Carbis Bay is a seaside resort and village in Cornwall, England, UK. It lies one mile southeast of St Ives, on the Atlantic coast; the South West Coast Path passes above the beach. Carbis Bay is contiguous with the town of St Ives and is in St Ives civil parish, which encompasses St Ives, Carbis Bay and Halsetown; the 2001 census gave the combined population of Carbis Bay and Lelant as 3,482. Lelant, an older settlement, one mile to the south-east, Carbis Bay and St Ives are linked by the A3074 road which joins the A30 at Rose-an-Grouse. Carbis Bay railway station, above the beach, is one of six railway stations on the St Ives Bay Line which joins the mainline at St Erth railway station, at Rose-an-Grouse. St Erth station is the junction for the main line to London Paddington. Carbis Bay overlooks the small bay of the same name, bounded to the north by Porthminster Point and to the east by Hawk's Point and contains a popular family beach. Hawk's Point is within the Hayle Estuary and Carrack Gladden Site of Special Scientific Interest and in the Victorian era was known locally for its pleasure grounds.
The garden had a tea house and was a venue for Sunday School outings, Band of Hope galas, etc. By 1880 the proprietor, William Payne, claimed in an advertisement that it was ″the largest establishment of the kind in the West...″. Wheal Providence mine in Carbis Bay is the type locality of the rare mineral Connellite; the parish church, dedicated to St Anta and All Saints, contains a peal of ten bells. This was the largest peal in a Cornish parish church until St Keverne's bells was increased to ten in 2001; the Carbis Bay Hotel, on the seafront, was built in 1894 by Silvanus Trevail. Behind the village stands the Knill Monument, known locally as "The Steeple", a 50-foot high monument to John Knill, a mayor of nearby St Ives during the 18th-century. St Uny Primary School, a Church of England School voluntarily controlled by the Diocese of Truro, is situated in Carbis Bay. Media related to Carbis Bay at Wikimedia Commons St Ives Town Council Visit St Ives Information Centre
In the field of mineralogy, fracture is the texture and shape of a rock's surface formed when a mineral is fractured. Minerals have a distinctive fracture, making it a principal feature used in their identification. Fracture differs from cleavage in that the latter involves clean splitting along the cleavage planes of the mineral's crystal structure, as opposed to more general breakage. All minerals exhibit fracture, but when strong cleavage is present, it can be difficult to see. Conchoidal fracture breakage that resembles the concentric ripples of a mussel shell, it occurs in amorphous or fine-grained minerals such as flint, opal or obsidian, but may occur in crystalline minerals such as quartz. Subconchoidal fracture is similar to with less significant curvature. Earthy fracture is reminiscent of freshly broken soil, it is seen in soft, loosely bound minerals, such as limonite and aluminite. Hackly fracture is jagged and not even, it occurs when metals are torn, so is encountered in native metals such as copper and silver.
Splintery fracture comprises sharp elongated points. It is seen in fibrous minerals such as chrysotile, but may occur in non-fibrous minerals such as kyanite. Uneven fracture is a rough one with random irregularities, it occurs in a wide range of minerals including arsenopyrite and magnetite. Rudolf Duda and Lubos Rejl: Minerals of the World http://www.galleries.com/minerals/property/fracture.htm
Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P
Bisbee is a town in Cochise County, Arizona, USA, 92 miles southeast of Tucson. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town was 5,575; the town is the county seat of Cochise County. Bisbee was founded as a copper and silver mining town in 1880, named in honor of Judge DeWitt Bisbee, one of the financial backers of the adjacent Copper Queen Mine. In 1929, the county seat was moved from Tombstone to Bisbee. Mining in the Mule Mountains proved quite successful: in the early 20th century the population of Bisbee soared. Incorporated in 1902, by 1910 its population had swelled to 9,019, it sported a constellation of suburbs, including Warren and San Jose, some of, founded on their own mines. In 1917, open-pit mining was introduced to meet the copper demand during World War I. A high quality turquoise promoted. Many high-quality mineral specimens have come from Bisbee area mines and are to be found in museum collections worldwide; some of these minerals include cuprite, wulfenite, malachite and galena.
Miners attempted to organize to gain better working wages. In 1917, the Phelps Dodge Corporation, using private police, transported at gun point over 1,000 striking miners out of town to Hermanas, New Mexico, due to allegations that they were members of the Industrial Workers of the World. Earlier that year, industry police conducted the Jerome Deportation intended to expel striking miners. Continued underground work enabled the town to survive the changes in mining that caused mines in neighboring towns to close, leading to a resulting dramatic loss of population. But, by 1950 the population of Bisbee had dropped--to less than 6,000. In 1975 the Phelps Dodge Corporation halted its Bisbee copper-mining operations. Bisbee Mayor Chuck Eads, with cooperation of Phelps Dodge, implemented development of a mine tour and historic interpretation of a portion of the Copper Queen Mine as part of an effort to create heritage tourism as another economic base to compensate for the financial loss due to the end of the mining industry.
Community volunteers re-timbered the old workings. This local effort came to the attention of the federal Economic Development Administration, it approved a large grant to the City of Bisbee to help the mine tour project and other improvements in downtown Bisbee. The Queen Mine Tour was opened to visitors on February 1, 1976. More than a million visitors have taken the underground mine tour train. From 1950 to 1960, the sharp population decline changed course and the number of residents of Bisbee increased by nearly 160 percent when open-pit mining was undertaken and the city annexed nearby areas; the peak population was in 1960, at 9,914. In the following decade, there was a decline in jobs and population, although not as severe as from 1930 to 1950. But, the economic volatility resulted in a crash in housing prices. Coupled with an attractive climate and picturesque scenery, Bisbee became a destination in the 1960s for artists and hippies of the counter culture. Artist Stephen Hutchison and his wife Marcia purchased the Copper Queen Hotel, the town's anchor business and architectural gem, from the Phelps-Dodge mining company in 1970.
The company had tried to find a local buyer, offering the deed to any local resident for the sum of $1, but there were no takers. The property needed renovation for continued use. Hutchison renovated the hotel, as well as other buildings in the downtown area. One held Stock Exchange. Hutchison began to market Bisbee as a destination of the "authentic," old Southwest, his work attracted the developer Ed Smart. Among the many guests at the hotel have been celebrities from nearby California. Actor John Wayne was a frequent visitor to the Copper Queen, he befriended Hutchison and partnered with Smart in his real estate ventures. This period of Bisbee's history is well documented in contemporary articles in The New Yorker and in an article by Cynthia Buchanan in The Cornell Review, it was at this time that Bisbee became a haven for artists and hippies fleeing the larger cities of Arizona and California. It attracted people priced out by gentrification of places such as Aspen, Colorado. In the 1990s, additional people were attracted to Bisbee, leading it to develop such amenities as coffee shops and live theatre.
Many of the old houses have been renovated, property values in Bisbee now exceed those of other southeastern Arizona cities. Today, the historic city of Bisbee is known as "Old Bisbee" and is home to a thriving downtown cultural scene; this area is noted for its architecture, including Victorian-style houses and an elegant Art Deco county courthouse. Because its plan was laid out to a pedestrian scale before the automobile, Old Bisbee is compact and walkable; the town's hilly terrain is exemplified by the old four-story high school. The city of Bisbee now includes the satellite communities of Warren and San Jose; the Lowell and Warren townsites were consolidated into Bisbee proper during the early part of the twentieth century. There are smaller neighborhoods interspersed between these larger boroughs, including Galena, Tintown, South Bisbee and Saginaw. Warren was Arizona's first planned community, it was designed as a bedroom community for the more affluent citizens of the mining district. Warren has a fine collection of Arts and Crafts style bungalow houses.
Many have been recognized as historic places
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
Prof Arthur Connell FRS FRSE was a Scottish chemist and mineralogist. The mineral Connellite is named after him, he was a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. He was born in Edinburgh on 30 November 1794, the son of Sir John Connell, Judge of the Admiralty Court and his wife, Margaret Campbell, his paternal grandfather was Lord Provost of Glasgow. Connell was educated at the High School in Edinburgh and trained to be an advocate, qualifying in 1817, he studied at Edinburgh and Oxford Universities. His interests moved from law to chemistry and from 1840 to 1856 he was Professor of Chemistry at St Andrews University, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1829, his proposer being John Borthwick. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1855. In 1847 he discovered a new mineral: described as a sulphato-chloride of copper, now known as Connellite, he lived at 67 North Street in St Andrews. In years he was assisted by Matthew Forster Heddle, he died in St Andrews on 31 October 1863.
He is buried in Warriston Cemetery in Edinburgh behind the large red sandstone monument to Rev Peddie on the main east west path above the vaults. The grave is vandalised and the obelisk on the monument lies toppled to one side. In 1863, just before he died, he married Elizabeth Camilla
Philip Rashleigh (1729–1811)
Philip Rashleigh III of Menabilly, was an antiquary and Fellow of the Royal Society and a Cornish squire. He collected and published the Trewhiddle Hoard of Anglo-Saxon treasure, which still gives its name to the "Trewhiddle style" of 9th century decoration, he was born at Aldermanbury, London, on 28 December 1729, the eldest son and heir of Jonathan Rashleigh III, of Menabilly, MP for Fowey in Cornwall, by his wife Mary Clayton, daughter of Sir William Clayton, 1st Baronet of Marden in Surrey. He matriculated from New College, Oxford, 15 July 1749, contributed to the poems of the university on the death of Frederick, Prince of Wales, a set of English verses, reprinted in Nichols's Select Collection of Poems. On the death of his father in 1764 he inherited the family seat of Menabilly, near Fowey on the south coast of Cornwall, he took over from him in Parliament as the elected member for the family borough of Fowey on 21 January 1765, sitting continuously, in spite of contests and election petitions, until the dissolution of 1802, by which time he was known as the "Father of the House of Commons".
His knowledge of Cornish mineralogy procured his election as a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and Fellow of the Royal Society in 1788. A portrait of Rashleigh, seated in a chair, was painted by John Opie about 1795, is now in the Royal Cornwall Museum, Truro, it is a "fine specimen of the painter's best period". Rashleigh's collection of minerals was remarkable for its various specimens of tin, it is held by the Royal Cornwall Museum, with portions at the Natural History Museum, its most valuable portions are described in two volumes of Specimens of British Minerals from his cabinet. In the same collection are models in glass of the hailstones that fell on 20 October 1791, particulars of which, with the figured representations, are given, on Rashleigh's information, in King's Remarks on Stones fallen from the Clouds, pp. 18–20. He contributed antiquarian papers to the Archæologia, ix. 187–8, xi. 83–4, xii. 414, but they were derided by Dr. John Whitaker as the work of an "amateur in antiquarianism".
A paper by him on certain "alluvial deposits" at Sandrycock, Cornwall, is in the Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, ii. 281–4, a letter from him to E. M. Da Costa, on some English shells, is in the British Museum Addit. MS. 28541, f. 196. He constructed a remarkable grotto at Polridmouth, near the family seat, he married his first cousin, Jane Pole, only daughter of the Rev. Carolus Pole, 3rd son of Sir John Pole of Shute, Devonshire, they had no issue, the family estates passed to his nephew William Rashleigh, MP for Fowey and Sheriff of Cornwall for 1820. He was buried in the church of Tywardreath, Cornwall. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Rashleigh, Philip". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Mineralogical Record gallery of illustration of the Rashleigh collection