click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Conjugate acid

A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a chemical compound formed by the reception of a proton by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it, as in the reverse reaction it loses a hydrogen ion. On the other hand, a conjugate base is what is left over after an acid has donated a proton during a chemical reaction. Hence, a conjugate base is a species formed by the removal of a proton from an acid, as in the reverse reaction it is able to gain a hydrogen ion; because some acids are capable of releasing multiple protons, the conjugate base of an acid may itself be acidic. In summary, this can be represented as the following chemical reaction: Acid + Base ⇌ Conjugate Base + Conjugate Acid Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Martin Lowry introduced the Brønsted–Lowry theory, which proposed that any compound that can transfer a proton to any other compound is an acid, the compound that accepts the proton is a base. A proton is a nuclear particle with a unit positive electrical charge.

A cation can be a conjugate acid, an anion can be a conjugate base, depending on which substance is involved and which acid–base theory is the viewpoint. The simplest anion which can be a conjugate base is the solvated electron whose conjugate acid is the atomic hydrogen. In an acid-base reaction, an acid plus a base reacts to form a conjugate base plus a conjugate acid: Conjugates are formed when an acid loses a hydrogen proton or a base gains a hydrogen proton. Refer to the following figure: We say that the water molecule is the conjugate acid of the hydroxide ion after the latter received the hydrogen proton donated by ammonium. On the other hand, ammonia is the conjugate base for the acid ammonium after ammonium has donated a hydrogen ion towards the production of the water molecule. We can refer to OH- as a conjugate base of H2O, since the water molecule donates a proton towards the production of NH+4 in the reverse reaction, the predominating process in nature due to the strength of the base NH3 over the hydroxide ion.

Based on this information, it is clear that the terms "Acid", "Base", "conjugate acid", "conjugate base" are not fixed for a certain chemical species. The strength of a conjugate acid is directly proportional to its dissociation constant. If a conjugate acid is strong, its dissociation will have a higher equilibrium constant and the products of the reaction will be favored; the strength of a conjugate base can be seen as the tendency of the species to "pull" hydrogen protons towards itself. If a conjugate base is classified as strong, it will "hold on" to the hydrogen proton when in solution and its acid will not dissociate. If a chemical species is classified as a weak acid, its conjugate base will be strong; this can be observed in ammonia's reaction with water. The reaction proceeds; this shift to the right in the chemical equilibrium of the reaction means that ammonium does not dissociate in water, its conjugate base is stronger than the hydroxide ion. On the other hand, if a species is classified as a strong acid, its conjugate base will be weak.

An example of this case would be the dissociation of Hydrochloric acid HCl in water. Since HCl is a strong acid, its conjugate base will be a weak conjugate base. Therefore, in this system, most H+ will be in the form of a Hydronium ion H3O+ instead of attached to a Cl anion and the conjugate base will be weaker than a water molecule; the acid and conjugate base as well as the base and conjugate acid are known as conjugate pairs. When finding a conjugate acid or base, it is important to look at the reactants of the chemical equation. In this case, the reactants are the acids and bases, the acid corresponds to the conjugate base on the product side of the chemical equation. To identify the conjugate acid, look for the pair of compounds that are related; the acid–base reaction can be viewed in a before and after sense. The before is the reactant side of the after is the product side of the equation; the conjugate acid in the after side of an equation gains a hydrogen ion, so in the before side of the equation the compound that has one less hydrogen ion of the conjugate acid is the base.

The conjugate base in the after side of the equation lost a hydrogen ion, so in the before side of the equation, the compound that has one more hydrogen ion of the conjugate base is the acid. Consider the following acid–base reaction: HNO3 + H2O → H3O+ + NO−3Nitric acid is an acid because it donates a proton to the water molecule and its conjugate base is nitrate; the water molecule acts as a base because it receives the Hydrogen Proton and its conjugate acid is the hydronium ion. One use of conjugate acids and bases lies in buffering systems. In a buffer, a weak acid and its conjugate base, or a weak base and its conjugate acid, are used in order to limit the pH change during a titration process. Buffers have both non-organic chemical applications. For example, besides buffers being used in lab processes, our blood acts as a buffer to maintain pH; the most important buffer in our bloodstream is the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer, which prevents drastic pH changes when CO2 is introduced. This functions as such: CO 2 + H 2 O ↽ − −

Mieczyslaw S. Ostojski

Mieczyslaw Stefan Ostojski was the second vice-president of the World Meteorological Organization and former director general of the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Mieczyslaw S. Ostojski was born on 1 January 1954 at Sławno, he graduated from the Gdansk University of Technology, where in 1988 he received the degree of doctor of environmental engineering. In 2012 he obtained a postdoctoral degree of environmental engineering at the Faculty of Environmental Engineering at Wroclaw University of Technology. In the years 1991-1995 Ostojski was the organizer and first director of the Regional Water Management in Gdansk, he worked in the Ministry of the Environment as director of the Foreign Relations Department at the ministry from 1996 to 1999. In 1999-2003 he headed the Secretariat of the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea in Helsinki as executive secretary. After returning from Helsinki in August 2003, Ostojski was appointed director of the Department of Water Resources, Ministry of Environment for the period from September 2003 to May 2006.

From 1 June 2006, Ostojski directed the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management State Research Institute. Ostojski has held the following positions: Chairman of the Polish Delegation of the International Commission for the Protection of the Oder President of the European Network of Organisations Zlewniowych, President of the International Network of Organizations Zlewniowych Vice-Chairman of HELCOM PITF Program, The Executive Secretary of the Helsinki Commission - HELCOM, Chairman of the Polish Delegation of the HELCOM Chairman of the Helsinki Commission, HELCOM from 1 July 2006. June 30, 2008. Member of the Executive Council of the World Meteorological Organization and Vice-President of the European Association of Regional WMO - RA VI WMO Vice President of the World Meteorological Organization M. Ostojski is a member of the Committee; the Audit of the World Meteorological Organization and the representative of this organization in the Committee of the UN Committee. In 2016, M. Ostojski was arrested on charges of corruption, abuse of powers in order to obtain financial gain and falsification of the document.

In 2017, the District Prosecutor's Office in Warsaw announced that a total of 94 charges had been brought against him, including corruption, abuse of powers to accept property benefits, misappropriation of property and falsification of documents. Ostojski M. & D. Karkosiński Device for sampling liquids from an open sewer. PRL Patent No. 148,659. World Water Day 2006. Water for Life 2005-2015. Ed.: Committee for Water Sciences, Warsaw of June 2006. The Water Framework Directive of the European Union - the state of implementation in Poland. Ed.: Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Warsaw, 2008. Baltic Sea Action Plan of the Helsinki Commission. Ed.: Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Warsaw 2008. EU water policy for the protection of the waters of the Baltic Sea. Ed.: Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Warsaw, 2010. Chemical weapons dumped in the Baltic Sea by the war. Ed. Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Warsaw, 2010; the computer system covers the country against extraordinary threats.

Ed. The NOT Silesia, Katowice, 2010. "Directory gauging station". IMGW PIB. Warsaw, 2011. Collective work, in the implementation of "Product presence of priority substances in the waters of the rivers in the area municipalities." Publisher IMGW PIB. Warsaw 2010.. Group work. "Monograph flood of 2010." - Changes in water quality - the Vistula basin. IMGW PIB. Warsaw, 2010. Working under the direction of M. Ostojski. "Monograph flood of 2010." - Changes in water quality - Odra River Basin. IMGW PIB. Warsaw, 2010. Working under the direction of M. Ostojski. "The state of cleanliness of rivers on the basis of the results of research carried out in the framework of the national environmental monitoring in 2007-2009." GIOŚ Library Environment Monitoring. Warsaw, 2010. Collective work. "Directory of uniform and integrated part of the waters." GIOŚ Library Environment Monitoring. Warsaw, 2009. Collective work. "The state of cleanliness of rivers on the basis of the results of research performed within the State Environmental Monitoring in 2007-2008."

GIOŚ Library Environment Monitoring. Warsaw, 2009. Collective work. "Reducing phosphorus and nitrogen discharged from the Polish to the waters of the Baltic Sea 2000 - 2006 - 2021". 26 Heads of Delegation meeting in the framework of the HELCOM Convention on 04-05.06.2008 r. Working under the direction of M. Ostojski. "Detailed monitoring tests to determine the amount of phosphorus and nitrogen in the waters of rivers, affecting the area of the Polish Baltic Sea." GIOŚ. Warsaw, 2008. Working under the direction of M. Ostojski. "Assessment of pollutant loads discharged into the Baltic Sea rivers from areas 9 countries between 1995 and 2000". GIOŚ, IMGW. Warsaw, 2006. Collective work. "Balance kind of work in water management - assessment of the situation." Ostojski M. Krzysztof Zareba, Wojciech Szczepanski. Senate Conference, Warsaw, 01.02.2011 r

Call of the Wild (Lee Aaron album)

Call of the Wild is the third studio album by singer Lee Aaron, released on June 27, 1985 through Attic Records. The album reached #86 on the RPM Canadian Albums Chart on August 24, 1985 and remained on the chart for twelve weeks; the title track, "Call of the Wild", was included on a 1988 reissue but not included on the original album which bore the same title. It was, included on the B-side of the 12-inch single of "Barely Holdin' On". Lee Aaron – lead vocals, background vocals John Albani – guitar, background vocals Simon Brierley – guitar Bob Ezrinkeyboard, executive production Jerry Mercerdrums Spider Sinnaevebass Chris Brockway – background vocals Walter Zwolinski – background vocals Dick Wagner – background vocals Lenny DeRose – engineering, mixing Mick Walsh – engineering Kevin Markland – engineering Wayne O' Brien – engineering Randy Staub – engineering Paul Gross – production

NVIDIA CUDA Compiler

Nvidia CUDA Compiler is a proprietary compiler by Nvidia intended for use with CUDA. CUDA code runs on both the CPU and GPU. NVCC separates these two parts and sends host code to a C compiler like GCC or Intel C++ Compiler or Microsoft Visual C Compiler, sends the device code to the GPU; the device code is further compiled by NVCC. NVCC is based on LLVM. According to Nvidia provided documentation, nvcc in version 7.0 supports many language constructs that are defined by the C++11 standard and a few C99 features as well. In version 9.0 several more constructs from the C++14 standard are supported. Any source file containing. NVCC is a compiler driver which works by invoking all the necessary tools and compilers like cudacc, g++, cl, etc. NVCC can output either C code that must be compiled with the rest of the application using another tool or PTX or object code directly. An executable with CUDA code requires: the CUDA runtime library. Other used libraries: CUBLAS: BLAS implementation CUFFT: FFT implementation CUDPP: Reduction, Sort.

Thrust: Reduction, Sort. OpenCL Heterogeneous System Architecture David B. Kirk, Wen-mei W. Hwu. Programming massively parallel processors: a hands-on approach. Morgan Kaufmann, 2010. Nvidia Documentation on nvcc. https://docs.nvidia.com/cuda/cuda-compiler-driver-nvcc/ CUDPP. Http://gpgpu.org/developer/cudpp

Juan Pablo Valdivieso

Juan Pablo Valdivieso is a Peruvian former swimmer, who specialized in butterfly events. Valdivieso holds a dual citizenship between his parents' nation Peru and the United States, where he resides, he is influenced by his grandfather Juan Valdivieso, who played for Peru's soccer team at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. Valdivieso started swimming for the Carderock Swim Team at the age of five. During his teenage years, he tried out for the South American Junior Championships, before competing at the U. S. senior nationals. In 1999, he graduated from Landon School in Bethesda and deferred his acceptance to Princeton University for a year, so that he could train for his first Olympics. Valdivieso made his first Peruvian team at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. Swimming in heat two of the men's 200 m butterfly, he edged out Thailand's Dulyarit Phuangthong to earn a fourth spot and thirty-sixth overall by 0.48 of a second in 2:03.67. At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Valdivieso extended his program, competing in two individual events.

He achieved a FINA A-cut of 2:00.03 from the USA National Championships in Maryland. In the 200 m butterfly, he challenged seven other swimmers in heat four, including top medal favorite Takashi Yamamoto of Japan, he rounded out the field to last place and twenty-eighth overall by 0.90 of a second behind Hungary's Dávid Kolozár in 2:02.79. In the 100 m butterfly, Valdivieso placed forty-seventh on the morning's preliminaries. Swimming in heat three, he saved a seventh spot over Algeria's Aghiles Slimani by 0.24 of a second with a time of 55.98. Between his two Olympic stints, Valdivieso attended Princeton University in New Jersey, where he majored in political economy and became a captain of the swimming team for the Princeton Tigers

Prehistory of Laguna (province)

Laguna is a province of the Philippines found in Southern Luzon and features a freshwater lake and river valleys surrounded by arable land. This makes Laguna a good site for potential archeological sites, its lake basin and fertile land makes for the area habitable, granting early settlers an accessible source of fish, eels and grain to support a thriving community of people. The coasts rivers of Laguna give the region a quick method of transportation and make trade with foreign merchants easier. Laguna has been investigated multiple times by several archeological teams and has yielded several finds. Henry Otley Beyer had studied the shores of Laguna de Bay near the northern regions of Rizal and Manila. In his Outline Review of Philippine Archaeology by Islands and Provinces, he made mention of the archeological potential of the eastern shores of the lake in which Pila lies, he pointed out that "it should turn out to be one of the most important centers of trade as well as of culture during the early part of the present millennium" for its strategic location.

Following the expedition of Dr. Robert Fox in 1958 in the province of Batangas, the knowledge of the basics of archeology, such as the presence of artifacts under the ground and how to unearth these artifacts spread among the locals; the recovered artifacts, were sold as a source of income. In the 1960s, the towns of Laguna were gripped in a frenzy of pot-hunting and yielded celadon and various brown-glazed and red-underglaze wares. Seeking to investigate the pot-hunting frenzy in Laguna, an archeological study was led in 1967 by Julita Fernandez and Amelia Rogel of the University of the Philippines - Anthropology Department alongside Dr. Fox and Avelino Legaspi from the Anthropology Division of the National Museum; the study was funded by the ESSO Standard Philippines and Mr and Mrs Manuel Elizalde and lasted from May to October of the same year. It consisted of 10 archeological excavations in Pila, Lumban and Talim Island. Three out of four sites yielded 153 graves, dated to 12th to 15th century CE through recovered ceramics.

The study yielded evidence of cremation in the sites, with remains either buried in soil or placed inside jars. Specimens recovered from the excavation include celadon dishes with fish motifs, celadon censers and blue and white jarlets, small lead-glazed water droppers and teapots, qingbai double gourd vessels, large grey-glazed ewers, figurines of carabao with riders in plain and spotted qingbai, brown wares of all sizes and shapes. Iron and glass bracelets, colored beads and earrings that appear to be gold or copper were part of the discovered.250 to 300 of the recovered specimen were donated by the Elizaldes to Pila, alongside a building designated The Pila Museum. These were transferred to a heritage building by the Pila Historical Society Foundation. In the same year as the ESSO-Elizalde Project, a separate study was conducted by the University of San Carlos, alongside Leandro and Cecilia Locsin, supervised by Rosa C. P. Tenazas; the excavations in the barrio of Pinagbayanan, Municipality of Laguna started from the fourth of September, 1967 and lasted until the 19th of March, 1968.

The excavated area had three sites, Site I: Pinagbayanan/Agra, Site II: Pinagbayanan/Mendoza No. 1 and Site III: Pinagbayanan/Mendoza No. 2. Most of the artifacts discovered were collected on the first two months of excavation. Luckily, a few burials were uncovered by a typhoon on November, 1967. Sites I and II had a total area of 2,720 square meters, that is, 241 burials; the excavations yielded the following results: The area was inhabited and/or used for burials by settlements from at least the 12th to 14th century AD. This period can be divided into three: Iron Age; the earliest was the Iron Age. Three burials were associated with this period. Based on the distinct pottery types, it was considered to be the time before contacts with the outside world through trade with China begun. A long period was Period II; the sites were used as burial grounds for inhumation burials in this time. A distinct burial practice was the bundling of the corpse with grave goods. On Period III, the sites were used for both burial.

This was concluded because of the presence of net sinkers, spindle whorls, etc. Artifacts discovered support actual Chinese settlement in the area during the said periods. Recovered were water droppers/miniature pouring vessels which the Chinese had great appreciation for their beauty. Net sinkers molded into the male symbol and in one instance the female symbol, expresses the preoccupation with fertility and ancestor worship evident in many parts of the Far East to the North during the Sung Period. A great discovery was the practice of cremation in the area which had a form similar to the one practiced in China during the same period. Although secondary burial was widespread in Southeast Asia, what makes this discovery unique was the concept of secondary cremation, which had limited distribution and was known in China, during the Sung period. Thirty three out of the fifty five burials uncovered within the Period III level were cremation burials of two types burial directly in a pit and burial in a container.

The second type was supported by a number of observations which include that a number of jars recovered had traces of charred skeletal remains believed to be human and the presence of grave goods, like ceramic pieces, inside the jars. The concept of secondary cremation was described as "after undergoing one of several processes of primary burial to allow time for the flesh to decompose, the bones were collect