EastLink is a tolled section of the M3 freeway linking a large area through the eastern and south-eastern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. It is a part of Melbourne's Metropolitan Ring Road project. EastLink is electronically tolled with no cash booths, using a system developed by SICE; the SICE Tolling System is similar to the e-TAG system used on the CityLink tollway. EastLink was opened to traffic on Sunday 29 June 2008 and in conjunction with the opening, a month-long toll-free period occurred before regular tolling commenced on 27 July 2008; the project was constructed by a joint venture of Australian construction companies Thiess and John Holland, with tolling system contracted to SICE, mechanical and electrical work contracted to United Group Infrastructure. The final project cost was A$2.5 billion. Signs are at the entrances and on the tollway direct to Ringwood, Dandenong and Doncaster; the road was shown in the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan as the F35 Freeway. The freeway has been a contentious issue, amid concerns over environmental damage and the possibility it would lead to a'complete' metropolitan ring road.
In October 1999 the Bracks Government announced. Instead the government promised to investigate a preferred route for the Rowville railway line and extend the 75 tram to Knox, of which neither have been fulfilled. However, in'major policy about-face' the Bracks Government announced in August 2000 that they would seek federal funding for the freeway. To obtain funding the freeway would need to be classified as a road of'national importance', despite the fact that it did not form part of the national highway grid. The'U-turn' on the freeway was criticised by opponents such as the Public Transport Users Association as it would result in public transport alternatives such as the Rowville railway line being scrapped. In 2001, University of Melbourne academic Paul Mees launched legal action in the Federal Court seeking an injunction under section 475 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 to prevent Transport Minister Peter Batchelor and the Roads Corporation from "taking any further action relating to the construction of the Scoresby freeway or the Eastern Ring Road".
He alleged that the freeway would threaten migratory birds, plant species and wetlands and that the freeway was part of a larger plan to build a metropolitan ring road to Greensborough. In light of the court case, state government bureaucrats removed references to the metropolitan ring road from a draft Metropolitan Strategy. In 2003, the Southern and Eastern Integrated Transport Authority was established by the Victorian Government, to manage and oversee the project on behalf of the government. SEITA was responsible for managing the process of selecting a private sector bidder. In October 2004, SEITA awarded the contract for the design and operation of EastLink to ConnectEast, a company, publicly listed on the ASX in November 2004. ConnectEast subsequently contracted Thiess John Holland, a group formed by the partnership of two major construction companies, to carry out the detailed design and construction of EastLink. ConnectEast, as owner of the road, is now responsible for its day-to-day management, until the concession deed expires in.
EastLink's construction began in March 2005, the road opened on 29 June 2008 On 27 February 2008, it was announced that the EastLink / Monash Freeway interchange would be named the "Tom Wills Interchange", after the founder of Australian rules football Tom Wills. On 24 March 2008 Tim Pallas announced that the twin tunnels would be named'Melba' and'Mullum Mullum', in the inbound and outbound direction, respectively; the opening of the road on 29 June 2008 saw traffic on nearby Stud and Blackburn Roads drop by 30% to 40%, but traffic on the Eastern Freeway rose by 5 per cent at the Burke Road intersection, by about 1–2 per cent at Hoddle Street in the city. On average 270,868 cars and motorbikes travelled on the road every day until the tolling was introduced on 23 July. In the first week after the introduction of tolls, the average number of daily trips fell to 133,722; this was in line with estimates of a 40 to 50 per cent decline, but is a third below prospectus forecasts. The average toll per trip was $3.10 – above the estimates of $2.91.
In its first six months of operation, Eastlink made a loss of $93 million. In 2010 the road had to be refinanced with its traffic forecasts rewritten due to lower than expected traffic volumes. Over the years the project was variously referred to as the Eastern Ring Road, Scoresby Freeway, Scoresby Bypass, Mitcham-Frankston Freeway. On 23 March 2005, with the beginning of construction on the project Premier Steve Bracks announced that the road would be called EastLink, at a ceremony in Rowville; the new name was chosen because it is easier to say and easier to remember and fit on the street directories. On 27 February 2008, it was announced that the EastLink / Monash Freeway interchange would be named the "Tom Wills Interchange", after the founder of Australian rules football Tom Wills. On 24 March 2008 Tim Pallas announced that the twin tunnels would be named'Melba' and'Mullum Mullum', in the inbound and outbound direction, respectively. EastLink begins at the eastern end of the Eastern Freeway at Springvale Road in Nunawading, before tunnelling eastward towards Ringwood under the Mullum Mullum Creek area.
It travels 40 km south towards Frankston, passing through the suburbs of Wantirna, Wantirna South, Rowville, Dandenong North, Noble Park, Dandenong South and Carrum Downs, before end
CIMIC Group Limited is a international contractor. It is active in the telecommunications and infrastructure, building and property and resources, environmental services industries, it has operations in Australia, South East Asia, New Zealand, the Middle East. Leighton Holdings was rebranded as the CIMIC Group in 2015. CIMIC stands for Construction, Infrastructure and Concessions. Founded in 1949 by Stanley Leighton, an Englishman, Leighton Holdings was first listed on the Melbourne Stock Exchange in 1962. In 1983, Leighton Holdings acquired Thiess Pty Ltd, an Australian civil engineering and construction company that originated in Queensland in 1934. In 2000, Leighton Holdings bought a 70% stake in the John Holland Group. By March 2014, Spanish company ACS Group, through its German-based construction company Hochtief Aktiengesellschaft, was the majority owner of Leighton Holdings, installed Hochtief‘s CEO, Marcelino Fernandez Verdes, as Leighton's CEO. In June 2014, Verdes became chairman of Leighton's executive board.
In December 2014, Leighton Holdings sold John Holland to China Communications Construction for $1.15 billion. In April 2015, following corruption allegations against Leighton Holdings from a time prior to its acquisition by ACS Group, ACS changed Leighton’s name to CIMIC Group. In March 2016, CIMIC purchased mining company Sedgman for A$256 million. In December 2016, CIMIC purchased engineering company UGL Limited for A$524 million. Michael Wright became CEO in succession to Marcelino Fernandez Verdes in November 2017. Major projects undertaken by Leighton Holdings include: Ross River Dam completed in 1971 Anglo-Australian Observatory completed in 1971 Tallowa Dam completed in 1976 Burdekin Dam completed in 1987 Brisbane Airport completed in 1988 ABC Centre, Ultimo completed in 1991 Star City Casino completed in 1997 Eastern Distributor tunnel completed in 1999 Westpac Place, Sydney completed in 2006 East Link, Melbourne completed in 2008 Clem Jones Tunnel completed in 2010 Antilia Building, completed in 2010 Gateway Bridge Duplication completed in 2011 Airport Link, completed in 2012 Victorian Desalination Plant, completed in 2012 About 70% of the shares in CIMIC Group are held by Hochtief which in turn is owned by the ACS Group.
Leighton Asia, a subsidiary of CIMIC Group, was awarded the contract for constructing the Hung Hom station extension of the Sha Tin to Central Link, a high profile railway network extension project in Hong Kong in 2013. In 2018, Leighton Asia was accused of failure to comply with local safety standards and attempting to hide this failure until a whistleblower leaked its evidence to the local press. During a hearing of the commission of inquiry, the Hong Kong Government accused Leighton of corporate arrogance. CIMIC official website
National Pension Service
The National Pension Service of Korea is a public pension fund in South Korea. It is the third largest in the world with $430 billion in assets, is the largest investor in South Korea. South Korea's National Pension Service, which oversees $580 billion in assets, is looking to buy a portfolio of blue-chip stocks from emerging markets. On January 30, 2017, NPS opened up an office in New York City's One Vanderbilt. December, 1986 – Promulgated the Nation Pension Act September, 1987 – Established the National Pension Corporation January, 1988 – Implemented the national pension system January, 1992 – Compulsory coverage included workplaces with five or more full-time employees January, 1993 – Commenced Special Old-age Pension benefit payment April, 1995 – Established the National Pension Research Institute July, 1995 – Compulsory coverage was extended to farmers and fishermen in rural areas August, 1995 – Compulsory coverage was extended to workplace-based foreigners April, 1999 – Compulsory coverage expanded to majority population in Korea November, 1999 – Launched the National Pension Fund Management Center July, 2003~2006 – Gradually expanded compulsory coverage to corporations and workplaces with less than five full-time employees July, 2007 – Renamed as the "National Pension Service" May, 2009 – Commenced the Retirement Planning Service May, 2009 – Launched NPS International Service Center January, 2011 – Established NPS International Center January, 2011 – Consigned the affairs in relation to collection of contribution to the National Health Insurance Service April, 2011 – Implemented a system for assessment and registration of the disabled, in accordance with the Welfare of Disabled Persons Act October, 2011 – Commenced support programs for the disabled December, 2012 – Determined the scope of income of an insured under the National Basic Living Security Act July, 2014 – Support for the Basic Pension operation January, 2015 – NPS headquarters relocation to Jeonju December, 2015 – Implementation of Retirement Planning Service February, 2017 – NPSIM relocation to Jeonju National Pension Service
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Mount Waverley, Victoria
Mount Waverley is a suburb in Melbourne, Australia, 16 km south-east of Melbourne's central business district. Its local government area is the City of Monash. At the 2016 Census, Mount Waverley had a population of 33,611. Mount Waverley is a large suburb, rectangular in shape, bounded by Highbury Road in the north, Ferntree Gully Road in the south, Huntingdale Road in the west, Blackburn Road in the east. At the centre of the suburb is Mount Waverley Village Shopping Centre, in the south-east is Pinewood Shopping Centre; the Mount Waverley area part of the Parish of Mulgrave, was divided by straight roads running north-south and east-west, each one mile apart, by Assistant Surveyor Eugene Bellairs, in 1853. Mount Waverley Post Office opened on 9 October 1905. Mount Waverley is famous for its heritage streets; the suburb was a new estate in the 1930s. Due to the onset of the Great Depression, the building of houses on the estate did not get off the ground until the early 1950s. According to Lachlan Bath, president of the Ashburton Historical Society, the suburb's streets had been laid down, but no houses were built.
The Ashburton immigrants, while disappointed, all agreed that the "swamp" was a major step up from their former homes. Post Offices at Mount Waverley North, Mount Waverley South, Mount Waverley West chart the wider residential development of the suburb. Close to Mt Waverley Village are the suburb's first streets, once designed to become the epitome of prestigious country estate living and an extravagant idea decades ahead of its time. Sherwood Park was part of the prestigious Glen Alvie estate that sought to form country club type living to Waverley. Top quality land was acquired - 25 acres were bought from Mr Jack Lechte in 1928, some from Mr Cornell, as well as a large parcel of land from Mr F. Closter - in all about 50 acres; this fertile land had been dairy farm - Ayrshire-Jersey cross cows, with some pigs, a plum and apple orchard, stock feed crops - canola and lucerne. Glen Alvie Estates Limited allocated five of the fifty acres for recreation facilities. There was to be a club house, six tennis courts, a bowling green, a croquet lawn, a mashee lawn, a large swimming pool.
These were to be laid out adjacent to Sherwood Park, a huge central area, lined with date palms that are still seen today. Large houses around the periphery were to be built, one-way roads would be constructed to prevent traffic problems. A golf course had been established nearby by 1930; this was to be garden suburb living. The suburb's original streets, including Park Lane, Virginia Street and Sherwood Road, were built of concrete, not the less expensive asphalt. Council intended to charge an extra rate to residents of the estate to cover the huge loan of building these concrete streets; the surface is still the same as it was with only minor maintenance over the decades. Residential development did not resurge until the 1950s. In early 2008, a new smoother asphalt surface was laid along the strip of Stephensons Road between Waverley Road and Mount Waverley Village shopping centre. Stephensons Road is the main road of Mount Waverley that goes straight through the middle of the suburb from south to north.
One of the highest points in Mount Waverley is the reservoir on High Street Road. The natural land surrounding this landmark is over 138–150 metres above sea level. Construction of the reservoir began in 1927; the waterways in the suburb are Damper Creek in the north, Scotchmans Creek, in the south. Significant parks within Mount Waverley include Valley Reserve, Damper Creek Reserve, Federal Reserve. All reserves contain significant areas of remnant native bushland. Significant wetland areas in Mount Waverley are found within Valley Reserve and in the Scotchmans Creek valley; the popular Melbourne Street Directory Melway was first produced in a garage in Mount Waverley in 1966. It is now published from premises in Ricketts Road in Mount Waverley. Over many years, Mount Waverley has held an annual Christmas Carols event, which has featured hundreds of local performers. Matthew Clark took over as Executive producer in 2006, has grown the event enormously; the 2009 event on 5 December at 7.30pm was a resounding success with audience numbers reaching over 5,500.
The program featured artists Anthony Callea and Silvie Paladino, with Patti Newton hosting the event. The future of the Mount Waverley Carols event is uncertain due to funding requirements; the event needs the financial support from the City of Monash. Mount Waverley is the home to numerous electronics and IT companies and the area is a hub of these industries in Melbourne. Primary Schools Public Mount Waverley Primary School Mount Waverley North Primary School Essex Heights Primary School Sussex Heights Primary School Syndal South Primary School Pinewood Primary SchoolPrivate Holy Family Primary SchoolSecondary Schools Public Mount Waverley Secondary CollegePrivate Huntingtower School Avila College Mount Waverley branch of Monash Public Library Service located on the north side of Mount Waverley station i
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are citizens and nationals of the Commonwealth of Australia, although some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim Australian nationality. Home to people of many different ethnic origins and national origins, the Australian culture and law does not correspond nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and loyalty to the country. Despite the fact that over half of the citizens descend from the peoples of the British Isles, Australia is a multicultural society and has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Many early settlements were penal colonies and transported convicts made up a significant proportion of the population in most colonies. Large-scale immigration did not occur. Further waves of immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Europe, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, Latin America and Africa.
Prior to British settlement, Australia was inhabited by various indigenous peoples – Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Tasmanians and Torres Strait Islanders, a Melanesian people. A small percentage of present-day Australians descend from these peoples; the development of a separate Australian identity and national character is most linked with the period surrounding the First World War, which gave rise to the concept of the Anzac spirit. The Eureka Rebellion of 1854 and various events of the Second World War, most notably the Kokoda Track campaign, are frequently mentioned in association with Australian identity. However, Australian culture predates the federation of the Australian colonies by several decades – Australian literature, most notably the work of the bush poets, dates from colonial times. Modern Australian identity draws on a multicultural and British cultural heritage; the majority of Australians or their ancestors immigrated within the past four centuries, with the exception of the Indigenous population and other outer lying islands who became Australian through expansion of the country.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of Australia held in common by most Australians can be referred to as mainstream Australian culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of British and Irish colonists and immigrants. The Colony of New South Wales was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states. Large-scale immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Southern and Eastern Europe introducing a variety of elements. Immigration from the Middle East and east Asia, Pacific Islands and Latin America has been having an impact; the predominance of the English language, the existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of Westminster Government, Parliamentarianism and constitutional monarchy, American constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, the popularity of sports originating in the British Isles, are all evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage.
Australian culture has diverged since British settlement. Sporting teams representing the whole of Australia have been in existence since the 1870s. Australians are referred to as "Aussie" and "Antipodean". Australians were referred to as "Colonials", "British" and "British subjects"; as a result of many shared linguistic, historical and geographic characteristics, Australians have identified with New Zealanders in particular. Furthermore, elements of Indigenous, American and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the modern Australian culture. Today, Australians of English and other European descent are the majority in Australia, estimated at around 70% of the total population. European immigrants had great influence over Australian history and society, which resulted in the perception of Australia as a Western country. Since soon after the beginning of British settlement in 1788, people of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia; the majority of Australians are of British – English, Welsh, Cornish, or Manx – and Irish ancestral origin.
Although some observers stress Australia's convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will. Far more Australians are descended from assisted immigrants than from convicts, the majority being British and Irish. About 20% of Australians are descendants of convicts. Most of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands and the North of England, Ireland. Settlers that arrived throughout the 19th century were from all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland, a significant proportion of settlers came from the Southwest and Southeast of England, from Ireland and from Scotland. Anglo-Celtic Australians have been influential in shaping the nation's character. By the mid-1840s, the numbers of freeborn settlers had overtaken the convict population. In 1888, 60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, all had British ancestral origins. Out of the remaining 40 percent, 34 percent had been born in the British Isles, 6 percent were of European origin from Germany and Scandinavia.
In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of