Chadwell Heath is a affluent suburban area in north east London, England. It is situated on the boundary of the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham and the London Borough of Redbridge, around 2 miles west of Romford and 4 miles east of Ilford, 12 miles north-east of Charing Cross; the name was first used in the 17th century for a settlement in the parish of Dagenham in Essex, which absorbed the neighbouring hamlet of Chadwell Street in the parish of Barking. Chadwell Heath railway station, on the Great Eastern Main Line, opened in 1864, connecting the area to Central London. After the First World War, the area developed as a residential suburb and formed the northern limit of the Becontree estate, causing an increase in population density; the area became part of Greater London in 1965. Chadwell Heath is within the London 020 telephone area code; the area is home to one of the most successful schools in the Chadwell Heath Academy. It was the final residence of Eva Hart, a survivor of the RMS Titanic, a local pub is named after her.
The name'Chadwell' is first recorded in 1254 as Chaudewell and means'the cold spring'. The name was first applied to a settlement on the Barking side of the ancient Barking/Dagenham boundary and it was known as Chadwell Street. In the 17th century the Blackheath Common in Dagenham parish was renamed Chadwell Heath; as the settlements merged the Chadwell Street name was lost in favour of Chadwell Heath. The railway was constructed through the area from Romford and Ilford and in 1864 Chadwell Heath railway station was opened, it was the'end of the line' for both the London tram system and the electric trolley bus service from Aldgate. The trolley buses turned around at Wangey Road. Chadwell Heath formed a hamlet in the ancient parish of Essex; as Chadwell Heath grew it absorbed the neighbouring hamlet of Chadwell Street in the Chadwell ward of the parish of Barking. The Barking section of Chadwell Heath became part of the new parish of Ilford in 1888; this became Ilford Urban District in 1894. The Dagenham section became part of Romford Rural District in 1894.
The parish was removed from the rural district and became Dagenham Urban District in 1926. During the 1920s and 1930s the local government arrangements of the area came under review and various proposals would have merged the two sections of Chadwell Heath into a single district, however this was not acted upon. Ilford was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1926 and Dagenham was incorporated in 1938; the arrangements of the area were reviewed again in the 1960s. The whole area was considered to form part of the Greater London conurbation and in 1957 formed part of the review area of the Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London. Following the review, in 1965 the London Government Act 1963 abolished the municipal boroughs of Dagenham and Ilford, transferred their former area from Essex to Greater London, to form part of the new London Borough of Barking and the London Borough of Redbridge; the London to Colchester Roman Road caused some early'ribbon' development while much of the rest of the area remained rural.
Suburban growth commenced in 1900 and proceeded until World War I. The area suffered several bomb hits during World War Two. A large parachute mine exploded causing extensive residential damage in Bennett Road, destroying the school, while a second failed to explode and its parachute became entangled in horse-chestnut trees near Chadwell Heath station, it did not explode because it was cradled in soft soil as the result of digging near Hemmings Bakery. It was found by Walter Wiffen, a train guard from Cedar Park Gardens on his way to work at the station early the next morning, he reported it at the police station, now the Eva Hart pub, oversaw the evacuation of Cedar Park Gardens to the bomb shelter at the corner of Wangey Road and the High Road. A V2 rocket landed on Blackbush Avenue killing several people and blowing out windows for half a mile around; the local council replaced the windows with much more modern frames, the results provided an incongruous look to the older house designs. A heavy anti-aircraft battery was located east of Whalebone Lane North and traces of the concrete emplacements remain today.
A V2 Rocket destroyed two houses in Woodlands Avenue and damaged the houses, repaired after the landmine that had destroyed the Whalebone Junior school in Bennett Road. Chadwell Heath is split between the Chadwell Heath and Whalebone wards in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham and the Chadwell and Goodmayes wards in the London Borough of Redbridge, electing councillors to Barking and Dagenham London Borough Council and Redbridge London Borough Council; the London Borough of Havering is to the east. Many major buildings, such as the local school and former police station lie in the London Borough of Redbridge. Royal Mail includes Chadwell Heath as part of a postcode district of the Romford post town, however the town of Romford is in Havering; the area has four allotments. One adjacent to St Chad's Park on Alexandra Road, another on Chadwell Heath Lane, one in Percival Gardens and a plot in Little Heath next to the Eastern Avenue / A12. Hemmings once had an enormous bakery building on land just north of Chadwell Heath station.
This building was derelict by the 1970s and was demolished for housing. For many years Bergermaster Paints maintained a large factory in Freshwater Road. Grove Road was an industrial area with Wiggins Teape and Morganite Carbons Ltd among companies based there; these site
Le Mans is a city in France, on the Sarthe River. Traditionally the capital of the province of Maine, it is now the capital of the Sarthe department and the seat of the Roman Catholic diocese of Le Mans. Le Mans is a part of the Pays de la Loire region, its inhabitants are called Mancelles. Since 1923, the city has hosted the internationally famous 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance sports car race. First mentioned by Claudius Ptolemy, the Roman city Vindinium was the capital of the Aulerci, a sub tribe of the Aedui. Le Mans is known as Civitas Cenomanorum, or Cenomanus, their city, seized by the Romans in 47 BC, was within the ancient Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis. A 3rd-century amphitheatre is still visible; the thermae were demolished during the crisis of the third century when workers were mobilized to build the city's defensive walls. The ancient wall around Le Mans is one of the most complete circuits of Gallo-Roman city walls to survive; as the use of the French language replaced late Vulgar Latin in the area, with dissimilation, became known as Celmans.
Cel- was taken to be a form of the French word for "this" and "that", was replaced by le, which means "the". Gregory of Tours mentions a Frankish sub-king Rigomer, killed by King Clovis I in his campaign to unite the Frankish territories; as the principal city of Maine, Le Mans was the stage for struggles in the eleventh century between the counts of Anjou and the dukes of Normandy. When the Normans had control of Maine, William the Conqueror invaded England and established an occupation. In 1069 the citizens of Maine revolted and expelled the Normans, resulting in Hugh V being proclaimed count of Maine. Geoffrey V of Anjou married Matilda of England in the cathedral, their son Henry II Plantagenet, king of England, was born here. In 1154, during the reign of his uncle King Stephen, Henry landed in England with an army, intent on challenging Stephen for the throne; some of the members of that feudal force were known by the surname'del Mans' In medieval records pertaining to the history of Gloucester is a reference to one such man, Walter del Mans, beside his name'Cenomanus' was added by the medieval scribe, so that there is no doubt as to Walter's origin.
In the English censuses down to the twentieth century the surname Mans was confined to the counties of Gloucestershire and Herefordshire and their borderlands, reflecting the original settlement patterns in the Welsh Marches of the original followers of Henry's from Le Mans in 1154. A John Mans/Manns was escheator of Hereford 1399-1400. One family from Mans held the manor of Worcestershire. Intercourse between England and Le Mans continued throughout the Angevin period. Soon after Le Mans was liberated by the U. S. 79th and 90th Infantry Divisions on 8 August 1944, engineers of the Ninth Air Force IX Engineering Command began construction of a combat Advanced Landing Ground outside of the town. The airfield was declared operational on 3 September and designated as "A-35", it was used by several American fighter and transport units until late November of that year in additional offensives across France. Le Mans has a well-preserved old town and the Cathédrale St-Julien, dedicated to St Julian of Le Mans, honoured as the city's first bishop.
Remnants of a Roman wall are visible in the old town and Roman baths are located by the river. These walls are highlighted every summer evening in a light show. Arboretum de la Grand Prée Part of the former Cistercian abbey de l'Epau, founded by Queen Berengaria and maintained in extensive grounds by the Département de la Sarthe. Jardin des Plantes du Mans Musée de la reine Bérengère, a museum of Le Mans history located in a gothic manor house. Musée de Tessé, the fine arts museum of the city, displaying painting and archaeological collections as well as decorative arts. Le Mans has an oceanic climate influenced by the mild Atlantic air travelling inland. Summers are warm and hot, whereas winters are mild and cloudy. Precipitation is uniform and moderate year round. At the 1999 French census, there were 293,159 inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Le Mans, with 146,105 of these living in the city proper; the Gare du Mans is the main railway station of Le Mans. It takes 1 hour to reach Paris from Le Mans by TGV high speed train.
There are TGV connections to Lille, Nantes and Brest. Gare du Mans is a hub for regional trains. Le Mans inaugurated a new light rail system on 17 November 2007; the first French Grand Prix took place on a 64-mile circuit based at Le Mans in 1906. Since the 1920s, the city has been best known for its connection with motorsports. There are two official and separate racing tracks at Le Mans; the smaller is the Bugatti Circuit, a short permanent circuit, used for racing throughout the year and has hosted the French motorcycle Grand Prix. The longer and more famous Circuit de la Sarthe is composed of public roads; these are closed to the public. Since 1923, this route
François Migault was a racing driver from Le Mans, France. He participated in 16 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 13 August 1972, but scored no championship points. A native of Le Mans, he entered the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 25 times, between 1972 and 2002. Migault's first attempt in Formula One in 1972 was with the small, underfunded Connew team that managed to start in only one race. In 1974, he drove a complete season with British Racing Motors after both BRM drivers of 1973, Niki Lauda and Clay Regazzoni, had moved to Ferrari. In 1975, a few races with the ill-fated Embassy Hill team and Williams followed. In Formula Two that year, Migault achieved some success with scoring one point. Migault continued to compete at Le Mans until he was in his mid-fifties and achieved a best finish of second in 1976, together with two other podium finishes. Migault died on 29 January 2012 after a long battle with cancer. Footnotes
Mallory Park is a motor racing circuit situated in the village of Kirkby Mallory, just off the A47, between Leicester and Hinckley, in central England. Used for grass-track until 1955, a new oval hard-surfaced course was constructed for 1956, with a extension forming a loop with a hairpin bend. With the car circuit measuring only 1.35 miles it is amongst the shortest permanent race circuits in the UK. However, chicanes introduced to reduce speeds in motorcycle events mean that the Superbike Circuit is now longer, at 1.41 miles. Shorter UK circuits are Lydden Hill, Brands Hatch Indy circuit, Scotland's Knockhill and Silverstone's diminutive Stowe circuit; the circuit has a number of formations, founded on a basic one-mile oval, with the majority of configurations including the northerly extension to the tight, 180° Shaw's Hairpin. At the other end of the circuit lies the long right-hand Gerard's Bend. Gerard's is about a third of a mile long and turns through nearly 200°, it was named after local racing hero Bob Gerard, who opened the newly reconstructed circuit on 25 April 1956.
Unusually, there are a number of large lakes occupying half of the circuit infield. Despite its short length and Shaw's Hairpin, the tightest corner of any UK track, Mallory is a fast circuit. To reduce speeds for motorcycle racing a pair of chicanes have been introduced, together with a revised exit to Gerard's. Edwina's was added toward the end of the straight following Gerard's, named after former managing director of the circuit Edwina Overend, the Bus Stop Chicane on the descent to the sweeping left kink, the Devil's Elbow, a blind, off camber left-hander before the start–finish line on Kirkby Straight. In 2003 a new complex was added toward the end of Gerard's curve; this sequence of bends was designed to reduce speeds on entry to Edwina's, to prevent motorcycles from colliding as they jockey for position into the chicane. Mallory Park does not have any true permanent garage facilities, although there are a handful of open garages in the pitlane; the estate at Mallory Park has many historical connections, the oldest being the unique Anglo-Saxons defended moat, now known as Kirkby Moats, while a Roman road passes through the estate.
Fast forward to the 18th century, when in 1762, Sir Cleoberry Noel became Viscount Wentworth, the title descended on the distaff side. Lord Byron married into the Wentworth family and it is said on his visits to Mallory, he wrote beneath the shade of the Lebanon cedar tree which still stands in the grounds of Kirkby Hall; the last occupant of Kirkby Hall was Herbert Clarkson. During the Second World War, the circuit started life Royal Air Force Station Kirkby Mallory, a standby landing ground during WWII and closed in 1947; the hall was a large house, demolished in 1952, leaving only the stable block and the coach house which now forms the circuit offices, hotel and restaurant. The estate of 300 acres was sold by auction in 1953 and was bought by a Mr. Moult of Derby who planned to have horse racing on the disused pony trotting track. Following the war, Mallory became a pony trotting circuit in the late 1940s, which defined the outline of the oval track still in use today. After the financial collapse of the equestrian club responsible for the circuit, the track was hired by various motorcycle clubs for grass track motorcycle and motorcycle sidecar racing.
For example, between September 1949 until 1954, the Leicester Query Motorcycle Club held grass track races. In 1955, the estate was purchased by Clive Wormleighton, under whose influence, the present tarmac was constructed at a cost of £60,000 in 1956. Upon completion of the building work, a circuit test was held on 26 April, when local Grand Prix driver Bob Gerard and Maurice Cann conducted a Cooper-Bristol Formula Two car and a Moto Guzzi motorcycle around the track, Gerald managing an 81 mph lap; the first race was held on 29 April, when the Leicester Query Club organised a motorcycle meeting. A large crowd in excess of 20,000 spectators attended the Grand Opening event on 13 May 1956. 248 riders arrived in Leicestershire for this meeting, which saw George Salter set the first lap record at a speed of 84.08 mph, riding a Norton bike. Cars first appeared at the Whit Monday meeting, in event being organised by Nottingham Sports Car Club; the first car race victory went to D. Rees in an Austin.
Many famous racing stars have raced at Mallory over the years, indeed a young John Surtees raced against his father, Jack Surtees. While Jack was a grass track racer at Mallory, John went on to be only World Champion on both two and four wheels. Famous competitors who have raced at Mallory, include John Surtees who won the first ‘Race of the Year’ in 1958. While, the 1960 race, saw Mike Hailwood set a new lap record of 89 mph. Both Hailwood and Surtees, along with Jim Clark and Colin Chapman are commemorated with Statues at the front gate. Around this time, Clive Wormleighton added the lakes, which were formed by adding the sluice gate across the Brook. Clive Wormleighton continued to run the circuit successfully until 1962 when ownership passed to Grovewood Securities in July, the previous owner remaining in a consultancy capacity until the end of September. Before this, on 11 June 1962 Mallory Park saw it first non-championship Formula One race, won by John Surtees aboard a Lola Mk4 from the entered Lotuses of Jack Brabham and Graham Hill.
Surtees was now a major race winner at Mallory on both 4 wheels. Over the next two years, a considerable amount of money was spent on Mallory with the building
James Howden Ganley is a former racing driver from New Zealand. From 1971 to 1974 he participated in 41 World Championship Formula One Grands Prix, he scored points 5 times for a total of 10 championship points. He participated in numerous non-Championship Formula One races; when he was thirteen years old, he attended the 1955 New Zealand Grand Prix at Ardmore which inspired him and provided him with an impetus to follow a career in racing. After leaving school, Ganley became a reporter for the Waikato Times and wrote a column for Sports Car Illustrated, he pursued a career as a mechanic. Between 1960 and 1962, Ganley competed in many events throughout New Zealand driving a Lotus Eleven. Throughout this period, he was earning a living by working as a foreman for a concreting company. In 1970, Ganley finished second to Peter Gethin in the European Formula 5000 championship; this caught the attention of the BRM Formula One team, who signed him to a contract for 1971. In 1970, Ganley finished the European Formula 5000 Championship in 2nd place with help from his friend and mechanic Barry Ultahan.
In 1971, Ganley started off the season promisingly with fifth place at the non-championship Race of Champions. At the end of 1971, having scored two points finishes during the year, Ganley was awarded the Wolfgang von Trips Memorial Trophy for the best performance by a newcomer to Grand Prix racing. In 1972 Ganley finished 13th in the Championship with 4 points, his highest finish for the season was 4th at the Nürburgring. For the 1973 season Ganley signed up to drive an Iso–Marlboro car for Frank Williams Racing. At the 1973 Canadian Grand Prix he was declared the winner because of a timing mix up with the pace car. A suspension failure in practice for the 1974 German Grand Prix left Ganley with serious foot and ankle injuries that ended his Grand Prix career. In 1975 a Ganley F1 project was initiated; the Ganley-Cosworth 001 car was hand-built by Howden Ganley on his premises at Windsor. It was readied, Ganley had two DFV engines at hand, but it never ran in anger. Ganley used the equipment to start Tiga Race Cars with fellow driver Tim Schenken the following year.
Ganley and François Cevert drove a Matra-Simca MS670 to second place in the 1972 24 Hours of Le Mans. In 1976 Ganley and former Formula One driver Australian Tim Schenken founded Tiga Race Cars as a British-based race car constructor and race team; the team had plans to compete in Formula One in 1978, but the project did not proceed due to sponsorship withdrawal
A drafter, draughtsman or draftsman, drafting technician is a person who makes detailed technical drawings or plans for machinery, electronics, sections, etc. Drafters use computer software and manual sketches to convert the designs and layouts of engineers and architects into a set of technical drawings. Drafters operate as the supporting developers and sketch engineering designs and drawings from preliminary design concepts. In the past, drafters sat at drawing boards and used pencils, compasses, protractors and other drafting devices to prepare a drawing by hand. From the 1980s through 1990s, board drawings were going out of style as the newly developed computer-aided design system was released and was able to produce technical drawings at a faster pace. Many modern drafters now use computer software such as AutoCAD, SolidWorks to flesh out the designs of engineers or architects into technical drawings and blueprints but board drafting still remains the base of the CAD system. Many of these drawings are utilized to create tools or machines.
In addition, the drawings include design specifications like dimensions and procedures. Drafters may be casually referred to as CAD operators, engineering draftspersons, or engineering technicians. With CAD systems, drafters can create and store drawings electronically so that they can be viewed, printed, or programmed directly into automated manufacturing systems. CAD systems permit drafters to prepare variations of a design. Although drafters use CAD extensively, it is only a tool. Drafters still need knowledge of traditional drafting techniques, in addition to CAD skills. Despite the near global use of CAD systems, manual drafting and sketching are used in certain applications. Drafters' drawings show how to construct a product or structure. Drawings include technical details and specify dimensions and procedures. Drafters fill in technical details using drawings, rough sketches and calculations made by engineers, architects, or scientists. For example, drafters use their knowledge of standardized building techniques to draw in the details of a structure.
Some use their understanding of engineering and manufacturing theory and standards to draw the parts of a machine. Drafters use technical handbooks, tables and computers to complete their work. Drafting work has many specialities such as: Aeronautical drafters prepare engineering drawings detailing plans and specifications used in the manufacture of aircraft and related parts. Architectural drafters draw structural features of buildings and other structures; these designs are used in the construction or remodeling of homes, commercial buildings and power stations. These workers may specialize in a type of structure, such as residential or commercial, or in a kind of building material used, such as reinforced concrete, steel, or timber. Civil drafters prepare drawings and topographical and relief maps used in major construction or civil engineering projects such as buildings, bridges, flood-control projects, water and sewage systems. Electrical drafters prepare wiring and layout diagrams used by workers who erect and repair electrical equipment and wiring in communication centers, power plants, electrical distribution systems, buildings.
Electronics drafters draw wiring diagrams, circuit board assembly diagrams and layout drawings used in the manufacture and repair of electronic devices and components. Mechanical drafters prepare drawings showing the detail and assembly of a wide variety of machinery and mechanical devices, indicating dimensions, fastening methods, manufacturing equipment, mechanical installation infrastructure. Process piping or pipeline drafters prepare drawings used in the layout and operation of oil and gas fields, chemical plants, process piping systems. Photovoltaic drafters prepare drawings showing inverter Pad location drawings and slab construction drawings prepare specific photovoltaic system assembly details and some wiring diagrams. Drafters work in architectural offices, manufacturing companies, engineering firms, CAD-specific work-groups, construction companies, engineering consultancy firms, the government, natural resource companies or are independently self-employed. Drafting technologists and technicians work as part of a broader multidisciplinary engineering team in support of engineers, architects or industrial designers or they may work on their own.
The position of a drafter is one of a skilled assistant to engineers. Drafters work in offices, seated at adjustable drawing boards or drafting tables when doing manual drawings, although modern drafters work at computer terminals much of the time, they work in an office environment, but some may have to travel and spend time on manufacturing plants or construction sites. As drafters spend long periods in front of computers doing detailed technical work, they may be susceptible to eyestrain, back discomfort, hand and wrist problems. Most drafters work standard 40-hour weeks. High school courses in English, science, computer technology and design, visual arts, computer graphics are useful for people considering a drafting career. Attributes required by drafters include technical writing skills, problem-solving skills, the ability to visualize three-dimensional objects from two-dimens
Tony Trimmer is a British former racing driver from England, who won the Shell British Formula Three Championship and E. R. Hall Trophy in 1970, he was born in Berkshire. Tony Trimmer won the prestigious Monaco F3 Race in 1970 driving a Brabham BT-28 and finished runner-up to Patrick Depailler in the 1972 edition. Trimmer entered six Formula One World Championship Grands Prix with uncompetitive teams, firstly Maki for four races in 1975 and 1976, resulting in four failures to qualify, he entered the 1977 British Grand Prix and the 1978 British Grand Prix, with the Melchester Racing Team, driving a Surtees TS19 and a McLaren M23 respectively. However driving the Melchester McLaren, he finished a superb third in the rain-soaked 1978 BRDC International Trophy non-Championship race at Silverstone, coming home ahead of many of the greats of Formula One; that year he won the British Aurora F1 Championship. Trimmer was one of the few people to drive the Connew Formula One car, in its last race in 1973.
However the car collided with a barrier at Brands Hatch. Other than World Championship races, Trimmer raced in many non-championship F1 races and is one of the drivers who drove the greatest variety of Formula One cars ever; the list includes the great Lotus 72 at the 1971 Race of Champions, the March 701, a Lotus 49, Fittipaldi F8 and the one-off Safir RJ-02, accessing from the old times "tubby" Lotus 49 up to a real wing-car Fittipaldi F8. Footnotes