Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Tattershall is a village and civil parish in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. It is situated on the A153 Horncastle to Sleaford road, 1 mile east from the point where that road crosses the River Witham. At its eastern end, Tattershall adjoins the village of Coningsby, with the two being separated by the River Bain; the 2011 census recorded a Tattershall civil parish population as 2,834, with the combined Tattershall and Coningsby area having a population of 6,698. Local public houses are the Black Horse on the High Street and the Fortescue Arms in the Market Place; the Fortesque Arms is a Grade II listed building. Barnes Wallis Academy is a secondary modern school on Butts Lane for pupils aged from 11 to 16; the school serves Coningsby and Woodhall Spa. The remaining wreckage of the Boeing jumbo jet, blown-up on 21 December 1988 over Lockerbie in Scotland is stored at a scrapyard near Tattershall; the remains include the plane's cockpit. Tattershall Carrs forms the last remaining remnants of ancient wet woodland, dominated by alder that once ringed the margins of the Fens.
Bomb shelters on a former RAF site at Woodhall Spa have been converted into bat roosts. Village historic sites include the church of the Holy Trinity, a buttercross, Tattershall Castle, Collegiate College, Tom Thumb's house and grave. Tattershall Castle was built in 1434 by Ralph de Cromwell, 3rd Baron Cromwell - Henry VI's Lord High Treasurer - on the site of an earlier 13th-century stone castle, of which some remains are extant the Grand Tower and moat. An octagonal 15th-century buttercross stands in the Market Place, it is both an ancient scheduled monument. A charter to hold a weekly market was granted by King John in 1201 in return for an annual fee of a trained goshawk. Markets are no longer held but the buttercross remains at the centre of a shopping area. Tattershall railway station was a station on the line between Lincoln until closure; the Old Station House, a stationmaster's house and ticket office, is a Grade II listed building as is the former goods shed. The former railway line has been converted into a cycle path at a cost of £2 million.
The path was opened in October 2008. Adjacent to the castle is the Grade I listed Perpendicular-style Holy Trinity Collegiate Church, endowed by Ralph de Cromwell, 3rd Baron Cromwell, but built after his death, it received its charter from Henry VI in 1439 but building was not begun until 1472, reaching completion around 1500. The church has a collection of brasses and an intact rood loft, it was restored between 1893 and 1897. Near the font is a plaque marking the grave of the Tattershall resident Tom Thumb, reputedly 18.5 inches tall, who died in 1620 aged 101. Tom Thumb's small house can be seen on the roof of a larger house in the Market Place; the churchyard contains a war grave of an officer of the Dorsetshire Regiment who died during the Second World War. Ralph de Cromwell, 3rd Baron Cromwell, founder of the church is buried here. Adjacent to the Market Place are the remains of Tattershall College, built by Lord Cromwell for the education of the choristers of Holy Trinity Church; the College was an example of perpendicular style of Gothic architecture.
In the late 18th century it was converted to a brewery, left empty – today it is a ruin. The walls that remain are supported by modern brick. Heritage Lincolnshire manages the site, Grade II* listed, an ancient scheduled monument; the current Lord of the Manor of Tattershall is Julian Fellowes, actor and youngest son of Peregrine Fellowes. The current Lady of the Manor, Emma Kitchener-Fellowes, is the great great niece of Lord Kitchener, the adversary of Lord Curzon of Kedleston, the benefactor and restorer of Tattershall Castle. Dogdyke Engine Media related to Tattershall at Wikimedia Commons Tattershall Holy Trinity Church. HTTF Trust Tattershall Castle Castle Explorer page on Tattershall Castle Tattershall Park Tattershall and Tattershall Thorpe - Village site
Horncastle is a market town and civil parish in Lincolnshire, England, 17 miles east of the county town of Lincoln. Horncastle had a population of 6,815 at the 2011 Census. Although fortified, Horncastle was not on any important Roman roads, which suggests that the River Bain was the principal route of access. Roman Horncastle has become known as Banovallum – this name has been adopted by several local businesses and by the town's secondary modern school. But, the Roman name for the settlement is not known: Banovallum was suggested in the 19th century through an interpretation of the Ravenna Cosmography, a 7th-century list of Roman towns and road-stations. Banovallum may have been Caistor; the Roman walls remain in places – one section is on display in the town's library, built over the top of the wall. The Saxons called the town Hyrnecastre. Horncastle is listed in the 1086 Domesday Book as consisting of 41 households, including 29 villagers and twelve smallholders, had 100 acres of meadow and two mills, all belonging to King William.
Dating from the 13th century prior to the Reformation, the Anglican parish church is dedicated to Saint Mary. In the Early English style, it is a Grade II*listed building, it was extensively restored between 1861 by Ewan Christian. Four miles from Horncastle is the village of Winceby. During the 1643 Battle of Winceby – which helped to secure Lincolnshire for Parliament – leader Oliver Cromwell was killed. Local legend has it that the thirteen scythe blades, which hang on the wall of the south chapel of St. Mary's Church, were used as weapons at Winceby; this story is regarded as apocryphal. The accepted historical opinion is that they date from the Lincolnshire Rising of 1536. Both theories about the origin of the scythes are discussed at Lincoln website. Horncastle was granted its market charter by the Crown in the 13th century, it was long known for its great August horse fair, an internationally famous annual trading event which continued to be held until the mid-20th century. It ended after the Second World War, when horses were no longer used for agriculture.
The town is now known as a centre for the antiques trade. The great annual horse fair was first held in the 13th century; the fair used to last for a week or more every August. In the 19th century it was the largest event of its kind in the United Kingdom; the slogan, "Horncastle for horses", was an indication of the town's standing in this trade. George Borrow set some scenes of his semi-autobiographical books Lavengro and The Romany Rye at the annual horse fair; the last horse fair was held in 1948. In 1894 the Stanhope Memorial, designed by E. Lingen Barker, was erected in the centre of the Market Place in memory of Edward Stanhope MP. Built of limestone, red sandstone and pink and grey streaked marble, it is a Grade II listed structure; the Grade II listed Old Court House, built in 1865, is in Louth Road. Since the late 20th century, the population has increased to 6,815 in its highest ever; the civil parish suffered a decline in population from the mid-19th to mid-20th century, as urbanisation and changes in agriculture attracted people to cities where more work was available.
Horncastle is twinned with Bonnétable, a ville de marché in the French département of Sarthe with a population of 4,000. The towns' relationship is commemorated by a Rue Horncastle in Bonnétable, a Bonnetable Road in Horncastle, it lies to the south of the Lincolnshire Wolds, where the River Bain meets the River Waring, north of the West and Wildmore Fens. The south of Horncastle is called Cagthorpe. Langton Hill is to the west, it used to be part of Horncastle Rural District in the Parts of Lindsey, but is now in the district council of East Lindsey, based in Manby, east of Louth. North of the town, the civil parish meets West Ashby and Low Toynton, south of Milestone House on the A153; the boundary skirts the east of the town, crossing Low Toynton Road, following the Viking Way meeting the River Waring. It follows north of the A158, to a caravan park, where it meets High Toynton. Southwards on Mareham Road it meets Mareham on the Hill, east of Stonehill Farm. South of the town, north of Telegraph House, it meets Scrivelsby, following High Lane westwards to cross the B1183, south of Loxley Farm the A153 and skirts the southern edge of the sewage works next to the River Bain where it meets Roughton.
It follows the Old River Bain west of the A153 northwards over the river meadows, crossing the Horncastle Canal. Eastwards it crosses the B1191, south of Langton Hill, it follows. It meets the B1190 where the pylons cross the road the A158 at the B1190 junction following Accommodation Road to the east, it skirts the north of the town following Elmhurst Road, passing south of Elmlea Farm. and straight through Elmhirst Lakes. At the River Bain near Hemingby Lane, it meets West Ashby. Lincolnshire Integrated Voluntary Emergency Service is based at the Boston Road Industrial Estate; the Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust is based in Banovallum House. Mortons of Horncastle is a major national magazine publisher of classic motorcycles and road transport heritage titles, situated in the south of the town on the industrial estate off the A153. An electoral ward of the same name exists; this ward includes Thimbleby and has a total population taken at the 2011 Census
Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Horncastle
Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Horncastle is a co-educational grammar school with academy status in Horncastle, England. In 2009, there were 877 pupils. Although royally chartered by Queen Elizabeth I in 1571, there had been a school in Horncastle for two hundred and fifty years; the original charter document, with its royal seal, remains in the custody of the school's governors. The school's catchment area includes Horncastle and the surrounding area, Wragby and Woodhall Spa to the west, the Lincolnshire Wolds to the north and east, Coningsby. A school is known to have existed in Horncastle as far back as 1327 but records of the present school begin when Queen Elizabeth I granted the charter to establish a grammar school in Horncastle, on the petition of Edward Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln; the school received its seal on 25 June 1571 and the charter document remains in the possession of the present school governors. The school was built on a site adjoining the River Bain close to St Mary's Parish Church.
It was demolished and rebuilt after the Civil War on the same site, remaining there until the first decade of the 20th century when in 1908 the present dining hall was the first building to be established on the current school site. The summer of 2008 was the school's 100th year on the present site and was duly marked by several centenary celebrations. For much of its existence, Queen Elizabeth's was a boys' only boarding school. Girls were only admitted for the first time around the late 1900s. Since the school has continued to expand, with further buildings added as the number on roll has increased. Up to the Education Act of 1944, Queen Elizabeth's had been an independent school. Following the Act the school voluntarily handed over control and finance responsibility to the local authority. In the autumn of 1991, the parents voted overwhelmingly for the school to become a self-governing grant maintained school; when grant maintained status was abolished by the new Labour government under the School Standards and Framework Act 1998, schools were offered a choice of returning to local authority control or opting for foundation status.
Foundation status offered an environment within the education authority but with autonomous school governors controlling admissions criteria and standards for the school, directly hiring and employing the school's staff and holding ownership of the school's estate. This was the route the school selected and Queen Elizabeth's gained foundation status which allowed a degree of independence from the local authority. In 2003, Queen Elizabeth's gained joint specialist status for science and mathematics in partnership with Banovallum School, Horncastle's secondary modern school. A second specialism for modern languages was added in 2008; the school converted to academy status in September 2012 and is now independent of local authority control. The most recent Ofsted inspection took place in November 2011; the inspector described the school as follows: This is an outstanding school with a good sixth form. It enables its pupils to achieve high levels in both their academic development. All groups of pupils, including those few who have special educational needs and/or disabilities, make excellent progress between Years 7 and 11.
The school has established a track record for enabling its pupils to attain well above national average standards in GCSE examinations. Provisional national data for 2011 show this trend continued with 44% of entries gaining A* and A grades and 78% A* to B grades. Entry at age eleven is determined by the school's own selection procedures, which remain in line with those operating in other parts of the county; the school commences four forms of pupils annually, representing the top 25% of the catchment area ability range. Continuation to the school's Sixth Form is open to all pupils for whom the school can provide a suitable course of study; the school is made up of three parts: Lower School Middle School Upper School The subjects taught at Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Horncastle are: School uniform is mandatory for all pupils. For years 7 to 11, this consists of a maroon maroon/blue/white tie. In the sixth form, boys wear a black blazer and black and gold tie, while girls wear a navy blazer with a navy and silver tie.
The school consists of several outer buildings. The main building contains 30 classrooms, 4 IT rooms, school offices, a main hall, a sports centre, a sixth form block and a library. There are several outer buildings including the science and music blocks; this contains two music classrooms along with practice rooms, a large drama studio and lighting balcony and 2 art classrooms and a gallery. The new English block contains 4 classrooms and an office The facilities at the school are: 3 football pitches 5 netball courts 9 tennis courts 2 grass hockey pitches 1 cricket pitch with three outdoor nets Athletics track Trim track Gymnasium including table tennis Sports hall 4 rounders pitches 4 outdoor table tennis tables A fleet of contract and services buses, organised by the education authority, provides transport for pupils in the school's catchment area, who live more than three miles from the school; the school is served by a organised service for out of catchment area pupils from the Sibsey and Stickney areas to the north of Boston, as well as Lincoln and its surrounding area.
It should be noted. In 2014 the school experienced a sex scandal when it was discovered that whilst on a school trip that
Lincolnshire Police is the territorial police force covering the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England. Despite the name, the force's area does not include North East Lincolnshire and North Lincolnshire, which are covered by Humberside Police instead. In terms of geographic area the force is one of the largest in the England and Wales covering 2,284 square miles; the population of the area covered by the force is 736,700. As of 2010 the force employs over 2,500 people; as at May 2016, there were 200 Special Constables and 149 PCSO's. Lincolnshire Constabulary was formed in 1856 under the County and Borough Police Act 1856. Several other borough police forces used to exist in the county, but these were combined with the Lincolnshire force. Under the Police Act 1946, Boston Borough Police and Grantham Borough Police were merged, while Lincoln City Police and Grimsby Borough Police were absorbed under the Police Act 1964. Lincolnshire lost part of its area to the new Humberside Police in 1974.
In 1965, the force had an establishment of 918 officers and an actual strength of 883. Proposals made by the Home Secretary on 20 March 2006 would have seen the force merge with the other four East Midlands forces to form a strategic police force for the entire region; these proposals were ended by John Reid in June 2006. The police authority received £287,600 from the Home Office for costs of preparing the ill-fated merger. In 2008 the Lincolnshire Police Authority experienced a funding crisis; the authority claimed that the central government grant was insufficient to provide efficient policing in Lincolnshire, due to the unfavourable working of the formula used by the government to assess police grants. The authority decided to reduce the shortfall by making a 79% increase in its precept; the government announced its intention to "cap" this demand, resulting in a net 26% increase. The Chief Constable is Bill Skelly. Lincolnshire Police has an establishment of about 1,100 police officers. In 2011, the force underwent major changes to its organisation.
There were three "divisions" with Lincoln and Grantham hosting the divisional headquarters of each. The county is divided into four "districts" for the purposes of policing; these areas each pair two district/borough council areas into one policing district, are: Lincoln & West Lindsey North & South Kesteven Coast & Wolds Boston & South Holland. The force has round the clock armed. Front line officers in Lincolnshire carry Taser electronic incapacitating devices; these use electricity to cause neuromuscular incapacitation to render subjects incapable of free bodily movement for a short period of time whilst the device is operating. Taser is carried in addition to PAVA incapacitant spray. Officers used CS spray, however this was removed from service due to it being flammable. PAVA is a non flammable spray liquid. Officers from Lincolnshire are detached to EMSOU, East Midlands Special Operations unit; the force has its own underwater search unit that consists of one part-time team of around ten officers and this unit is based permanently at the Lincolnshire Police Headquarters.
As with all police forces, Lincolnshire Police has many specialist departments aside from the officers and PCSOs that respond to calls from the public. These include the Roads Policing Unit, Dog section, Public Protection Unit, Scenes Of Crime, Custody suites, the Force Control Room. In addition to this are other support departments such as IT and HR. Officers and Police Staff forming these departments are based across the county, but most having their main office at Force Headquarters in Nettleham. Lincolnshire Police operates a Special Constabulary that has 200 officers from the rank of Special Constable to Special Superintendent. Officers are based throughout the county out of local police stations. Lincolnshire Special Constabulary has offices deployed in specialist units such as wildlife crime and Safer Roads unit; as of July 2018 Lincolnshire Special Constabulary is recruiting. 1856–1901: Captain Philip Bicknell. 1901–03: Major Charles Brinkley. 1903–31: Captain Cecil Mitchell-Innes. 1931–34: Colonel Gordon Herbert Ramsay Halland.
1934–54: Sir Raymond Hatherell Fooks. 1954–56: Herman Graham Rutherford. 1956–69: John William Barnett, OBE. 1970–73: George Walter Roberts Terry. 1973–77: Lawrence Byford, QPM. 1977–83: James Kerr. 1983–?: Stanley William Crump, QPM.?–1994: Neville Gilbert Ovens, QPM. 1994–98: John Peter Bensley, QPM. 1998–2003: Richard John Nicholas Childs, QPM. 2003–08: James Anthony Lake. 2008–12: Richard Philip deJordan Crompton 2012–17: Neil Rhodes 2017: Bill Skelly Lawrence Byford - father of Mark Byford Arthur Troop - police sergeant who started the International Police Association on 1 January 1950, with initial resistance from his superiors. Lincolnshire Police and Crime Commissioner List of police forces in the United Kingdom Policing in the United Kingdom Lincolnshire Police Lincolnshire Police Authority explain their big incre
Boston is a town and small port in Lincolnshire, on the east coast of England 100 miles north of London. It is the largest town of the wider Borough of Boston local government district; the town itself had a population of 35,124 at the 2001 census, while the borough had a total population of 66,900, at the ONS mid-2015 estimates. It is due north of Greenwich on the Prime Meridian. Boston's most notable landmark is St Botolph's Church, said to be the largest parish church in England, visible for miles around from the flat lands of Lincolnshire. Residents of Boston are known as Bostonians. Emigrants from Boston named several other settlements around the world after the town, most notably Boston, Massachusetts, in the United States; the name "Boston" is said to be a contraction of "Saint Botolph's town", "stone", or "tun" for a hamlet or farm, hence the Latin villa Sancti Botulfi "St. Botulf's village"); the town was once held to have been a Roman settlement. It is linked to the monastery established by the Saxon monk Botolph at "Icanhoe" on the Witham in AD 654 and destroyed by the Vikings in 870, but this is now doubted by modern historians.
The early medieval geography of The Fens was much more fluid than it is today and, at that time, the Witham did not flow near the site of Boston. Botolph's establishment is most to have been in Suffolk. However, he was a popular missionary and saint to whom many churches between Yorkshire and Sussex are dedicated; the 1086 Domesday Book does not mention Boston by name, but nearby settlements of the tenant-in-chief Count Alan Rufus of Brittany are covered. Its present territory was then part of the grant of Skirbeck, part of the wealthy manor of Drayton, which before 1066 had been owned by Ralph the Staller, Edward the Confessor's Earl of East Anglia. Skirbeck had two churches and one is to have been that dedicated to St Botolph, in what was Botolph's town. Skirbeck is now considered part of Boston, but the name remains, as a church parish and an electoral ward; the order of importance was the other way round, when the Boston quarter of Skirbeck developed at the head of the Haven, which lies under the present Market Place.
At that stage, The Haven was the tidal part of the stream, now represented by the Stone Bridge Drain, which carried the water from the East and West Fens. The line of the road through Wide Bargate, to A52 and A16, is to have developed on its marine silt levees, it led, as it does now, to the high ground at Sibsey, thence to Lindsey. The reason for the original development of the town, away from the centre of Skirbeck, was that Boston lay on the point where navigable tidal water was alongside the land route, which used the Devensian terminal moraine ridge at Sibsey, between the upland of East Lindsey and the three routes to the south of Boston: The coastal route, on the marine silts, crossed the mouth of Bicker Haven towards Spalding; the Sleaford route, into Kesteven, passed via Swineshead, thence following the old course of the River Slea, on its marine silt levee. The Salters' Way route into Kesteven, left Holland from Donington; this route was much more developed, in the Medieval period, by Bridge End Priory.
The River Witham seems to have joined The Haven after the flood of September 1014, having abandoned the port of Drayton, on what subsequently became known as Bicker Haven. The predecessor of Ralph the Staller owned most of both Skirbeck and Drayton, so it was a simple task to transfer his business from Drayton, but the Domesday Book of 1086 still records his source of income in Boston under the heading of Drayton, so Boston's name is famously not mentioned; the Town Bridge still maintains the pre-flood route, along the old Haven bank. After the Norman Conquest, Ralph the Staller's property was taken over by Count Alan, it subsequently came to be attached to the Earldom of Richmond, North Yorkshire, known as the Richmond Fee. It lay on the left bank of The Haven. During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, Boston grew into port. In 1204, King John vested sole control over the town in his bailiff; that year or the next, he levied a "fifteenth" tax of 6.67% on the moveable goods of merchants in the ports of England: the merchants of Boston paid £780, the highest in the kingdom after London's £836.
Thus by the opening of the thirteenth century, it was significant in trade with the continent of Europe and ranked as a port of the Hanseatic League. Edward III named it a staple port for the wool trade in 1369. Apart from wool, Boston exported salt, produced locally on the Holland coast, produced up-river, lead, produced in Derbyshire and brought via Lincoln, up-river. A quarrel between the local and foreign merchants led to the withdrawal of the Hansards around 1470. Around the same time, the decline of the local guilds and shift towards domestic weaving of English wool led to a near-complete collapse of the town's foreign trade; the silting of the Haven only furthered the town's decline. At the Dissolution of the Monasteries by Henry VIII during the English Reformation, Boston's Dominican, Franciscan and Augustinian friaries—erected during the boom years of the 13th and 14th centuries—were all expropriated; the refectory of the Dominican friary was converted into a theatre in 1965 and now houses the Blackfriars Arts Centre.
Henry VIII granted the town its charter in 1545 and Boston had two Members of Parliament from 1552. The staple trade made Boston a centre of intellectual influence from the Continent, including the teachings of John Calvin that becam