1988 Republican National Convention
The 1988 Republican National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held in the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana from August 15 to August 18, 1988. It was the second time that a major party held its convention in one of the five states known as the Deep South, coming on the heels of the 1988 Democratic National Convention, held in Atlanta, Georgia. Much of the impetus for holding the convention in the Superdome came from the Louisiana Republican National Committeewoman Virginia Martinez of New Orleans, who lobbied on behalf of her adopted home city as the convention site as a member of the RNC Executive Committee; the convention nominated Vice President George H. W. Bush for President, as expected; the second spot on the ticket was not publicly known before the convention. S. Senator of Indiana, was selected as Bush's vice-presidential running mate; the revelation of Quayle's selection as running mate did not come until the second day of the convention, when NBC News broke the story.
The convention featured speeches by Joe Paterno, Pat Robertson, a keynote address by New Jersey Governor Thomas Kean, the music of the Jimmy Maxwell Orchestra. Actress Helen Hayes attended the conference at age 88; the convention is best known for Bush's "thousand points of light" speech accepting the nomination. Written by Peggy Noonan and Craig R. Smith, it included the "read my lips: no new taxes" pledge, the most popular sound bite coming out of the convention; the successful speech gave him a "bounce" that he was able to capitalize on to win the 1988 presidential election. President Ronald and Nancy Reagan were honored on August 15. Reagan made a major speech on the opening night of the convention, as he would for the last time in 1992. Other speakers included Bob Dole, Elizabeth Dole, Arizona junior senator John McCain, Jeane Kirkpatrick and former President Gerald Ford. Vice President Bush was nominated without opposition during the roll call vote, but with rumblings of opposition to the Quayle nomination, it was decided to have it ratified by voice vote, something that the Republicans had never done before.
Republican Party presidential primaries, 1988 History of the United States Republican Party List of Republican National Conventions U. S. presidential nomination convention 1987 Libertarian National Convention 1988 Democratic National Convention United States presidential election, 1988 George Bush's nomination acceptance speech for President at RNC at C-SPAN George Bush's nomination acceptance speech for President at RNC Video of Quayle nomination acceptance speech for Vice President at RNC George Bush's nomination acceptance speech for President at RNC at The American Presidency Project Republican Party platform of 1988 at The American Presidency Project Video of Thomas Kean's Keynote Address at Republican National Convention Text of Thomas Kean's Keynote Address at Republican National Convention
Rider University is a private and nonsectarian university located chiefly in the Lawrenceville section of Lawrence Township in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. It consists of five academic units: the College of Business Administration, the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, the College of Continuing Studies, the Westminster College of the Arts. In addition to regional accreditation, the undergraduate and graduate programs in business are accredited by AACSB, the professional education graduate programs are accredited by NCATE; as of 2014 there are 5,400 graduate students attending. The school was founded as Trenton Business College on October 1, 1865, by Henry Beadman Bryant and Henry D. Stratton, operators of the Bryant and Stratton chain of private business schools; the school was located in Temperance Hall at the corner of South Broad and Front Streets in Trenton, New Jersey. Andrew J Rider was appointed as its first president. President Rider owned 500 acres of cranberry bogs near New Jersey.
According to tradition, this is why the school colors are white. The school periodically moved to larger quarters. In 1896 women were admitted. In 1896 the school was renamed Rider Business College. President Rider stepped down the following year. In 1920 the institution moved to East State Street in Trenton and became known as Rider College. In 1922 the New Jersey Board of Education granted Rider College permission to confer the degrees of Bachelor of Accounts and Bachelor of Commercial Science. In 1957 Rider Business College introduced liberal studies leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree.in 1959 Rider College moved its campus to a 283-acre suburban tract on Route 206 in Lawrence Township, N. J. On November 15, 1961, President Franklin F. Moore announced the gradual reorganization of the college into five separate schools, each headed by a dean who would report to the provost; the changes took effect with the 1962-63 academic year. The five schools included a new School of Liberal Arts and Sciences.
Rider College merged with nearby Westminster Choir College, located in Princeton, New Jersey, in 1991-92. The campus of Westminster became the Princeton campus of Rider College. On April 13, 1994, the college became Rider University. In 2007 President Mordechai Rozanski announced the creation of the School of Fine and Performing Arts to integrate the Lawrenceville and Princeton campuses and expand programming for the arts. Today, Rider’s Lawrenceville campus is home to its College of Business Administration. In recent years President Rozanski announced new financial aid resources. In 2019, Cynthia Newman, the dean of the College of Business at Rider University resigned after the school banned Chick-fil-A from opening on campus due to the restaurant's Christian values. Dr. Newman stated she was "a committed Christian" and that the university denouncing Chick-fil-A due to its Christian faith and values was disturbing; the university claims. U. S. News & World Report ranked Rider University tied for 22nd in the Regional Universities North category in 2016.
Rider University is listed by the Princeton Review in the 2014 edition of its annual college guide, The Best 379 Colleges, where it was ranked #19 in the category,'Is That a Dorm'? Forbes ranked Rider University 485th on its "America's Top Colleges" list in 2015; the 280-acre Lawrenceville campus is in a suburban area three miles north of Trenton and five miles south of Princeton. Facilities are clustered and within easy walking distance of one another on the large park-like campus. There is a man-made lake with a bridge; the Westminster campus is in New Jersey. There is a shuttle. Memorial Hall, the Science and Technology Center, the Fine Arts Center, Joseph P. Vonna Academic Annex, the Stephen A. Maurer Physical Education Building, Anne Brossman Sweigart Hall, North Hall contain the classrooms and laboratories for all curricula. A general access lab containing terminals and laser printers is located in the Fine Arts Center. Central VAX systems provide electronic mail and Internet access tools.
The Princeton Community Japanese Language School teaches weekend Japanese classes for Japanese citizen children abroad to the standard of the Ministry of Education, Sports and Technology, it has classes for people with Japanese as a second language. Courses are taught at Memorial Hall; the main office of the school is in Princeton although the office used on Sundays is in Memorial Hall. Rider University has 18 residential halls on their Lawrenceville campus. Of those 18, 12 of them are traditional dorms designed for all undergraduate students along with 1 apartment style building, available to students via a lottery system. Of the 12 standard residence halls only 8 of them have a designated "Learning Community". A learning community means. Which is determined by major; the remaining five houses on Rider's Lawrenceville campus are designated to those students who are members of Greek Life. The University has four sorority houses, one for each sorority.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Holland Township, New Jersey
For the unincorporated community in Monmouth County, see Holland, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Holland Township is a township in New Jersey, United States; as of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 5,291, reflecting an increase of 167 from the 5,124 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 232 from the 4,892 counted in the 1990 Census. Holland Township is located in the northwestern part of Hunterdon County; the Delaware River forms its boundary with Pennsylvania and the Musconetcong River its boundary with Warren County. It was created from Alexandria Township on April 13, 1874, returning and remerged with Alexandria Township on March 4, 1878; the township was reformed and separated as a municipality of its own again on March 11, 1879. Milford was created on April 15, 1911 from portions of Holland Township, based on the results of a referendum held on May 8, 1911; the township was named by Dutch settlers for Holland. The Volendam Windmill Museum is a working mill driven by wind, used for grinding raw grain into flour.
The 60-foot structure is seven stories high with sail arms 68 feet from tip to tip. The windmill is located on the 127-acre Charlie Brown Christmas Tree Farm, a property, preserved, though the windmill itself is not part of the preservation agreement. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 24.024 square miles, including 23.515 square miles of land and 0.509 square miles of water. The 379-acre Musconetcong Gorge Nature Preserve is an undeveloped park managed by the Hunterdon County Parks and Recreational System, with steeply wooded terrain overlooking the Musconetcong River; the gorge includes a variety of plant species and wildlife. While much of the area offers challenging hikes, a variety of trails are being developed to offer access to less-seasoned hikers; the township borders Alexandria Township, Bethlehem Township, Milford Borough. Holland Township borders Warren County and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Amsterdam, Hughesville, Little York, Mount Joy, Riegel Ridge, Spring Mills and Warren Paper Mills.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,291 people, 1,972 households, 1,544.076 families residing in the township. The population density was 225.0 per square mile. There were 2,066 housing units at an average density of 87.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 97.62% White, 0.72% Black or African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.77% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.28% from other races, 0.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.68% of the population. There were 1,972 households out of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.8% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.7% were non-families. 18.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.06. In the township, the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 20.5% from 25 to 44, 33.3% from 45 to 64, 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 44.5 years. For every 100 females there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 92.8 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $85,190 and the median family income was $99,535. Males had a median income of $77,951 versus $56,719 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $43,162. About 1.9% of families and 3.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.6% of those under age 18 and 0.0% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 5,124 people, 1,881 households, 1,523 families residing in the township; the population density was 216.2 people per square mile. There were 1,942 housing units at an average density of 81.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 98.09% White, 0.43% African American, 0.04% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.39% from other races, 0.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.70% of the population.
There were 1,881 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.2% were married couples living together, 5.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.0% were non-families. 15.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.06. In the township the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 28.4% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.1 males. The median income for a household in the township was $68,083, the median income for a family was $71,925. Males had a median income of $50,737 versus $35,615 for females; the per capita income for the township was $28,581. About 1.6% of families and 2.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.9% of those under age 18 and 3.3% of those age 65 or over.
Holland Township is governed under the Township form of governmen
Thomas Howard Kean Sr. is an American businessman, academic administrator and politician who served as the 48th Governor of New Jersey from 1982 to 1990 as a Republican. Kean is best known globally, for his 2002 appointment as Chairman of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States known as the 9/11 Commission, responsible for investigating the causes of the September 11, 2001 attacks and providing recommendations to prevent future terrorist attacks, he was appointed to this post by U. S. President George W. Bush. Upon the completion of his second term as Governor, he served as the President of Drew University for 15 years, until his retirement in 2005. Kean was born in New York City to a long line of New Jersey politicians and family of Dutch Americans, his mother was Elizabeth and his father, Robert Kean, was a U. S. Representative, his grandfather Hamilton Fish Kean and great-uncle John Kean both served as U. S. Senators, his second great-uncle was Hamilton Fish, a U. S. Senator, Governor of New York, the 26th U.
S. Secretary of State. Kean's relative, William Livingston, was a delegate to the Continental Congress and the first Governor of New Jersey. Kean was educated at The Potomac School in McLean, Virginia When he reached the fourth grade, he entered St. Albans School. In 1946, at the age of eleven, his parents enrolled him at St. Mark's School in Southborough, the alma mater of his father and two older brothers. After graduating from St. Mark's, he attended Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey, where he received his B. A. participated in the American Whig-Cliosophic Society. After working on his father's unsuccessful senatorial campaign, as a history teacher for three years at St. Mark's School, Kean attended Teachers College, Columbia University in New York City and earned his M. A. in history. Kean was a longtime resident of New Jersey. A teacher of history and government, Kean was elected, in 1967, as a Republican to the New Jersey General Assembly, he ran with Philip Kaltenbacher, a Short Hills Republican who had served as an aide to Assemblyman Irwin Kimmelman in 1964 through 1966.
In the Republican primary and Kaltenbacher defeated Donald Fitz Maurice, Vivian Tompkins Lange, the sister of former U. S. Attorney William F. Tompkins, Joseph Shanahan. At the start of the Assembly session in 1972, Democratic leadership had wanted to name S. Howard Woodson of Trenton as Speaker, until Assemblyman David Friedland made a deal as one of four Democrats who voted to give the minority Republicans control of the General Assembly, electing Kean as Assembly Speaker. Woodson would have been the Assembly's first African American Speaker, charges of racism were leveled by fellow Democrats against Friedland. In the next Assembly, in 1974, the Democrats united behind Woodson for Speaker. In 1973, he served as acting New Jersey governor. During the 1976 presidential campaign, Kean served as Gerald Ford's campaign manager for the state of New Jersey. In 1977, Kean ran unsuccessfully for the Republican nomination for the governor of New Jersey. Although he spent most of his career as a political moderate, in this race Kean ran to the right of New Jersey Senate Minority Leader Raymond Bateman.
Kean was unable to obtain the endorsement of many county Republican chairmen, or Gerald Ford, despite having served as his campaign director for the state of New Jersey the previous year. Bateman defeated Kean and won the nomination, though Bateman went on to lose the general election to Brendan Byrne. After the election, Governor Byrne appointed Kean as a commissioner on the board of the New Jersey Highway Authority. Kean worked as a political commentator on New Jersey public television. Kean fared better four years in 1981, when he again ran for governor. Kean made campaign promises to foster job creation, clean up toxic waste sites, reduce crime, to preserve home rule, he received the endorsement of Gerald Ford his second time running for governor. Kean defeated Democratic Representative Jim Florio in the closest election in New Jersey gubernatorial election history; the election was controversial due to the involvement of the Republican National Committee, who appointed a Ballot Security Task Force that intimidated voters.
One of his strategists for the Kean campaign in 1981 was Roger J. Stone, a self-proclaimed "GOP hitman."Kean proved hugely popular in office. In striking contrast to his slim 1981 victory, he won re-election in 1985 with the largest margin of victory recorded for a gubernatorial race in New Jersey, defeating Peter Shapiro Essex County Executive, 70%–29%. Kean won every municipality in the state except Audubon Park and Chesilhurst in Camden County and Roosevelt in Monmouth County, his coattails were long enough for the Republicans to take control of the General Assembly, flipping it from a 44–36 Democratic majority to a 50–30 Republican majority. In 1988, reflecting his stature as an up-and-coming leader of the Republican Party's moderate wing, Kean delivered the keynote speech at the 1988 Republican National Convention in New Orleans; the same year, he authored a book, The Politics of Inclusion, published by Free Press, which urged political cooperation among divided interest groups and politicians.
Limited to two consecutive terms as governor by the New Jersey State Constitution, Kean left office in January 1990 as one of the most popular political figures in New Jersey political history. Former New Jersey gubernatorial candidate Doug Forrester, New Jersey Congressman Bob Franks, and
Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U. S. state of New York. Located in the southwest portion of the city, the borough is separated from New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull and from the rest of New York by New York Bay. With an estimated population of 479,458 in 2017, Staten Island is the least populated of the boroughs but is the third-largest in land area at 58.5 sq mi. The borough contains the southern-most point in the state, South Point; the borough is coextensive with Richmond County and until 1975 was referred to as the Borough of Richmond. Staten Island has sometimes been called "the forgotten borough" by inhabitants who feel neglected by the city government; the North Shore—especially the neighborhoods of St. George, Tompkinsville and Stapleton—is the most urban part of the island; the East Shore is home to the 2.5-mile F. D. R. Boardwalk, the fourth-longest boardwalk in the world; the South Shore, site of the 17th-century Dutch and French Huguenot settlement, developed beginning in the 1960s and 1970s and is now suburban in character.
The West Shore is the most industrial part of the island. Motor traffic can reach the borough from Brooklyn via the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge and from New Jersey via the Outerbridge Crossing, Goethals Bridge and Bayonne Bridge. Staten Island has Metropolitan Transportation Authority bus lines and an MTA rapid transit line, the Staten Island Railway, which runs from the ferry terminal at St. George to Tottenville. Staten Island is the only borough, not connected to the New York City Subway system; the free Staten Island Ferry connects the borough across New York Harbor to Manhattan and is a popular tourist attraction, providing views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island and Lower Manhattan. Staten Island had the Fresh Kills Landfill, the world's largest landfill before closing in 2001, although it was temporarily reopened that year to receive debris from the September 11 attacks; the landfill is being redeveloped as an area devoted to restoring habitat. As in much of North America, human habitation appeared in the island rapidly after the Wisconsin glaciation.
Archaeologists have recovered tool evidence of Clovis culture activity dating from about 14,000 years ago. This evidence was first discovered in 1917 in the Charleston section of the island. Various Clovis artifacts have been discovered since on property owned by Mobil Oil; the island was abandoned possibly because of the extirpation of large mammals on the island. Evidence of the first permanent Native American settlements and agriculture are thought to date from about 5,000 years ago, although early archaic habitation evidence has been found in multiple locations on the island. Rossville points are distinct arrowheads that define a Native American cultural period that runs from the Archaic period to the Early Woodland period, dating from about 1500 to 100 BC, they are named for the Rossville section of Staten Island, where they were first found near the old Rossville Post Office building. At the time of European contact, the island was inhabited by the Raritan band of the Unami division of the Lenape.
In Lenape, one of the Algonquian languages, Staten Island was called Aquehonga Manacknong, meaning "as far as the place of the bad woods", or Eghquhous, meaning "the bad woods". The area was part of the Lenape homeland known as Lenapehoking; the Lenape were called the "Delaware" by the English colonists because they inhabited both shores of what the English named the Delaware River. The island was laced with Native American foot trails, one of which followed the south side of the ridge near the course of present-day Richmond Road and Amboy Road; the Lenape moved seasonally, using slash and burn agriculture. Shellfish was a staple of their diet, including the Eastern oyster abundant in the waterways throughout the present-day New York City region. Evidence of their habitation can still be seen in shell middens along the shore in the Tottenville section, where oyster shells larger than 12 inches are sometimes found. Burial Ridge, a Lenape burial ground on a bluff overlooking Raritan Bay in Tottenville, is the largest pre-European burial ground in New York City.
Bodies have been reported unearthed at Burial Ridge from 1858 onward. After conducting independent research, which included unearthing bodies interred at the site and archaeologist George H. Pepper was contracted in 1895 to conduct paid archaeological research at Burial Ridge by the American Museum of Natural History; the burial ground today lies within Conference House Park. The first recorded European contact on the island was in 1520 by Italian explorer Giovanni de Verrazzano who sailed through The Narrows on the ship La Dauphine and anchored for one night. In 1609, English explorer Henry Hudson sailed into Upper New York Bay on his ship the Half Moon; the Dutch named the island Staaten Eylandt in honor of the Dutch parliament, still known as the Staten-Generaal. The first permanent Dutch settlement of the New Netherland colony was made on Governor's Island in 1624, which they had used as a trading camp for more than a decade before. In 1626, the colony transferred to the island of Manhattan, designated as the capital of New Netherland.
The Dutch did not establish a permanent settlement on Staaten Eylandt for many decades. From 1639 to 1655, Cornelis Melyn