Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, median household income in the United States, it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport, it is part of New England, although portions of it are grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which bisects the state; the word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river". Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter; this was one of the Thirteen Colonies. Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states, it is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States; the Connecticut River, Thames River, ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Landmarks and cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island.
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, other major cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. Connecticut is larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut; the highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront; the coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the east; this situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast with its industrial cities such as Stamford and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green, Wethersfield Green. Near the green stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an 2.5 miles square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, the town was split in half; the southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, New Canaan and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals and non-living matter. While environmentalism focuses more on the environmental and nature-related aspects of green ideology and politics, ecology combines the ideology of social ecology and environmentalism. Ecology is more used in continental European languages while ‘environmentalism’ is more used in English but the words have different connotations. Environmentalism advocates the preservation, restoration and/or improvement of the natural environment and critical earth system elements or processes such as the climate, may be referred to as a movement to control pollution or protect plant and animal diversity. For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic, environmental ethics, biodiversity and the biophilia hypothesis figure predominantly.
At its crux, environmentalism is an attempt to balance relations between humans and the various natural systems on which they depend in such a way that all the components are accorded a proper degree of sustainability. The exact measures and outcomes of this balance is controversial and there are many different ways for environmental concerns to be expressed in practice. Environmentalism and environmental concerns are represented by the colour green, but this association has been appropriated by the marketing industries for the tactic known as greenwashing. Environmentalism is opposed by anti-environmentalism, which says that the Earth is less fragile than some environmentalists maintain, portrays environmentalism as overreacting to the human contribution to climate change or opposing human advancement. Environmentalism denotes a social movement that seeks to influence the political process by lobbying and education in order to protect natural resources and ecosystems. An environmentalist is a person who may speak out about our natural environment and the sustainable management of its resources through changes in public policy or individual behaviour.
This may include supporting practices such as informed consumption, conservation initiatives, investment in renewable resources, improved efficiencies in the materials economy, transitioning to new accounting paradigms such as Ecological economics and revitalizing our connections with non-human life or opting to have one less child to reduce consumption and pressure on resources. In various ways, environmentalists and environmental organisations seek to give the natural world a stronger voice in human affairs. In general terms, environmentalists advocate the sustainable management of resources, the protection of the natural environment through changes in public policy and individual behaviour. In its recognition of humanity as a participant in ecosystems, the movement is centered around ecology and human rights. A concern for environmental protection has recurred in diverse forms, in different parts of the world, throughout history; the earliest ideas of environment protectionism can be traced in Jainism, revived by Mahavira in 6th century BC in ancient India.
Jainism offers a view that may seem compatible with core values associated with environmental activism, i.e. protection of life by nonviolence. In Europe, King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke had become a problem; the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow. Earlier in the Middle East, the Caliph Abu Bakr in the 630s commanded his army to "Bring no harm to the trees, nor burn them with fire," and "Slay not any of the enemy's flock, save for your food." Arabic medical treatises during the 9th to 13th centuries dealing with environmentalism and environmental science, including pollution, were written by Al-Kindi, Qusta ibn Luqa, Al-Razi, Ibn Al-Jazzar, al-Tamimi, al-Masihi, Ali ibn Ridwan, Ibn Jumay, Isaac Israeli ben Solomon, Abd-el-latif, Ibn al-Quff, Ibn al-Nafis. Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution, such as air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, municipal solid waste mishandling, environmental impact assessments of certain localities.
At the advent of steam and electricity the muse of history shuts her eyes. The origins of the environmental movement lay in the response to increasing levels of smoke pollution in the atmosphere during the Industrial Revolution; the emergence of great factories and the concomitant immense growth in coal consumption gave rise to an unprecedented level of air pollution in industrial centers. The first large-scale, modern environmental laws came in the form of Britain's Alkali Acts, passed in 1863, to regulate the deleterious air pollution given off by the Leblanc process, used to produce soda ash. An Alkali inspector and four sub-inspectors were appointed to curb this pollution; the responsibilities of the inspectorate were expanded, culminating in the Alkali Order 1958 which placed all major heavy industries that emitted smoke, grit and fumes under supervision. In industrial cities local experts and reformers after 1890, took the lead in identifying enviro
In politics, humanitarian aid, social science, hunger is a condition in which a person, for a sustained period, is unable to eat sufficient food to meet basic nutritional needs. So in the field of hunger relief, the term hunger is used in a sense that goes beyond the common desire for food that all humans experience. Throughout history, portions of the world's population have suffered sustained periods of hunger. In many cases, this resulted from food supply disruptions caused by war, plagues, or adverse weather. In the decades following World War II, technological progress and enhanced political cooperation suggested it might be possible to reduce the number of people suffering from hunger. While progress was uneven, by 2015 the threat of extreme hunger subsided for many of the world's people. According to figures published by the FAO in 2018 however, the number of people suffering from chronic hunger has been increasing over the last three years; this is both as a percentage of the world's population, in absolute terms, with about 821 million afflicted with hunger in 2017.
While most of the world's hungry people continue to live in Asia, much of the increase in hunger since 2015 occurred in Africa and South America. The FAO's 2017 report discussed three principal reasons for the recent increase in hunger: climate and economic slowdowns; the 2018 report focused on extreme weather as a primary driver of the increase in hunger, finding that the increases were severe in countries where the agricultural systems were most sensitive to extreme variations in weather. Many thousands of organisations are engaged in the field of hunger relief; some of these organisations are dedicated to hunger relief, while others may work in a number of different fields. The organisations range from multilateral institutions, to national governments, to small local initiatives such as independent soup kitchens. Many participate in umbrella networks that connect together thousands of different hunger relief organisations. At the global level, much of the world's hunger relief efforts are coordinated by the UN, geared towards achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal for "Zero hunger".
There is only one globally recognised approach to defining and measuring hunger, used by those studying or working to relieve hunger as a social problem. This is the United Nation's FAO measurement, which they refer to as undernourishment, sometimes as hunger or'food deprivation'. For the FAO: Hunger or undernourishment exists when "caloric intake is below the minimum dietary energy requirement; the MDER is the amount of energy needed to perform light activity and to maintain a minimum acceptable weight for attained height." The FAO use different MEDR thresholds for different countries, due to variations in climate and cultural factors. A yearly "balance sheet" approach is used, with the minimum dietary energy requirement tallied against the estimated total calories consumed over the year; the FAO definitions differentate hunger from malnutrition and food insecurity:Malnutrition results from "deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in the consumption of macro- and/or micro-nutrients." In the FAO definition, all hungry people suffer from malnutrition, but people who are malnourished may not be hungery.
They may get suffient raw calories to avoid hunger, but lack essential micro nutrients, or they may consume an excess of raw calories and hence suffer from obeisity. Food insecurity occurs when people are at risk, or worried about, not being able to meet their preferences for food, including in terms of raw calories and nutritional value. In the FAO definition, all hungry people are food insecure, but not all food insecure people are hungry; the FAO have reported that food insecurity quite results in simultaneous stunted growth for children, obesity for adults. Not all of the many thousands of organisations in the hunger relief field use the FAO definition of hunger; some use a broader definition that overlaps more with malnutrition. The alternative definitions do however tend to go beyond the understood meaning of hunger as a painful or uncomfortable motivational condition; the physical sensation of hunger is related to contractions of the stomach muscles. These contractions—sometimes called hunger pangs once they become severe—are believed to be triggered by high concentrations of the ghrelin hormone.
The hormones Peptide YY and Leptin can have an opposite effect on the appetite, causing the sensation of being full. Ghrelin can be released if blood sugar levels get low—a condition that can result from long periods without eating. Stomach contractions from hunger can be severe and painful in children and young adults. Hunger pangs can be made worse by irregular meals. People who cannot afford to eat more than once a day sometimes refuse one-off additional meals, because if they do not eat at around the same time on the next days, they may suffer extra severe hunger pangs. Older people may feel less violent stomach contractions when they get hungry, but still suffer the secondary effects resulting from low food intake: these include weakness and decreased concentration. Prolonged lack of adequate nutrition causes increased susceptibility to disease and reduced ability for the body to self heal; the United nations publish an annual report on the state of food security and nutrition across the world.
Led by the FAO, the 2018 report was joint authored by four other UN agencies: the WFP, IF
Dannel Patrick Malloy is an American politician, who served as the 88th governor of Connecticut from 2011 to 2019. A member of the Democratic Party, he chaired the Democratic Governors Association from 2016 to 2017. Born in Stamford, Malloy is a graduate of Boston College Law School. Malloy began his career as an assistant district attorney in New York in 1980 before moving back to Stamford and entering private practice, he served on the Stamford board of finance from 1984 to 1994 before being elected Mayor of Stamford. He served four terms as mayor from December 1995 to December 2009. Malloy ran unsuccessfully for Governor of Connecticut in 2006, losing the Democratic primary to John DeStefano, Jr. the Mayor of New Haven, defeated in the general election by incumbent Republican Governor Jodi Rell. He ran again in 2010 and comfortably won the primary, defeating Ned Lamont, the 2006 U. S. Senate nominee, by 57% of the vote to 43%. Rell did not run for reelection and Malloy faced former United States Ambassador to Ireland Thomas C. Foley in the general election, defeating him by fewer than 6,500 votes.
Malloy was sworn in on January 5, 2011. He was reelected in a rematch with Foley in 2014, increasing his margin of victory to over 28,000 votes; as of July 2018, he had a 21% job approval rating and a 71% disapproval rating, making him the second least popular and third most disliked governor in the United States, after Mary Fallin of Oklahoma. On April 13, 2017, Malloy announced he would not seek reelection in 2018, he was succeeded in office by Democrat Ned Lamont on January 9, 2019. Dannel Patrick Malloy was born and raised in Stamford, the seventh of seven sons and youngest of the eight children of Agnes Veronica, a nurse, William Francis Malloy, he was raised as a Roman Catholic. As a child, Malloy suffered from learning difficulties with motor coordination, he did not learn to tie his shoes until the fifth grade. Malloy was diagnosed with dyslexia and learned the skills necessary to succeed academically, he does not write or type, reads from notes in public, but developed an extraordinarily useful memory.
He graduated magna cum laude from Boston College, where he met his wife Cathy, earned his J. D. degree from Boston College Law School. After passing the bar exam, Malloy served as an Assistant District Attorney in Brooklyn, New York from 1980-84. During his tenure as a prosecutor, Malloy tried 23 felony cases, four of them homicides, won 22 convictions, he was subsequently a partner in the Stamford law firm of Abate and Fox from 1984-95. He served on the Stamford Board of Finance from 1983-94. In 1995, he ran for Mayor of Stamford, defeating two-term Republican incumbent Stanley Esposito. At the same time, voters approved a measure to extend the Mayor's term of office from two years to four, effective at the next election, he was re-elected in 1997, 2001 and 2005. Malloy made crime reduction a priority during his tenure as mayor. Stamford is ranked as the 9th safest city in the United States and 3rd safest in the Northeast region and for the past six years has ranked in the top 11 safest cities with populations of 100,000 or more, according to the FBI.
Malloy wrote a blog known as "The Blog That Works", since deleted, until mid-January 2010. Budgeting and districting of the various fire departments throughout the city has been unstable since 2007, due to an extended legal conflict between the volunteer departments and the Malloy administration, which sought to consolidate the fire departments against the advice and wishes of the volunteer fire departments. In 2004, Malloy was the first candidate to announce his bid for the Democratic Party nomination for Governor of Connecticut. In a major upset in Malloy’s favor, he received the convention endorsement of the Democratic Party on May 20, 2006 by one vote. Malloy lost in the primary election however against New Haven Mayor John DeStefano, Jr. on August 8, 2006. On February 3, 2009, Malloy filed paperwork with Connecticut's State Elections Enforcement Commission to form a gubernatorial exploratory committee, subsequently announced that he did not intend to seek re-election as Mayor of Stamford.
On March 9, 2010, Malloy filed the required paperwork to run for governor. Malloy received the Democratic Party's endorsement for governor on May 22, 2010, in a 68-32 vote over 2006 Democratic senatorial candidate Ned Lamont. Connecticut's Democratic Party rules allow any candidate who received more than 15% of the vote at its nominating convention to challenge the endorsed candidate for the nomination in a primary, Lamont announced that he would challenge Malloy in the gubernatorial primary; the primary was held on August 10, 2010. Malloy won according to AP-reported unofficial results. According to preliminary numbers, he beat Lamont 101,354 to 73,875; as a Democratic candidate for governor prior to the Democratic state convention and subsequent primary, Malloy chose Nancy Wyman to be his running mate. Wyman is the only woman elected State Comptroller since the office was created in 1786. Malloy's choice was confirmed by the Democratic nominating convention on May 22, Wyman became the official 2010 Democratic candidate for lieutenant governor when she defeated primary opponent Mary Glassman on August 10.
After the primaries, candidates for governor and lieutenant governor run together as a team on a single ticket. Thus and Wyman were both elected on November 2, 2010. Malloy faced Republican Thomas C. Foley, the former United States Ambassador to Ireland under President George W. Bush, in the race for governor. Tom Foley had never been elected to pub
New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven is a coastal city in the U. S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, is part of the New York metropolitan area. With a population of 129,779 as determined by the 2010 United States Census, it is the second-largest city in Connecticut after Bridgeport. New Haven is the principal municipality of Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010. New Haven was the first planned city in America. A year after its founding by English Puritans in 1638, eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four grid, creating what is known as the "Nine Square Plan"; the central common block is the New Haven Green, a 16-acre square at the center of Downtown New Haven. The Green is now a National Historic Landmark, the "Nine Square Plan" is recognized by the American Planning Association as a National Planning Landmark. New Haven is the home of Yale University; as New Haven's biggest taxpayer and employer, Yale serves as an integral part of the city's economy.
Health care, professional services, financial services, retail trade contribute to the city's economic activity. The city served as co-capital of Connecticut from 1701 until 1873, when sole governance was transferred to the more centrally located city of Hartford. New Haven has since billed itself as the "Cultural Capital of Connecticut" for its supply of established theaters and music venues. New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees that gave the city the nickname "The Elm City". Before Europeans arrived, the New Haven area was the home of the Quinnipiac tribe of Native Americans, who lived in villages around the harbor and subsisted off local fisheries and the farming of maize; the area was visited by Dutch explorer Adriaen Block in 1614. Dutch traders set up a small trading system of beaver pelts with the local inhabitants, but trade was sporadic and the Dutch did not settle permanently in the area. In 1637 a small party of Puritans wintered over.
In April 1638, the main party of five hundred Puritans who had left the Massachusetts Bay Colony under the leadership of the Reverend John Davenport and London merchant Theophilus Eaton sailed into the harbor. It was their hope to set up a theological community with the government more linked to the church than that in Massachusetts, to exploit the area's excellent potential as a port; the Quinnipiacs, who were under attack by neighboring Pequots, sold their land to the settlers in return for protection. By 1640, "Qunnipiac's" theocratic government and nine-square grid plan were in place, the town was renamed Newhaven, with'haven' meaning harbor or port; the settlement became the headquarters of the New Haven Colony, distinct from the Connecticut Colony established to the north centering on Hartford. Reflecting its theocratic roots, the New Haven Colony forbid the establishment of other churches, whereas the Connecticut Colony permitted them. Economic disaster struck Newhaven in 1646, when the town sent its first loaded ship of local goods back to England.
It never reached its destination, its disappearance stymied New Haven's development versus the rising trade powers of Boston and New Amsterdam. In 1660, Colony founder John Davenport's wishes were fulfilled, Hopkins School was founded in New Haven with money from the estate of Edward Hopkins. In 1661, the Regicides who had signed the death warrant of Charles I of England were pursued by Charles II. Two of them, Colonel Edward Whalley and Colonel William Goffe, fled to New Haven for refuge. Davenport arranged. A third judge, John Dixwell, joined the others. In 1664 New Haven became part of the Connecticut Colony when the two colonies were merged under political pressure from England, according to folklore as punishment for harboring the three judges; some members of the New Haven Colony seeking to establish a new theocracy elsewhere went on to establish Newark, New Jersey. It was made co-capital of Connecticut in 1701, a status it retained until 1873. In 1716, the Collegiate School relocated from Old Saybrook to New Haven, establishing New Haven as a center of learning.
In 1718, in response to a large donation from British East India Company merchant Elihu Yale, former Governor of Madras, the name of the Collegiate School was changed to Yale College. For over a century, New Haven citizens had fought in the colonial militia alongside regular British forces, as in the French and Indian War; as the American Revolution approached, General David Wooster and other influential residents hoped that the conflict with the government in Britain could be resolved short of rebellion. On 23 April 1775, still celebrated in New Haven as Powder House Day, the Second Company, Governor's Foot Guard, of New Haven entered the struggle against the governing British parliament. Under Captain Benedict Arnold, they broke into the powder house to arm themselves and began a three-day march to Cambridge, Massachusetts. Other New Haven militia members were on hand to escort George Washington from his overnight stay in New Haven on his way to Cambridge. Contemporary reports, from both sides, remark on the New Haven volunteers' professional military bearing, including uniforms.
On July 5, 1779, 2,600 loyalists and British regulars under General Wil
Food waste or food loss is food, discarded or lost uneaten. The causes of food waste or loss are numerous and occur at the stages of producing, processing and consuming. Global food loss and waste amount to between one-third and one-half of all food produced. Loss and wastage occur at all stages of the food supply value chain. In low-income countries, most loss occurs during production, while in developed countries much food – about 100 kilograms per person per year – is wasted at the consumption stage. A lot of the time, food loss or food waste is food, lost during any of the four stages of the food supply chain: producers, processors and consumers. Precise definitions are contentious defined on a situational basis. Professional bodies, including international organizations, state governments and secretariats may use their own definitions. Among other things, in what food waste consists of, how it is produced, where or what it is discarded from or generated by. Definitions vary because certain groups do not consider food waste to be a waste material, due to its applications.
Some definitions of what food waste consists of are based on other waste definitions and which materials do not meet their definitions. Lost food may go to landfills, be put back into the food supply chain, or be put to other nonfood productive uses. Under the UN's Save Food initiative, the FAO, UNEP, stakeholders have agreed on the following definition of food loss and waste: Food loss is the decrease in quantity or quality of food. Food loss in the production and distribution segments of the food supply chain is a function of the food production and supply system or its institutional and legal framework. Food waste is any removal of food from the food supply chain, or was at some point fit for human consumption, or which has spoiled or expired caused by economic behaviour, poor stock management or neglect. Important components of this definition include: Food waste is a part of food loss, but the distinction between the two is not defined Food redirected to non-food chains is counted as food loss or waste.
Plants and animals produced for food contain'non-food parts' which are not included in'food loss and waste' In the European Union, food waste was defined as "any food substance, raw or cooked, discarded, or intended or required to be discarded" since 1975 until 2000 when the old directive was repealed by Directive 2008/98/EC, which has no specific definition of food waste. The directive, 75/442/EEC, containing this definition was amended in 1991 with the addition of "categories of waste" and the omission of any reference to national law; the United States Environmental Protection Agency defines food waste for the United States as "uneaten food and food preparation wastes from residences and commercial establishments such as grocery stores and produce stands, institutional cafeterias and kitchens, industrial sources like employee lunchrooms". The states remain free to define food waste differently for their purposes, though many choose not to. According to the Natural Resources Defense Council, Americans throw away up to 40% of food, safe to eat.
The definitions by the UN and EU have come under criticism for including food that goes to nonfood productive use in their definitions of food waste. According to the authors of one study, this is flawed for two reasons: "First, if recovered food is used as an input, such as animal feed, fertilizer, or biomass to produce output by definition it is not wasted. However, there might be economic losses if the cost of recovered food is higher than the average cost of inputs in the alternative, nonfood use. Second, the definition creates practical problems for measuring food waste because the measurement requires tracking food loss in every stage of the supply chain and its proportion that flows to nonfood uses." The authors of the study argue that only food that ends up in landfills should be counted as food waste. In the US, food waste can occur in significant amounts. In subsistence agriculture, the amounts of food waste are unknown, but are to be insignificant by comparison, due to the limited stages at which waste can occur, given that food is grown for projected need as opposed to a global marketplace demand.
On-farm losses in storage in developing countries in African countries, can be high although the exact nature of such losses is much debated. In the food industry of the United States, the food supply of, the most diverse and abundant of any country in the world, waste occurs from the beginning of food production chain. From planting, crops can be subjected to pest infestations and severe weather, which cause losses before harvest. Since natural forces remain the primary drivers of crop growth, losses from these can be experienced by all forms of outdoor agriculture. On average, farms in the United States lose up to six billion pounds of crops every year because of these unpredictable conditions; the use of machinery in harvesting can cause waste, as harvesters may be unable to discern between ripe and immature crops, or collect only part of a crop. Economic factors, such as regulations and standards for quality and appearance cause food waste.
East Haven, Connecticut
East Haven is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the town population was 29,257. Located 3 miles east of New Haven, it is part of the Greater New Haven area. East Haven is 35 miles from Hartford, 82 miles from New York City, 99 miles from Providence, Rhode Island, 140 miles from Boston; the Connecticut Colony granted the town petition for Township in May 1707 and colonists changed the name from Iron Works Village to East Haven. Some outstanding land issues with New Haven and a minor feud with Governor Gurdon Saltonstall resulted in the rescinding of the township status. New Haven and neighboring towns such as East Haven have been destinations for a new wave of immigrants since the late 20th century, the majority of whom in East Haven are Latinos from Puerto Rico. In the 2010 census and Latinos made up more than 10% of the town's population. On August 9, 2013, a Rockwell International Turbo Commander 690B crashed on approach, hitting two houses in an East Haven residential neighborhood near the airport.
The impact and the resulting fires destroyed both houses. The private plane had taken off from Teterboro Airport in New Jersey; the incident resulted in four deaths: the pilot of the plane. They were one year of age. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 13.4 sq mi ， of which 12.3 sq mi of it is land and 1.19 sq mi of it is water. East Haven contains Stony Island 660 yards from East Haven Town Beach in Long Island Sound; the shape of East Haven on a map is taller. It is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New Haven, on the north by North Haven, on the east by Branford, Lake Saltonstall, North Branford. East Haven shares with New Haven the land belonging to local Tweed New Haven Airport and Alling Memorial Golf Course. During the Paleozoic Era, 450 to 250 million years ago, several tectonic plates collided to form the supercontinent called Pangaea. East Haven was located in the middle of this collision, the results can be seen today with the schists and granites which are exposed.
When Pangaea was broken up, during the Triassic and Jurassic periods, volcanic activity occurred, depositing basalt or trap rock. Earthquakes can still be felt in the area. In February 2001 the area was rocked by a 1.8 magnitude earthquake originating in Madison, Connecticut. It is estimated; the last glacier is estimated to have been 1,800 feet thick in the New Haven area. 22,000 years ago, the glacier moved south, eroding mountains and pushing through East Haven to deposit large amounts of glacial till to form Long Island. 14,000 years ago the glacier retreated and shaped the coastline, formed Long Island Sound and created Lake Saltonstall. It deposited glacial till, sand and boulders that the ice carried south from the north; the coast is covered by gneiss rock and quartzite. The remaining sections are part of the Central Valley of Connecticut and are covered with clastic sedimentary rock; this soft surface has been resedimented by a number of floods, making the soil soft and fertile and ideal for farmland.
Brownstone, a sedimentary rock that erodes was dug into by glaciers and carved out many lakes and valleys. The area surrounding Farms River and Lake Saltonstall on the East Haven and Branford border is an example of this; the brownstone that did not erode was used for building foundations and rock fences found throughout New England. Deposits of basalt can be found in the northeast sections of East Haven. Several quarries can be found in this area. Traprock is turned into crushed stone, it is used in construction and in the bedding of roads. Sand and gravel from glacial till is the second most profitable quarried rock, they are used in concrete, leach fields or for road sand. When Pangaea was broken up, East Haven had forests. Dinosaurs and mammals roamed the area. Dinosaur trackways like those found in Rocky Hill at Dinosaur State Park were found at a construction site near Lake Saltonstall; the tracks were made by Eubrontes. Fossils of Triassic period reptiles have been found in the area. Stegomus was looked similar to an armadillo.
Today, East Haven is covered with broadleaf, hardwood trees. There are a few conifer forests around Lake Saltonstall. Salt marshes are located in areas around Long Island Sound. Dinosaurs were long ago succeeded by deer, squirrels, foxes and rabbits. Garter snakes can be found in the area. Pheasants, grouse and wild turkeys can be found in East Haven, as well as cardinals, blue jays, crows, parrots and sea gulls. Trout can be found in the fresh water lakes. Bluefish, flounder, sand sharks, lobsters and clams can be found in Long Island Sound; the residents of the town divide it into three large "sections" rather than smaller neighborhoods. These sections are: The area borders Branford and North Branford on the east, New Haven on the west to about Grannis Pond in the south, surrounds State Route 80; this is the hilliest section of town. It counts among its landmarks the town high school, Foxon Park Beverage, Camp Murray, a Girl Scouts day camp. Grannis Pond used to host a YMCA camp until the land was sold a