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Connecticut Western Reserve

The Connecticut Western Reserve was a portion of land claimed by the Colony of Connecticut and by the state of Connecticut in what is now the northeastern region of Ohio. The Reserve had been granted to the Colony under the terms of its charter by King Charles II. Connecticut relinquished claim to some of its western lands to the United States in 1786 following the American Revolutionary War and preceding the 1787 establishment of the Northwest Territory. Despite ceding sovereignty to the United States, Connecticut retained ownership of the eastern portion of its cession, south of Lake Erie, it sold much of this "Western Reserve" to a group of speculators who operated as the Connecticut Land Company. The phrase Western Reserve is preserved in numerous institutional names in Ohio, such as Western Reserve Academy, Case Western Reserve University, Western Reserve Hospital; the Reserve encompassed all of the following Ohio counties: Ashtabula, Cuyahoga and Huron, Lake, Medina, Trumbull. After the American Revolutionary War, Connecticut was forced by the federal government to surrender the Pennsylvania portion of its "sea-to-sea land grant" following the Yankee-Pennamite Wars.

The state held fast to its claim on the lands between the 41st and 42nd-and-2-minutes parallels that lay west of the Pennsylvania state border. The claim within Ohio was for a 120-mile -wide strip between Lake Erie and a line just south of present-day Youngstown, New London, Willard, about 3 miles south of present-day U. S. Highway 224; the claim beyond Ohio included parts of Michigan, Illinois, Nebraska, Utah and California. The eastern boundary of the reserve follows a true meridian along Ellicott's Line, the boundary with Pennsylvania; the western boundary veers more than four degrees from a meridian to maintain the 120-mile width, due to convergence. Connecticut gave up western land claims following the American Revolutionary War in exchange for federal assumption of its debt, as did several other states. From these concessions, the federal government organized the old Northwest Territory, earlier known as the "Territory Northwest of the River Ohio"; the deed of cession was issued on 13 September 1786.

As population increased in portions of the Northwest Territory, new states were organized and admitted to the Union in the early 19th century. Connecticut retained 3,366,921 acres in Ohio, which became known as the "Western Reserve"; the state sold the Western Reserve to the Connecticut Land Company in 1796 for $1,200,000. The Land Company were a group of investors who were from Suffield, Connecticut; the initial eight men in the group planned to divide the land into homestead plots and sell it to settlers from the east. But the Indian titles to the Reserve had not been extinguished. Clear title was obtained east of the Cuyahoga River by the Greenville Treaty in 1795 and west of the river in the Treaty of Fort Industry in 1805; the western end of the reserve included the Firelands or "Sufferers' Lands," 500,000 acres reserved for residents of several New England towns, destroyed by British-set fires during the Revolutionary War. The next year, the Land Company sent surveyors led by Moses Cleaveland to the Reserve to divide the land into square townships, 5 miles on each side (25 square miles.

Cleaveland's team founded the city of Cleveland along Lake Erie, which became the largest city in the region. The territory was named "New Connecticut", settlers began to trickle in during the next few years. Youngstown was founded in 1796, Warren in 1798, Hudson in 1799, Ravenna in 1799, Ashtabula in 1803, Stow in 1804. Connecticut ceded sovereignty over the Western Reserve in 1800; the United States absorbed it into the Northwest Territory, which organized Trumbull County within the boundaries of the Reserve. Warren, Ohio is the former county seat of the Reserve and identifies itself as "the historical capital of the Western Reserve." Several more counties were carved out of the territory. The name "Western Reserve" survives in the area in various institutions such as the "Western Reserve Historical Society" and Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio; this area of Ohio became a center of resource development and industrialization through the mid-20th century. It was a center of the steel industry, receiving iron ore shipped through the Great Lakes from Minnesota, processing it into steel products, shipping these products to the east.

This industry stimulated the development of great freight lakers, as the steam ships were known, including the first steel ships in the 20th century. Railroads took over some of the commodity transportation from the lake ships. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, these cities attracted hundreds of thousands of European immigrants and migrants from the rural South to its industrial jobs. At the request of Congress in 2011, the National Park Service prepared a feasibility study for declaring the 14-county region of the Western Reserve as a National Heritage Area; this is a means to encourage broad-based preservation of such historical sites and buildings that are related to a large historical theme. Such assessment and designation has been significant for recognizing assets, encouragin

Adelog of Hildesheim

Adelog von Dorstadt was Bishop of Hildesheim from 1171 until his death. Born into a Saxon noble family, he was a relative of the Lords of Dorstadt. From about 1160 he appeared as a canon at Hildesheim Cathedral and provost of the cathedral chapter in Goslar. In the fierce Hohenstaufen–Welf dispute between Frederick Barbarossa and the Saxon duke Henry the Lion, Bishop Adelog acted cautiously and sided with the emperor; when Henry was deposed in 1180, he achieved nearly independent status. Despite the tensions with the House of Welf, he worked as diocesan bishop in the residence of Brunswick. Adelog was a builder, overseeing the reconstruction of the St. Michael's Church, Hildesheim after the fire of 1186, the completion of the basilica St. Godehard and the construction of the Neuwerk monastery in Goslar, he sponsored construction of the Our Lady Altar in Brunswick Cathedral, which he consecrated on 8 September 1188 in the presence of Henry the Lion, in 1189 he confirmed and privileged the foundation of an Augustinian nunnery in Dorstadt.

He died 20 September 1190 in Hildesheim and was buried in the Hildesheim Cathedral Adelogs grave in the nave of the cathedral is made of ornate sandstone. "Adelog of Hildesheim". Germania Sacra people index. Göttingen Academy of Sciences and Humanities

Traversal Using Relays around NAT

Traversal Using Relays around NAT is a protocol that assists in traversal of network address translators or firewalls for multimedia applications. It may be used with User Datagram Protocol, it is most useful for clients on networks masqueraded by symmetric NAT devices. TURN does not aid in running servers on well known ports in the private network through a NAT. TURN is specified by RFC 5766. An update to TURN for IPv6 is specified in RFC 6156; the TURN URI scheme is documented in RFC 7065. NATs, while providing many benefits come with many drawbacks; the most troublesome of those drawbacks is the fact that they break many existing IP applications, make it difficult to deploy new ones. Guidelines have been developed that describe how to build "NAT friendly" protocols, but many protocols cannot be constructed according to those guidelines. Examples of such protocols file sharing. Session Traversal Utilities for NAT provides one way for an application to traverse a NAT. STUN allows a client to obtain a transport address which may be useful for receiving packets from a peer.

However, addresses obtained by STUN may not be usable by all peers. Those addresses work depending on the topological conditions of the network. Therefore, STUN by itself cannot provide a complete solution for NAT traversal. A complete solution requires a means by which a client can obtain a transport address from which it can receive media from any peer which can send packets to the public Internet; this can only be accomplished by relaying data through a server. Traversal Using Relay NAT is a protocol that allows a client to obtain IP addresses and ports from such a relay. Although TURN always provides connectivity to a client, it is resource intensive for the provider of the TURN server, it is therefore desirable to use TURN as a last resort only, preferring other mechanisms when possible. To accomplish that, the Interactive Connectivity Establishment methodology can be used to discover the optimal means of connectivity; the process begins when a client computer wants to contact a peer computer for a data transaction, but cannot do so due to both client and peer being behind respective NATs.

If STUN is not an option because one of the NATs is a symmetric NAT, TURN must be used. First, the client contacts a TURN server with an "Allocate" request; the Allocate request asks the TURN server to allocate some of its resources for the client so that it may contact a peer. If allocation is possible, the server allocates an address for the client to use as a relay, sends the client an "Allocation Successful" response, which contains an "allocated relayed transport address" located at the TURN server. Second, the client sends in a CreatePermissions request to the TURN server to create a permissions check system for peer-server communications. In other words, when a peer is contacted and sends information back to the TURN server to be relayed to client, the TURN server uses the permissions to verify that the peer-to-TURN server communication is valid. After permissions have been created, the client has two choices for sending the actual data, it can use the Send mechanism, or it can reserve a channel using the ChannelBind request.

The Send mechanism is more straightforward, but contains a larger header, 36 bytes, that can increase the bandwidth in a TURN relayed conversation. By contrast, the ChannelBind method is lighter: the header is only 4 bytes, but it requires a channel to be reserved which needs to be periodically refreshed, among other considerations. Using either method, Send or channel binding, the TURN server receives the data from the client and relays it to the peer using UDP datagrams, which contain as their Source Address the "Allocated Relayed Transport Address"; the peer receives the data and responds, again using a UDP datagram as the transport protocol, sending the UDP datagram to the relay address at the TURN server. The TURN server receives the peer UDP datagram, checks the permissions and if they are valid, forwards it to the client; this process gets around symmetric NATs because both the client and peer can at least talk to the TURN server, which has allocated a relay IP address for communication.

While TURN is more robust than STUN in that it assist in traversal of more types of NATs, a TURN communication relays the entire communication through the server requiring far more server bandwidth than the STUN protocol, which only resolves the public facing IP address and relays the information to client and peer for them to use in direct communication. For this reason, the ICE protocol mandates STUN usage as a first resort, TURN usage only when dealing with symmetric NATs or other situations where STUN cannot be used. Interactive Connectivity Establishment RFC 5766 Yahoo! - Director of Engineering explaining STUN and TURN

Paul DiPasquale

Paul DiPasquale is an American sculptor living and working in Richmond, Virginia. Among his most famous sculptures are the statue of tennis star and Richmond native Arthur Ashe located on Monument Avenue in Richmond and the King Neptune statue at the entrance to Neptune Park on the boardwalk at Virginia Beach, his native American statue "Connecticut" has been moved several times to different locations. It was installed in Washington D. C. in 1983 to honor Native Americans. From there it was moved to the Richmond Braves baseball stadium; when the Richmond team became the Richmond Flying Squirrels, the sculpture was moved to Tobacco Row and placed atop a former Lucky Strike factory. DiPasquale's undergraduate degree was in the field of sociology with an art minor at the University of Virginia, he trained at the Boston Architectural Center and received his Masters degree in sculpture from Virginia Commonwealth University in 1977. He has been associated as an instructor, resident artist, or visiting artist at Northern Virginia Community College, Maryland Institute, American Academy in Rome, International City of the Arts in Paris and Mary College and Virginia Commonwealth University.

In 2012, DiPasquale presented an exhibition of sculpted Ears at art6 Gallery. He participated in an event presented by Gasa Gasa, a Freret Street club in New Orleans. In Richmond, he participated in gallery exhibitions at Artspace. DiPasquale's Neptune maquette was placed in 2017 in the main visitor-welcoming lobby of the historic Main Street Station in Richmond. DiPasquale's outdoor sculptures include: the King Neptune in Virginia; the name of the statue "Connecticut" comes from the Eastern Algonquin Indian word, "Quinnehtukqut" In 2010, DiPasquale placed on permanent loan a smaller version of Neptune to the Glen Allen Cultural Arts Center in Henrico County, Virginia for its garden. The Virginia Historical Society describes Pasquale's "Headman" as a "9 1/2 foot tall bronze sculpture" commemorating the "contributions of a black boatman" on the James River. "Lily" by DiPasquale is a life-size cow made from epoxy for the Billings Museum in Vermont. In 2016 Polish artist Olek added a gas mask to her commissioned crocheted installation on the oceanfront King Neptune statue.

The gas mask was not part of her accepted original MOCA proposal and caused a Virginia Museum of Contemporary Art controversy and removal of the installation. DiPasquale was twice a visiting sculptor at the American Academy in Rome, his office and "laboratory" in his back yard in Fulton Hill in Richmond is a place where he experiments to create small models for his statues of notable people such as Thomas Jefferson and General Colin Powell. Controversy was involved in the placement of DiPasquale's Arthur Ashe monument on Monument Avenue, both when it was first placed on that historic site and again in 2017 when there were demonstrations to remove the Confederate monuments from the avenue of famous Richmonders. Pinterest photos.^ "U. S. Signs, Landmarks, etc". Pinterest. Retrieved 29 November 2017

Malam Jabba

Malam Jabba is a Hill Station in the Hindu Kush mountain range nearly 40 km from Saidu Sharif in Swat Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. It is 51 km from Saidu Sharif Airport. Malam Jabba is home to one of the two ski resorts in Pakistan. On the main Madyan-Kalam road, the road turns to the right at Manglor town, for the Malam-Jabba Dara which has a series of small villages and settlements like Salanda, Talegraam, Ser, Kishora, Spine Oba, Jabba. Malam is a small village. Malam is nearly 17 km from Manglor. Jabba is the upper most part of the whole Dara; the Malam Jabba Ski Resort, owned by the Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation, had a ski slope of about 800m with the highest point of the slope 2804 m above sea level. Malam Jabba Ski Resort was the joint effort of the Pakistan with its Austrian counterpart; the resort was equipped with modern facilities including roller/ice-skating rinks, chair lifts, skiing platforms and snow clearing equipment. The resort was destroyed by the Taliban.

Now that writ of the government has been reinstated and peace established, tourism has picked up. The Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has awarded the tender for rebuilding the Malam Jabba skiing resort to a private company. Work is slated for a 2017 completion date. Skiing has been restored and a skiing festival was held in January 2015. Miandam Saidu Sharif Swat Valley https://www.google.com/maps/place/Malam+Jabba,+Pakistan/

The Heads (British band)

The Heads are an English psychedelic rock band formed in Bristol, England in 1990. They have released around numerous EPs and singles, they recorded three Peel Sessions between 1995 and 1999. Paul AllenLead Guitar, audio generator H. O. Morgan – Bass Wayne Maskell – Drums,Sonic Attack Simon Price – Guitars, vocals Originally formed in 1990 by Hugo Morgan, Simon Price and Dave Spencer from the remnants of Bristol bands Quinton and The Spasmodics respectively, they were joined by Wayne Maskell a few months and played music somewhat influenced by Loop, Spacemen 3 and The Stooges. This line up lasted for 2 years, playing support slots to bands such as Babes in Toyland and Swervedriver, but without any record releases. After a few months with a guitarist called Jim, who left to be replaced by Paul Allen in 1993, the band took a more rock route more inspired by bands such as Monster Magnet, their first single was released in 1994, entitled The QUAD EP. This has become a collectors item with its Russ Meyer inspired sleeve and initial copies including a packet of cigarette papers with the name of the band printed on the front.

The band recorded three Peel Sessions between 1999 as well as a session for Mark Radcliffe. Relaxing With... – Headhunter Records CD/LP – LP 1000 copies, 100 copies came with an insert some inserts were personalised/doodled on by the band. The Time Is Now – Mans Ruin Records CD – Compilation of two 10"s and two split 7"s. Everybody Knows We Got Nowhere – Sweet Nothing Records CD/LP – 2xLP 1000 copies. Undersided – Sweet Nothing Records CD/LP – 2xLP 1000 copies. At Last – Rooster / Sweet Nothing / Rocket CD/LP – CD 1st edition in sleeve 100 copies, 2nd edition in jewel case 60 copies, 3rd edition 1000 copies. LP on Rocket Recordings, 500 copies, light blue coloured vinyl issued with 3 different silk-screened covers; these covers were not pressed in equal amounts, the blue & white and the red & white were the rarer editions. The blue & white being the rarest with 30+/- copies made. 33 – Rooster / Invada Records CD/LP – CD Originally a pressing of just 33 copies on black cds in a flipback cover, inside a Rooster outer bag.

2nd CD edition jewel case 60copies pressed. LP on Invada Records, 1st pressing on black vinyl 500 copies. 2nd pressing on blue vinyl 500 copies. Under The Stress of a Headlong Dive – Invada Records / Alternative Tentacles CD/LP – 2xLP on Rocket & Invada Records 1000 copies. CD released in UK on Invada Records has an orange and silver cover, whilst the US version on Alternative Tentacles is purple and silver. Dead in the Water – Rooster / Invada Records CD/LP – CD Originally 100 numbered copies in card sleeve. CD 2nd edition in jewel case, 30 numbered copies. 2xLP 500 copies pink/red vinyl. CD 3rd edition 1000 copies. Rituals From The Heads & The Big Naturals Volume One – Rooster CD – 100 numbered copies in card sleeve. 2nd edition 30 numbered copies in card sleeve inside a plastic Rooster outer bag with sticker on the front. Rituals From The Heads & The Big Naturals Volume Two – Rooster CD – 100 numbered copies in card sleeve. 2nd edition 30 numbered copies in card sleeve inside a plastic Rooster outer bag with sticker on the front.

Bedlam -- Rooster CD -- 1st. 2nd edition 30 numbered copies in orange card sleeve. 3rd edition 30 numbered copies in yellow card sleeve. Irrepressible Heads – Chicken Slide Records CD – 100 copies, half of them came in Chicken Slide paper bags... Time in Space – Rooster CD – 1st edition 100 numbered copies. 2nd edition, same cover as the 1st edition but in inverted blue and red colours, <100 copies. Tilburg – Rooster CD/LP – CD 1st edition gatefold sleeve, 200 numbered copies, released in 2008. CD 2nd edition, 30 copies. 2xLP 500 copies. Time in Space Vol.2 – Rooster 2xCD – 1st edition gatefold sleeve 100 numbered copies. 2xCD 2nd edition card sleeve, 100 copies. Time in Space Vol.3 – Rooster CD – 1st edition card sleeve, 150 numbered copies, first 30 copies have a purple back cover and label. Live at the Koko – Rooster CD – Recorded during their support set for Mudhoney in October 2009. 150 copies, first 50 copies came in a brown paper bag with'Live at the Koko' stamped on. Relaxing With... -- Rooster 2xCD -- Remastered edition, includes out-takes.

Rituals From The Heads & The Big Naturals Volume Three – Rooster CD – 150 numbered copies, first 50 copies came in a brown paper bag with a spiral print. Relaxing With Rehearsals – Rooster CD – 150 numbered copies, first 100 copies came in a paper bag with Quad/Ultravixen print. Vertigo Swill – Rooster CD – 1st edition, 88 numbered copies. 2nd edition, front/back covers reversed, 100 copies. Enten-Eller – Rooster CD – 100 numbered copies. Gatefold sleeve. Inner Space Broadcasts Vol 2 – Cardinal Fuzz 2CD Limited Edition. CD 2 – A collection of recordings from The Heads' rehearsal room; the Heads have released numerous editions of their albums, in limited quantities – two or three editions with altered artwork or sleeves and less than 100 copies, no