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A connotation is a understood cultural or emotional association that some word or phrase carries, in addition to its explicit or literal meaning, its denotation. A connotation is described as either positive or negative, with regard to its pleasing or displeasing emotional connection. For example, a stubborn person may be described as being either pig-headed. "Connotation" branches into a mixture of different meanings. These could include the contrast of a word or phrase with its primary, literal meaning, with what that word or phrase denotes; the connotation relates to how anything may be associated with a word or phrase, for example, an implied value judgement or feelings. In logic and semantics, connotation is synonymous with intension. Connotation is contrasted with denotation, more or less synonymous with extension. Alternatively, the connotation of the word may be thought of as the set of all its possible referents. A word's denotation is the collection of things; the denotation of dog is four-legged canine carnivore.

So saying, "You are a dog" would connote that you were ugly or aggressive rather than denoting you as a canine. It is useful to avoid words with strong connotations when striving to achieve a neutral point of view. A desire for more positive connotations, or fewer negative ones, is one of the main reasons for using euphemisms. Semiotic closure, as defined by Terry Eagleton, concerns "a sealed world of ideological stability, which repels the disruptive, decentered forces of language in the name of an imaginary unity. Signs are ranked by a certain covert violence into rigidly hierarchical order.... The process of forging ‘representations’ always involves this arbitrary closing of the signifying chain, constricting the free play of the signifier to a spuriously determinate meaning which can be received by the subject as natural and inevitable". Context as Other Minds Double entendre Extension Extensional definition Intension Intensional definition Loaded language Metacommunicative competence Pun Semantic differential Semantic property Subtext

Hume-Rothery rules

Hume-Rothery rules, named after William Hume-Rothery, are a set of basic rules that describe the conditions under which an element could dissolve in a metal, forming a solid solution. There are two sets of rules. For substitutional solid solutions, the Hume-Rothery rules are as follows: The atomic radius of the solute and solvent atoms must differ by no more than 15%: % difference = × 100 % ≤ 15 %; the crystal structures of solute and solvent must be similar. Complete solubility occurs when the solute have the same valency. A metal with lower valency is more to dissolve in a metal of higher valency; the solute and solvent should have similar electronegativity. If the electronegativity difference is too great, the metals tend to form intermetallic compounds instead of solid solutions. For interstitial solid solutions, the Hume-Rothery Rules are: Solute atoms should have radius no larger than 15% of the radius of solvent atoms; the solute and solvent should have similar electronegativity. They should show a wide range of composition.

Valency factor: two elements should have the same valence. The greater the difference in valence between solute and solvent atoms, the lower the solubility. CALPHAD Enthalpy of mixing Gibbs energy Intermetallic compound Phase diagram Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H. "Solid Solutions: The Hume-Rothery Rules". Retrieved 2007-11-24. Mizutani, Uichiro. Hume-Rothery Rules for Structurally Complex Alloy Phases. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-4200-9058-1

Cold World (Of Mice & Men album)

Cold World is the fourth studio album by American rock band Of Mice & Men. It was released on September 2016 through Rise Records; the album was produced by David Bendeth and is the follow-up to the group's third studio album, Restoring Force. The lead single, "Pain", was released on June 27, 2016. Another single, "Real", was released on August 4, another new song, "Contagious", on August 29; the album was released early on Apple Music on September 2, 2016. It received mixed reviews from critics; the album reached number 20 in the US. This is the last album to feature Austin Carlile as he left the band a few months due to his health issues. All tracks written by Alan Ashby and Aaron Pauley. All credits retrieved from AllMusic. Of Mice & Men Austin Carlile – unclean vocals, clean vocals on "Real", "Down the Road", "Away", "Transfigured" Alan Ashby – rhythm guitar, backing vocals Phil Manansala – lead guitar, backing vocals on "Relentless" Aaron Pauley – bass, clean vocals, string arrangements, programming Valentino Arteaga – drums, programmingAdditional musicians Cassy Colunga – hand claps on "The Lie"Additional personnel David Bendeth – arranging, production Ted Jensenmastering Jake "Scooby" Mannix – assistant Mitch Milan – editing, guitar technician Koby Nelson – editing, programming Brian Robbins – digital editing, mixing engineering, programming

Swimming at the 2004 Summer Olympics – Women's 4 × 100 metre freestyle relay

The women's 4×100 metre freestyle relay took place on 14 August at the Olympic Aquatic Centre of the Athens Olympic Sports Complex in Athens, Greece. For the first time in 48 years, the Australians overhauled the Team USA on the final leg to win a gold medal in the event; when Henry touched the wall at 3:35.94, the Australians broke a new world record under a 0.06-second mark set by the Germans in 2002. Henry unleashed a remarkable relay split of 52.95, the fastest of all-time in Olympic history. The U. S. team of Kara Lynn Joyce, Natalie Coughlin, Amanda Weir, Jenny Thompson finished out an American record of 3:36.39 to earn a silver medal, while the Dutch took home the bronze in 3:37.59, after Inge de Bruijn swam a split of 53.37 to hold off the Germans anchored by Franziska van Almsick. Prior to this competition, the existing world and Olympic records were; the following new world and Olympic records were set during this competition. Official Olympic Report

Gary Nicholson (singer)

Gary Nicholson is an American singer-songwriter and record producer, known for his work in country music and blues. He is a two-time Grammy winning producer and was inducted into the Texas Heritage Songwriter's Association Hall of Fame. Nicholson has more than 500 recordings and is best known for his work with Willie Nelson, Waylon Jennings, Garth Brooks, George Strait, Ringo Starr, BB King, Fleetwood Mac and Billy Joe Shaver. Nicholson was born in Texas, he grew up in Garland and began playing guitar in his teenage years in bands such as "The Valiants", "The Catalinas" and "The Untouchables". Afterward, Nicholson attended University of North Texas. In 1970, Nicholson and his band drove to California; the band won a talent contest at the Palomino Club and met musicians James Burton, Red Rhodes and Clarence White. Afterwards, he formed the bluegrass/folk trio, "The Whitehorse Brothers", playing in Southern California; the group became "Uncle Jim's Music" and was signed to MCA/Kapp records for two albums.

In 1973, Nicholson moved back to Texas and started the rock/country band "Hot Sauce". During this time, he first played with Delbert McClinton, his friend and bandmate, Jim Ed Norman, recorded Nicholson's song "Jukebox Argument", sung by Mickey Gilley in the film Urban Cowboy. In 1980, Nicholson moved to Nashville, Tennessee, he played lead guitar for Guy Clark during the recording of the album Better Days. Mickey Gilley recorded Nicholson's songs "Your Love Shines Through" and "Ladies Night". During this time, he played guitar for such artists as Billy Joe Shaver, Bobby Bare and Guy Clark. In 1983, Nicholson signed a publishing contract with Tree Publishing, he achieved his first number 1 hit in 1984 with the song "That's the Thing About Love", recorded by Don Williams and "The Power of Love", recorded by Charley Pride. In 1986, he wrote six songs for T. Graham Brown's debut album and in 1987 the title and five others on his second release, Brilliant Conversationalist, he co-written by Vince Gill.

In 1995, Nicholson co-wrote six songs with John Prine for Lost Dogs and Mixed Blessings. He co-wrote a song for Waylon Jennings called "Working Without a Net" in 1996, he received ASCAP Awards in 1997 for the songs, "Givin' Water to a Drowning Man", by Lee Roy Parnell, "A Thousand Times a Day", by Patty Loveless. Nicholson left Sony/ATV Music Publishing to start his own publishing company, Gary Nicholson Music ASCAP, during this time. In 1998, Nicholson single "Trouble With The Truth" by Patty Loveless. In 1999, his song "Live, Love" was the album title and single for Clay Walker. In 2001, his song "She Couldn't Change Me" by Montgomery Gentry reached number two on Billboard Hot Country Songs. In 2002, Nicholson's song "Squeeze Me In" became a hit duet for Trisha Yearwood, he charted for the singles, "When Love Gets Ahold of You" by Reba McEntire, "Back in Your Arms Again" by The Mavericks and "The Reason Why" by Vince Gill. In 2003, he co-wrote the single "Never Without You" with Ringo Starr and has collaborated on each of his last five records.

In 2008, Nicholson co-wrote the title song, "Skin Deep", for Buddy Guy, number one on the Billboard Blues Chart and Grammy nominated. He co-wrote "The Git Go" with Billy Joe Shaver for Willie Nelson's Band of Brothers album, co-wrote "It Ain't You" with Waylon Jennings, as a Ray Benson/Willie Nelson duet. Nicholson has more than 500 recordings of his songs during his career, he has co-written songs with many notable songwriters and artists including Ringo Starr, Stevie Nicks, Neil Diamond, Vince Gill, Los Lonely Boys, Jimmy Webb, Michael McDonald, Brad Paisley, among others. During his career, Nicholson has produced five projects for Delbert McClinton, winning Grammys in the Best Contemporary Blues category for the albums "Nothing Personal" in 2001 and "Cost of Living" in 2005. Nicholson has produced for Billy Joe Shaver, The Judds, Pam Tillis, T. Graham Brown and Marcia Ball, he was nominated to the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2006 and inducted into Texas Heritage Songwriter's Association Hall of Fame in 2011.

He has received ASCAP Awards for the songs, "Giving Water to a Drowning Man" and "A Thousand Times a Day". On June 30, 1973, Nicholson married Barbara Ellendorff, he is from Garland and has lived in Nashville, Tennessee since 1980. Official website

If Morning Ever Comes

If Morning Ever Comes is American author Anne Tyler's first novel, published when she was only 22. Set in Sandhill, North Carolina, it focuses on Ben Joe Hawkes, a self-proclaimed worrier who finds himself responsible for taking care of his mother and six sisters after his father deserts the family for his mistress and subsequently dies of a heart attack. At its start, Ben Joe has left Sandhill to pursue a law degree at Columbia University. Out of a mixture of homesickness and a sense of responsibility, he returns home to assume his role as head of the family, he realizes that his family may not need him as much as he needs his independence. Joanne and her husband are reconciled, Ben Joe renews friendly relations with his late father's mistress, he proposes to his ex-girlfriend and the two return to New York to be married. Prescott, Orville. "Return to the Hawkes Family". Retrieved 22 January 2018