active consideration by the International Subcommission on Cretaceous Stratigraphy of IUGS. A range of contender GSSP localities has been studied in detail by the ISCS's Berriasian Working Group including localities as far apart as Mexico, Tunisia and the Russian Far East. Several markers have been employed to refine correlations and to work towards defining a base for the Berriasian Stage; these include calcareous nannofossils, such as Nannoconus, ammonites, palynological data and magnetostratigraphy, notably magnetozone M19n. The calibration of these markers Nannoconus steinmannii minor, N. kamptneri minor, Calpionella alpina, within fixed magnetozones give greater precision in trying to identify the best position for a boundary. In June 2016, the Berriasian Working Group voted to adopt Calpionella alpina as the primary marker for the base of the Berriasian Stage. In the western part of the ocean of Tethys, the Berriasian consists of four ammonite biozones, from top to bottom: Thurmanniceras otopeta Subthurmannia boissieri Tirnovella occitanica Berriasella jacobi/Pseudosubplanites grandisThe top of the Berriasian stage is defined by the base of the Valanginian, fixed at the first appearance of calpionellid species Calpionellites darderi.
This is just a little below the first appearance of the ammonite species Thurmanniceras pertransiens. Gradstein, F. M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. GeoWhen Database - Berriasian Jurassic-Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Lower Cretaceous, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
The Campanian is the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous epoch on the geologic timescale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy. In chronostratigraphy, it is the fifth of six stages in the Upper Cretaceous series. Campanian spans the time from 83.6 to 72.1 million years ago. It is preceded by the Santonian and it is followed by the Maastrichtian; the Campanian was an age. The morphology of some of these areas has been preserved: it is an unconformity beneath a cover of marine sedimentary rocks; the Campanian was introduced in scientific literature by Henri Coquand in 1857. It is named after the French village of Champagne in the département Charente-Maritime; the original type locality was an outcrop near the village of Aubeterre-sur-Dronne in the same region. Due to changes of the stratigraphic definitions, this section is now part of the Maastrichtian stage; the base of the Campanian stage is defined as a place in the stratigraphic column where the extinction of crinoid species Marsupites testudinarius is located.
The top of the Campanian stage is defined as the place in the stratigraphic column where the ammonite Pachydiscus neubergicus first appears. The Campanian can be subdivided into Lower and Upper subages. In the Tethys domain, the Campanian encompasses six ammonite biozones, they are, from young to old: zone of Nostoceras hyatti zone of Didymoceras chayennense zone of Bostrychoceras polyplocum zone of Hoplitoplacenticeras marroti/Hoplitoplacenticeras vari zone of Delawarella delawarensis zone of Placenticeras bidorsatum During the Campanian age, a radiation among dinosaur species occurred. In North America, for example, the number of known dinosaur genera rises from 4 at the base of the Campanian to 48 in the upper part; this development is sometimes referred to as the "Campanian Explosion". However, it is not yet clear if the event is artificial, i.e. the low number of genera in the lower Campanian can be caused by a lower preservation chance for fossils in deposits of that age. The warm climates and large continental area covered in shallow sea during the Campanian favoured the dinosaurs.
In the following Maastrichtian stage, the number of North American dinosaur genera found is 30% less than in the upper Campanian. Animals that lived in the Campanian include: David J. Varrichio observes that during the late Campanian Alberta and Montana had similar theropods despite significant differences in the types of herbivorous dinosaur faunas. Gradstein, F. M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. Varricchio, D. J. 2001. Late Cretaceous oviraptorosaur dinosaurs from Montana. Pp. 42–57 in D. H. Tanke and K. Carpenter, Mesozoic Vertebrate Life. Indiana University Press, Indiana. Weishampel, D. B.. M.. A.. M. P. & Noto, C. N.. B.. GeoWhen Database - Campanian Late Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Late Cretaceous, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy Campanian Microfossils: 75+ images of Foraminifera