Marchantiopsida is one of three classes within the liverwort phylum Marchantiophyta. Based on the work by Villarreal et al. 2015 Blasiidae He-Nygrén et al. 2006 Blasiales Stotler & Crandall-Stotler 2000 †Treubiitaceae Schuster 1980 Blasiaceae von Klinggräff 1858 Marchantiidae Engler 1893 sensu He-Nygrén et al. 2006 Neohodgsoniales Long 2006 Neohodgsoniaceae Long 2006 Sphaerocarpales Cavers 1910 Monocarpaceae Carr ex Schelpe 1969 Riellaceae Engler 1892 Sphaerocarpaceae Heeg 1891 Lunulariales Long 2006 Lunulariaceae von Klinggräff 1858 Marchantiales Limpricht 1877 Marchantiaceae Lindley 1836 Aytoniaceae Cavers 1911 Cleveaceae Cavers 1911 Monosoleniaceae Inoue 1966 Conocephalaceae Müller ex Grolle 1972 Targioniaceae Dumortier 1829 Wiesnerellaceae Inoue 1976 Dumortieraceae Long 2006 Monocleaceae Frank 1877 Oxymitraceae Müller ex Grolle 1972 Ricciaceae Reichenbach 1828 Corsiniaceae Engler 1892 Cyathodiaceae Stotler & Crandall-Stotler 2000
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
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The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular land plants referred to as hepatics or liverworts. Like mosses and hornworts, they have a gametophyte-dominant life cycle, in which cells of the plant carry only a single set of genetic information, it is estimated. Some of the more familiar species grow as a flattened leafless thallus, but most species are leafy with a form much like a flattened moss. Leafy species can be distinguished from the similar mosses on the basis of a number of features, including their single-celled rhizoids. Leafy liverworts differ from most mosses in that their leaves never have a costa and may bear marginal cilia. Other differences are not universal for all mosses and liverworts, but the occurrence of leaves arranged in three ranks, the presence of deep lobes or segmented leaves, or a lack of differentiated stem and leaves all point to the plant being a liverwort. Liverworts are small from 2–20 mm wide with individual plants less than 10 cm long, are therefore overlooked.
However, certain species may cover large patches of ground, trees or any other reasonably firm substrate on which they occur. They are distributed globally in every available habitat, most in humid locations although there are desert and Arctic species as well; some species can be a weed in gardens. Most liverworts are small, measuring from 2–20 millimetres wide with individual plants less than 10 centimetres long, so they are overlooked; the most familiar liverworts consist of a prostrate, ribbon-like or branching structure called a thallus. However, most liverworts produce flattened stems with overlapping scales or leaves in two or more ranks, the middle rank is conspicuously different from the outer ranks. Liverworts can most reliably be distinguished from the similar mosses by their single-celled rhizoids. Other differences are not universal for all mosses and all liverworts. Unlike any other embryophytes, most liverworts contain unique membrane-bound oil bodies containing isoprenoids in at least some of their cells, lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of all other plants being unenclosed.
The overall physical similarity of some mosses and leafy liverworts means that confirmation of the identification of some groups can be performed with certainty only with the aid of microscopy or an experienced bryologist. Liverworts have a gametophyte-dominant life cycle, with the sporophyte dependent on the gametophyte. Cells in a typical liverwort plant each contain only a single set of genetic information, so the plant's cells are haploid for the majority of its life cycle; this contrasts with the pattern exhibited by nearly all animals and by most other plants. In the more familiar seed plants, the haploid generation is represented only by the tiny pollen and the ovule, while the diploid generation is the familiar tree or other plant. Another unusual feature of the liverwort life cycle is that sporophytes are short-lived, withering away not long after releasing spores. In other bryophytes, the sporophyte is persistent and disperses spores over an extended period; the life of a liverwort starts from the germination of a haploid spore to produce a protonema, either a mass of thread-like filaments or else a flattened thallus.
The protonema is a transitory stage in the life of a liverwort, from which will grow the mature gametophore plant that produces the sex organs. The male organs produce the sperm cells. Clusters of antheridia are enclosed by a protective layer of cells called the perigonium; as in other land plants, the female organs are known as archegonia and are protected by the thin surrounding perichaetum. Each archegonium has a slender hollow tube, the "neck", down which the sperm swim to reach the egg cell. Liverwort species may be either monoicous. In dioicous liverworts and male sex organs are borne on different and separate gametophyte plants. In monoicous liverworts, the two kinds of reproductive structures are borne on different branches of the same plant. In either case, the sperm must move from the antheridia where they are produced to the archegonium where the eggs are held; the sperm of liverworts is biflagellate, i.e. they have two tail-like flagellae that enable them to swim short distances, provided that at least a thin film of water is present.
Their journey may be assisted by the splashing of raindrops. In 2008, Japanese researchers discovered that some liverworts are able to fire sperm-containing water up to 15 cm in the air, enabling them to fertilize female plants growing more than a metre from the nearest male; when sperm reach the archegonia, fertilisation occurs, leading to the production of a diploid sporophyte. After fertilisation, the immature sporophyte within the archegonium develops three distinct regions: a foot, which both anchors the sporophyte in place and receives nutrients from its "mother" plant, a spherical or ellipsoidal capsule, inside which the spores will be produced for dispersing to new locations, a seta which lies between the other two
Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants: the liverworts and mosses. They are characteristically limited in size and prefer moist habitats although they can survive in drier environments; the bryophytes consist of about 20,000 plant species. Bryophytes produce enclosed reproductive structures, they reproduce via spores. Bryophytes are considered to be a paraphyletic group and not a monophyletic group, although some studies have produced contrary results. Regardless of their status, the name is convenient and remains in use as an informal collective term; the term "bryophyte" comes from Greek βρύον, bryon "tree-moss, oyster-green" and φυτόν, phyton "plant". The defining features of bryophytes are: Their life cycles are dominated by the gametophyte stage Their sporophytes are unbranched They do not have a true vascular tissue containing lignin Bryophytes exist in a wide variety of habitats, they can be found growing in a range of temperatures and moisture.
Bryophytes can grow where vascularized plants cannot because they do not depend on roots for an uptake of nutrients from soil. Bryophytes can survive on bare soil. Like all land plants, bryophytes have life cycles with alternation of generations. In each cycle, a haploid gametophyte, each of whose cells contains a fixed number of unpaired chromosomes, alternates with a diploid sporophyte, whose cell contain two sets of paired chromosomes. Gametophytes produce haploid sperm and eggs which fuse to form diploid zygotes that grow into sporophytes. Sporophytes produce haploid spores by meiosis. Bryophytes are gametophyte dominant, meaning that the more prominent, longer-lived plant is the haploid gametophyte; the diploid sporophytes appear only and remain attached to and nutritionally dependent on the gametophyte. In bryophytes, the sporophytes produce a single sporangium. Liverworts and hornworts spend most of their lives as gametophytes. Gametangia and antheridia, are produced on the gametophytes, sometimes at the tips of shoots, in the axils of leaves or hidden under thalli.
Some bryophytes, such as the liverwort Marchantia, create elaborate structures to bear the gametangia that are called gametangiophores. Sperm are flagellated and must swim from the antheridia that produce them to archegonia which may be on a different plant. Arthropods can assist in transfer of sperm. Fertilized eggs become zygotes. Mature sporophytes remain attached to the gametophyte, they consist of a stalk called a single sporangium or capsule. Inside the sporangium, haploid spores are produced by meiosis; these are dispersed, most by wind, if they land in a suitable environment can develop into a new gametophyte. Thus bryophytes disperse by a combination of swimming sperm and spores, in a manner similar to lycophytes and other cryptogams; the arrangement of antheridia and archegonia on an individual bryophyte plant is constant within a species, although in some species it may depend on environmental conditions. The main division is between species in which the antheridia and archegonia occur on the same plant and those in which they occur on different plants.
The term monoicous may be used where antheridia and archegonia occur on the same gametophyte and the term dioicous where they occur on different gametophytes. In seed plants, "monoecious" is used where flowers with anthers and flowers with ovules occur on the same sporophyte and "dioecious" where they occur on different sporophytes; these terms may be used instead of "monoicous" and "dioicous" to describe bryophyte gametophytes. "Monoecious" and "monoicous" are both derived from the Greek for "one house", "dioecious" and "dioicous" from the Greek for two houses. The use of the "oicy" terminology is said to have the advantage of emphasizing the difference between the gametophyte sexuality of bryophytes and the sporophyte sexuality of seed plants. Monoicous plants are hermaphroditic, meaning that the same plant has both sexes; the exact arrangement of the antheridia and archegonia in monoicous plants varies. They may be borne on different shoots, on the same shoot but not together in a common structure, or together in a common "inflorescence".
Dioicous plants are unisexual. All four patterns occur in species of the moss genus Bryum. Traditionally, all living land plants without vascular tissues were classified in a single taxonomic group a division. More phylogenetic research has questioned whether the bryophytes form a monophyletic group and thus whether they should form a single taxon. Although a 2005 study supported the traditional view that the bryophytes form a monophyletic group, by 2010 a broad consensus had emerged among systematists that bryophytes as a whole are not a natural group, although each of the three extant groups is monophyletic; the three bryophyte clades are the Marchantiophyta and Anthocerotophyta. The vascular plants or tracheophytes form a fourth, unranked clade of land plants called the "Polysporangiophyta". In this analysis, hornworts are sister
John Hill (botanist)
John Hill, called because of his Swedish honours, "Sir" John Hill, was an English author and botanist. He contributed to contemporary periodicals and was awarded the title of Sir in recognition of his illustrated botanical compendium The Vegetable System, he was the son of the Rev. Theophilus Hill and is said to have been born in Peterborough, he was apprenticed to an apothecary and on the completion of his apprenticeship he set up in a small shop in St Martin's Lane, Westminster. He travelled over the country in search of rare herbs, with a view to publishing a hortus siccus, but the plan failed, he had a medical degree from Edinburgh, he practised as a "quack doctor", making considerable sums by the preparation of dubious herb and vegetable medicines. He was known for his "pectoral balsam of honey" and "tincture of bardana", his first publication was a translation of Theophrastus's History of Stones. From this time forward he was an indefatigable writer, he edited the British Magazine, for two years he wrote a daily letter, "The Inspector," for the London Advertiser and Literary Gazette.
He produced novels and scientific works. From 1759 to 1775 he was engaged on a huge botanical work--The Vegetable System --adorned by 1600 copper-plate engravings. Hill's botanical labours were undertaken at the request of his patron, Lord Bute, he was rewarded by the Order of Vasa from the King of Sweden in 1774. Of the seventy-six separate works with which he is credited in the Dictionary of National Biography, the most valuable are those that deal with botany, he is reputed to have been the author of the second part of The Oeconomy of Human Life, the first part of, by Lord Chesterfield, Hannah Glasse's famous manual of cookery was ascribed to him. Samuel Johnson said of him that he was "an ingenious man, but had no veracity." See a Short Account of the Life and Character of the late Sir John Hill, chiefly occupied with a descriptive catalogue of his works. John Hill's provocative and scurrilous writings involved him in many quarrels, both in the field of science and that of literature. During the 1740s, in 1746–1747, Hill attended many meetings of the Royal Society, there presented the results of several of his studies, both in the field of botany and geology-chemistry.
His works On the manner of seeding mosses and On Windsor loam appeared in the Royal Society's journal, the Philosophical Transactions. On the basis of these contributions, Hill hoped to be elected Fellow of the Royal Society. Furthermore, he had the backing of several members of the Royal Society: the botanist Peter Collinson, the physician and scientist William Watson, the antiquarian William Stukeley. Moreover, Hill had links with important nobles: John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu and Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond Fellows of the Royal Society. Despite Hill's merits as a scientist and his relations, his election to the title of Fellow failed to materialise. Disappointed by the Royal Society's lack, in his opinion, of scientific standards, Hill started to criticise the Society. In December 1749, he started writing anonymous, critical reviews of some articles published in the Philosophical Transactions. Moreover, in January 1750, Hill began a campaign of criticism and derision against the Royal Society by publishing, under an alias, a treatise entitled Lucina sine concubitu.
A letter humbly address'd to the Royal Society. Under the false name of Abraham Johnson, a physician and man-midwife, Hill pretended to have observed cases where women had become pregnant without having had any kind of sexual relations with a man. Henry Fielding attacked him in The Covent Garden Journal, Christopher Smart wrote a mock-epic, The Hilliad, against him, David Garrick replied to his strictures against him by two epigrams, one of which runs: "For physics and farces, his equal there scarce is, he had other literary passages-at-arms with John Rich, who accused him of plagiarising his Orpheus with Samuel Foote and Henry Woodward. In 2012 George Rousseau published a full-length biography of Hill entitled The Notorious Sir John Hill: The Man Destroyed by Ambition in the Era of Celebrity. Rousseau’s main point is that Hill has been a sadly neglected figure whose life and works ought to have been consulted to illuminate the best – and worst – features of early Georgian London during the 1750s.
Rousseau’s biography demonstrates Hill’s polymathic endeavors as apothecary, conchologist, entrepreneur, herbalist, novelist and all-around Wit and ‘Man about Town’ in an era when ‘Wits’ ruled the civilized world and when metropolitan culture was beginning to assume the power it has wielded over the last two centuries. Reviews of The Notorious Sir John Hill have so far applauded Rousseau’s aim to demonstrate that Hill was driven by the ambition to possess a ‘celebrated life’ and become a ‘celebrated figure’ during a generation when celebrity culture was on the ascenda
Natural Resources Conservation Service
Natural Resources Conservation Service known as the Soil Conservation Service, is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture that provides technical assistance to farmers and other private landowners and managers. Its name was changed in 1994 during the presidency of Bill Clinton to reflect its broader mission, it is a small agency comprising about 12,000 employees. Its mission is to improve and conserve natural resources on private lands through a cooperative partnership with state and local agencies. While its primary focus has been agricultural lands, it has made many technical contributions to soil surveying and water quality improvement. One example is the Conservation Effects Assessment Project, set up to quantify the benefits of agricultural conservation efforts promoted and supported by programs in the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002. NRCS is the leading agency in this project; the agency was founded through the efforts of Hugh Hammond Bennett, a soil conservation pioneer who worked for the Department of Agriculture from 1903 to 1952.
Bennett's motivation was based on his knowledge of the detrimental effects of soil erosion and the impacts on U. S lands. On September 13, 1933, the Soil Erosion Service was formed in the Department of the Interior, with Bennett as chief; the service was transferred to the Department of Agriculture on March 23, 1935, was shortly thereafter combined with other USDA units to form the Soil Conservation Service by the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1935. The Soil Conservation Service was in charge of 500 Civilian Conservation Corps camps between 1933 and 1942; the primary purpose of these camps was erosion control. Hugh Bennett continued as chief, a position he held until his retirement in 1952. On October 20, 1994, the agency was renamed to the Natural Resources Conservation Service as part of the Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994. NRCS offers financial assistance to farmers and ranchers; the financial assistance is authorized by the Farm Bill, a law, renewed every five years.
The 2014 Farm Bill consolidated 23 programs into 15. NRCS offers these services to private land owners, conservation districts and other types of organizations. NRCS collects and shares information on the nation's soil, water and plants; the Conservation Title of the Farm Bill provides the funding to agricultural producers, a conservation plan must be included. All of these programs are voluntary; the main programs include: The purpose of EQIP is to provide assistance to landowners to help them improve their soil and related natural resources, including grazing lands and wildlife habitat. Conservation Stewardship Program CSP is targeted to a producers who maintain a higher level of environmental stewardship. Regional Conservation Partnership Program RCPP consolidated four programs from the prior 2008 Farm Bill, it aims at more watershed scale projects, rather than individual farms and ranches. Agricultural Conservation Easement Program ACEP was another consolidation effort of the 2014 Farm Bill, which includes the former Grasslands Reserve Program and Ranch Lands Protection Program, Wetlands Reserve Program.
ACEP includes technical and financial help to maintain or improve land for agriculture or environmental benefits. Landowners volunteer to protect forests in 30 or 10 year contracts; this program hands assisting funds to participants. The objectives of HFRP are to: Promote the recovery of endangered and threatened species under the Endangered Species Act Improve plant and animal biodiversity Enhance carbon sequestration Serves 10 states in the Midwest United States in helping to reduce Nitrate levels in soil due to runoff from fertilized farmland; the project began in 2010 and focused on the Mississippi Basin area. The main goal of the project is to implement better methods of managing water drainage from agricultural uses, in place of letting the water drain as it had done in the past. In October 2011, The National "Managing Water, Harvesting Results" Summit was held to promote the drainage techniques used in hopes of people adopting them nationwide. Includes water supply forecasts and the Surface Water Supply Index for Alaska and other Western states.
NRCS agents collect data from snowpack and mountain sites to predict spring runoff and summer streamflow amounts. These predictions are used in decision making for agriculture, wildlife management and development, several other areas; these predictions are available within the first 5 days of each month from January to June. Is a blanket program which involves conservation efforts on soil and water conservation, as well as management of agricultural wastes and general longterm sustainability. NRCS and related agencies work with landowners, communities, or developers to protect the environment. Serve to guide people to comply with acts such as the Highly Erodible Land and Conservation Compliance Provisions acts; the CTA can cover projects by state and federal governments. Is a program to assist gulf bordering states improve water quality and use sustainable methods of farming and other industry; the program will deliver up to 50 million dollars over 2011-2013 to apply these sustainable methods, as well as wildlife habitat management systems that do not hinder agricultural productivity, prevent future over use of water resources to protect native endangered spe
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including